Sistem Informasi Manajemen - Insteps

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18 Nov 2008 ... 2. Topik Pembahasan. • Konsep, Trend dan Issue. • Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam Organisasi. • Organisasi dan Manajemen Sistem Informasi.
Sistem Informasi Manajemen

Materi Kuliah Sessi ke-7 Perkembangan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi Program Pasca Sarjana, Magister Ilmu Komunikasi Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo (Beragama) Dosen: Ir. Mas Wigrantoro Roes Setiyadi, SE, MSi., MPP

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Topik Pembahasan • • • • • •

Konsep, Trend dan Issue Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam Organisasi Organisasi dan Manajemen Sistem Informasi Strategi Sistem Informasi Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Pengendalian dan Keamanan Sistem Informasi

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Konsep, Trend dan Issue

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Mengapa Perlu Mempelajari SI? • Getting the right information to the right people at the right time at the right cost; • Key to effective business processes; • Business process change; • The way organisations compete; • Creation of new services, markets; • Learning, Knowledge. E-commerce, E-Health, E-Government…

Why? How? Is it efficient? Effective? What are the risks? What are the skills? 4 11/18/2008

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Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam Organisasi Perubahan dalam teknologi informasi : • Tersedianya jaringan info global, untuk menyalurkan berbagai format info (multimedia) • Tersedianya berbagai perangkat keras dan lunak untuk mengolah, menyimpan dan mengirim info. • Tersedianya berbagai perangkat untuk melakukan transformasi media yang digunakan

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Orientasi Informasi IT Practices • IT for operational support • IT for business process support • IT for inovation support • IT for management support

Information management practices • Sensing information • Collecting information • Organizing information • Processing information • Maintaining information

Information behaviour and values • Information integrity • Information formality • Information control • Information sharing • Information transparency • Information proactiveness 11/18/2008

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Information orientation

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SI, CBIS, dan TI Information Systems (IS) • involve more than just computers • an successful application of an IS requiring an understanding of the business and its environment that is supported by the IS • in learning about IS, not sufficient just to learn about computers Computer-Based Information Systems (CBIS) • an information system that uses computer technology to perform some or all of its intended tasks • may include hardware, software, database, network, procedures, or people Information Technology (IT) • include the hardware, databases, software, networks, and other information devices (in narrow definition) • usually interchangeably with information systems

• a collection of several information systems, users, and management for an entire organization (in broad sense)

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Isu di dalam SI 

Large variety of organisation and individual information processing needs



Fast evolving information technologies - languages operating systems and the like



Legacy investments



Costs and resource management



Complexity ? Where is the complexity coming from ?



Maintenance, Support and Training - Leveraging systems



Design and Analysis related issues 8

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Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam Organisasi

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Transisi komputer menuju manajemen informasi -1 Information System Management IS Role in the enterprise

Relationship with other department Computer Management Managing the IS department Managing the IS/IT activities

Review IS/IT roles, don’t focus on particular issues only

Users’ awareness of the role of computers determine effectiveness of relationship

Department is managed as co-ordinated set of resources which are planned to meet expected future requirements Operations, programming, data collection, etc.

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Transisi komputer menuju manajemen informasi 2 •

Delivery – – –



Re-orientation – – –



Internal focus Improving the ability to deliver and support systems and technology Not necessarily providing users with what they need Establishing good relationship with the main business functions, Supporting business demands through provision of variety of services Provide valued service to all business functional management

Re-organisation – –

Need for redesign integration of IS investment with business strategy and across business functions. Best way of satisfying each of differing business needs through coalition of responsibilities for managing information and systems

Hirschheim Model (1988) 11 11/18/2008

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Model-2 SI Dalam Organisasi Model Anthony (1965) Planning Systems

Sales forecasting, operating plans, capacity planing, profit/earnings forecast, business mix analysis, manpower planning, financial modelling

Control Systems

Sales analysis, budgetary control, management accounting, inventory management, quality analysis, expense reporting, market research/analysis, WIP control, requirement planning, supplier analysis, etc.

Operational Systems

Order entry/processing, tracking shipping documents, vehicle scheduling/loading

invoicing, sales and purchase ledgers, cost accounting, stock control, shop floor scheduling, bill of materials, purchase orders, receiving, employee records, payroll, word processing, etc.

Hirarki perencanaan, pengendalian, dan sistem operasional, 12 11/18/2008

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Perbedaan DP dan MIS TPS/DP

MIS

Objectives

Efficient transaction

Effective problem resolution & decision making support

Information sources

Internal & external transaction

Internal & external transaction + research data

Information time frame

Recent history, current & near future

Historical data, current & future

Process

Algorithmic (very predefined)

Sometimes need human intervention (esp. for decision making)

Users

Operators

Professionals & middle managers

Technology

Mainframe/mini computers

Local processing linked to information resources 13

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Strategic Information Systems Wiseman Model (1985) Use (objective) Function

Transaction and exception processing

Information enquiry and analysis

Automatic basic processes (efficiency)

Satisfy information needs (effectiveness)

Affect business strategy (competitiveness)

DATA PROCESSING

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS

STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

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Trend evolusi SI/TI Galliers & Somogyl, (1987) Aspects

DP

MIS

SIS

Nature of the technology

Computers’ fragmented (hardware limitation

Distributed process’ interconnected software limitation

‘networks’ integrated people/vison limitation)

Nature of operations

Remote from users controlled by DP

Regulated by management services

Available and supportive to users

Issues in systems development

Technical issues (programming/ project managemen)

Support business users’needs information management

Relate to business strategy

Reason for using technology

Reducing costs (especially administrative) – technology driven

Supporting the business (manager) - user driven

Enabling the business - business driven

Characteristic of systems

Regimented/ operational (internal)

Accommodating/ control

Flexibility/ strategic (external)

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Organisasi dan Manajemen Sistem Informasi

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Lingkungan Informasi Paper records Paper records Private records

Management information Operational database

Personal database

External information

Official information records Unrecorded

Total lingkungan informasi internal 11/18/2008

Lingkungan yang terotomatisasi PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG

Lingkup memungkinkan untuk informasi yang dapat dikelola 17

Nilai Informasi Bagi Bisnis

High Value of information to future strategy

Low

STRATEGIC

HIGH POTENTIAL

Critical to business and of greatest potential value

Potential value to business may be high, but not confirmed

Essential for core process and value enhaced by horizontal integration

Needed for supporting Business, but little strategic value

KEY OPERATIONAL

SUPPORT

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Low Value of information to current strategy PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG

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Pertanyaan Kunci Dalam Membangun dan Mengelola SI • People involved… • Many technologies…. • How do we decide what to build..? – for one person..for a dept..for the entire organization… • How much is it going to cost..? • How long is it going to take….? • How do we consider all the systems we have so far..? • How do we maintain and upgrade…?

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Manajemen Puncak

Pengolahan Informasi

Personalia

Pengolahan Transaksi

Logistik

Pengendalian Operasional

Produksi

Pengendalian Manajemen

Pemasaran

Perencanaan Strategis

Keuangan & Akunting

Hubungan Aplikasi SI dan Tingkatan Manajemen

Sistem Manajemen Data base

Data base 20 11/18/2008

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Pemakai dan Penggunaan SI Pemakai Petugas Administrasi

Pengunaan Mengerjakan transaksi, mengolah data, dan menjawab pertanyaan

Manajer Tingkat Bawah

Mendapatkan data operasi. Membantu perencanaan, penjadualan, mengetahui situasiyag tak terkendali, dan mengambil keputusan

Staf Ahli Manajemen

Informasi untuk analisis. Membantu dalam analisis, perencanaan dan pelaporan. Laporan tetap, Permintaan informasi khusus, Analisa khusus, Laporan khusus, membantu dalam mengenali persoalan dan peluang. Membantu dalam analisis pengambilan keputusan.

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Segitiga Pengambilan Keputusan Sistem Informasi Manajemen SIM perencanaan Strategis & pengambilan kptsan Informasi manajemen Untuk perencanaan taktis Dan pengambilan keputusan

SIM: sistem manusia/mesin yang terpadu, untuk menyajikan informsasi guna mendukung fungsi operasi, manajemen, dan pengambilan keputusan dalam sebuah organisasi. Menggunakan hardware & software komputer, prosedur, model manajemen dan keputusan, data base.

Informasi manajemen untuk Perencanaan operasional, pengambilan Keputusan dan pengendalian Pengolahan transaksi Pemberian informasi (tanggapan atas pertanyaan)

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Tiga Tahapan Dalam Penggunaan Sistem Informasi • Productivity: a measure of the output achieved divided by the input requirement, something like (Output/Input) x 100% • Competitive Advantage: a significant and (ideally) longterm benefit that enables company to perform better than its competitors • Quality: the ability of a product (including services) to meet or exceed customer expectations 23 11/18/2008

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Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Manajemen

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Type Sistem Informasi KIND OF SYSTEM

GROUPS SERVED

STRATEGIC LEVEL

SENIOR MANAGERS

MANAGEMENT LEVEL

MIDDLE MANAGERS

KNOWLEDGE LEVEL

KNOWLEDGE & DATA WORKERS

OPERATIONAL LEVEL SALES & 11/18/2008MARKETING

OPERATIONAL MANAGERS MANUFACTURING

FINANCE

ACCOUNTING

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HUMAN RESOURCES

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Type Sistem Informasi • Executive Support Systems • Management Information Systems • Decision Support Systems • Knowledge Work Systems • Office Automation Systems • Transaction Processing Systems

• Batch vs Online Processing • Sistem Informasi Fungsional • Distributed Systems vs Client/Server Systems • Enterprise Resources Planning System • Dukungan Pengambilan Keputusan • Sistem Dukungan Inteligen 26

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Subsistem dari Sistem Informasi • SI (dapat) terdiri atas Subsistem: – Penjualan dan pemasukan pesanan – Produksi – Sediaan barang – Personalia dan payroll – Pembelian – Perencanaan – Kecerdasan lingkungan

• Subsistem dibagi atas subsistem, sebagai contoh Personalia dan Payroll: – Penyiapan data masukan catatan personalia – Penyesuaian daftar gaji – Penyiapan data masukan daftar gaji – Daftar gaji harian – Daftar gaji bulanan – Laporan dafatar gaji untuk manajemen – Audit personalia dan dafatar gaji 27

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Data base • Kumpulan data terdiri dari – – – –

File Record Field Karakter

• Contoh – – – – –

Data base Pegawai File: Pegawai Record: Sukamto Field: Nama, Alamat, NIP Character: a, b,c 1,2, dll.

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Type Sistem Informasi

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Batch vs Realtime Processing

• Batch – Pengolahan data secara tidak seketika – Entry data dikumpulkan dalam satu file secara serial – Ada perbedaan waktu yangcukup signifikan antara entry dan eksekusi data

• Real Time Processing – Entry dan eksekusi data dilakukan seketika

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Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)

• • • • • •

Dimulai pada zaman “Data Processing” OPERATIONAL LEVEL INPUTS: TRANSACTIONS, EVENTS PROCESSING: UPDATING OUTPUTS: DETAILED REPORTS USERS: OPERATIONS PERSONNEL

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EXAMPLE: ACCOUNTS PAYABLE TPS TPS PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG

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Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)

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Distributed Systems vs Client/Server Systems

• Distributed System – Entry dan pengolahan data secara tersebar, – Masing – masing komputer memiliki fasilitas jaringan dengan fasilitas yang sama • Client/Server – Sedikitnya satu komputer berfungsi sebagai server, sementara komputer lain yang terhubung menjadi client, – Server menyediakan NOS, – Aplikasi dapat ditempatkan di Server atau masing – masing nodes – Nodes memilii kemampuan pengolahan lokal

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Management Information Systems -1

• • • • •

MANAGEMENT LEVEL INPUTS: HIGH VOLUME DATA PROCESSING: SIMPLE MODELS OUTPUTS: SUMMARY REPORTS USERS: MIDDLE MANAGERS EXAMPLE: ANNUAL BUDGETING 34

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Management Information Systems -2

• STRUCTURED & SEMI-STRUCTURED DECISIONS • REPORT CONTROL ORIENTED • PAST & PRESENT DATA • INTERNAL ORIENTATION • LENGTHY DESIGN PROCESS* 35 11/18/2008

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TPS Data For MIS Applications

TPS

MIS SALES DATA

Order Processing System ORDER FILE Materials Resource Planning System PRODUCTION MASTER FILE General Ledger System ACCOUNTING FILES

UNIT PRODUCT COST

MIS

REPORTS

PRODUCT CHANGE DATA EXPENSE DATA

MANAGERS

MIS FILES

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Contoh Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Dalam Fungsi Pemasaran

Sistem Order Processing

Deskripsi Level Organisasi Entry, proses, dan track order Operasional

Analisa Pasar

Identifikasi pelanggan dan pasar menggunakan data demografi, pasar, perilaku konsumen, dan trend

Analisa Harga

Menentukan harga produk dan Manajemen layanan

Ramalan dan Tren Penjualan

Penyiapan ramalan penjualan 5 tahun

Knowledge

Stratejik

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Pendekatan Tradisional

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Enterprise System

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Pengendalian dan Keamanan Sistem Informasi

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Isu Di Dalam Pengelolaan TI • Acquisition: pengadaan/penyediaan TI – – – –

need (kebutuhan), resources (sumber-daya), time-frame (jangka waktu), dan design of IS (rancangan sistem informasi).

• Organization: prosedur pengelolaan, • Motivation: sumberdaya manusia, serta • Relationship: hubungan antara bagian Sistem Informasi dengan bagian-bagian lain di dalam organisasi 41 11/18/2008

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Acquisition (pengadaan TI) Need (kebutuhan) dari: • Size of the organization: besar kecilnya organisasi/perusahaan yang memerlukan TI. • Structure of the organization: struktur dari perusahaan. • Nature of operational: sifat dari operasional perusahaan, misalnya organisasi pemerintah, bisnis, dll. • Type of informationn needed (jenis informasi yang diperlukan),misalnya informasi mengenai keuangan, kepegawaian, dll. 42 11/18/2008

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Strategi Sistem Informasi

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The Role of Information Technology Add Value customers and markets Wisdom

Knowledge

Information

Business Value of Information Technology

Minimize Risks market, financial, legal, operational risks

Reduce Costs transactions and processes

Data

Create New Realities intelligence (social, political, technological, etc.)

Facts

Gather

Organize

Select

Synthesize

Distribute

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The Balanced of Resources has Changed

Materials

Machines

Money

Four Ms Plus

Men

Information 45

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Strategic Systems • Connection to supplier & customer • Effective use of information in the value adding process • Enable to deliver new product/service • Provide executive with strategic information

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Business, IS & IT Relationship Business Strategy External External & & Internal Internal Factors Factors

Economy Society Politics Law Ecology Technology Culture Stakeholders

• • •

Business decisions Objectives and direction Change

Supports business

Direction for business

IS Strategy • • •

Where is the business going & why?

What is required?

Business based Demand orientation Application focused

Infrastructure & service

Needs & priorities

IT Strategy

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• • •

Activity Based Supply oriented Technology focused

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How can it be realized? 47

IT Roles in Business Process Reengineering

SIMPLIFY

INTEGRATE ELIMINATE

AUTOMATE

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MIT Theory of IT Evolution & Revolution Business BusinessScope ScopeRedefinition Redefinition

Degree of Business Transformation

HIGH

Business BusinessNetwork NetworkRedesign Redesign

Business BusinessProcess ProcessRedesign Redesign

Integration Integration

Revolutionary Evolutionary

Localized LocalizedExploitation Exploitation

LOW LOW

Range of Potential Benefits

HIGH

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Internal Evolution of Information Technology

FUNCTIONAL USE

MANAGEMENT FOCUS 5

REMAIN IN BUSINESS

Reaching the Consumer

5 People Systems, Home Computers

4 Enhancing Executive Decision Making

MAKE MONEY 4 Mega Decisions 3 Marketing, Distribution, Customer Service

3

ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS 5 Restructuring of the Industry 4 Restructuring of the Organization 3 Growth and Increase in Market Share

Enhancing Products and Services

Above the Line Below the Line

2 Leveraging Investment SAVE MONEY

OPERATIONAL CONTROL

1 2 Financial, Manufacturing, Services 1 Administrative

Reducing Costs

2 Asset Management 1 Process Management

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Nature of IT Center

Cost Center

Profit Center I/T

Investment Center

Service Center 51

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TANGIBLE

IT Benefits Measurement

HIGH

Better Information Improved Security Lower Risk

LOW

Market Reaction Faster Information Access to New Staff Positive Staff Reaction

LOW

Staff Reduction Lower Assets More Sales

HIGH

MEASURABLE 52 11/18/2008

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IT and Business Alignment

Vision

Mission

Value

Objectives Critical Success Factors Key Performance Indicators

Business Strategy

I/T Strategy

Business Process and Tactical Procedures

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Boeing Strategic Architecture

What business processes should be used?

Business Process Architecture

drives

Product Groups Information Services

Information Architecture

Standards

prescribes Information System Architecture

What information is needed to accomplish those processes? How are the processes and information related?

identifies Data Architecture

Feedback

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How is the data managed?

support by Delivery System Architecture Hardware, Software, Communications PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG

Which hardware, software, and network are required?

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Information System Strategic Planning ANALYSIS PROCESS INPUT

BLUE PRINT &

K

INTERNAL

R

T

Best Practice

List of Scenarios CULTURE PEOPLE

POLICIES

Information Technology Development

Technical Design VALUE

LEGAL ASPECT

Project Management

H

S A

R

R E

H

Risk Management Cost/Benefit Analysis

STANDARD

S

Information Management Strategy

STRATEGIC PLANNING

PROCEDURES

Industry Trend

Benchmarking

S

FINANCIAL RESOURCES

VISION MISSION CSFs KPIs STRATEGY

BUSINESS PROCESS

Information Technology Supply

R

COMPANY ASSETS

COMPANY GEOGRAPHICAL TOPOLOGY

Approach and Methodology

Competitor Analysis

E

TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE

ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

E N

Information System Requirements

N

T

Existing Information Technology

EXTERNAL

THREE DOMAINS

R

W

Business Plan

Strength and Weakness

A

O

Corporate History

Constraints and Opportunities

P

O

L

D

E

Macro Environment Ideology, Political Agenda, Economic Environment, Social and Culture, International Relationship, National Defense, Religion, Behaviors,

Priorities Level and Schedule Implementation Plan Human Resource Skills and Competencies Requirements Change Management

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New Type of Corporation

KNOWLEDGE COMPANY Demand-Chain Components

Application Enablers

Technology Vehicles

Supply-Chain Components

•Market Strategy •Product Design •Marketing

•E-Catalogues •ERP •Email •E-Collaboration

•Customer Management •Value Network Management

•E-Forms •WWW •EDI •Electronic Funds

•E-Bulleting Boards •Chat Rooms •Financial EDI

•Value-Added Networks •Internet •Extranet •Web TV

•Wide Area Networks •E-Marketplaces •Intranet •Private Network

•Procure •Inbound Logistics •Manufacturing

•Transportation •Distribute •Delivery •Customer

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PHYSICAL COMPANY PTIK-PPS-MIK-UPDM-B-MASWIG

Success Indicators

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Etc.

New Business (products/services) New Market (customers) New Revenue (business model) New Company (business transformation) New Image (business community) New Wealth (paradigm shift)

Key Points: • From “nothing” to “existing” • From “existing” to “creating” • From “creating” to “improving” • From “improving” to “growing” • From “growing” to “performing”

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