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Journal of Tribology. Received July 17, 2014; Accepted manuscript posted Febuary 11, 2015. doi:10.1115/1.4029770 Copyright (c) 2015 by ASME

Performance of Lubricated Rolling/Sliding Concentrated Contacts with Surface Textures: A Review U. Sudeep*, N. Tandon, R. K. Pandey#

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Delhi, New Delhi-110016, India E-mail: [email protected]

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Industrial Tribology, Machine Dynamics and Maintenance Engineering Centre (ITMMEC), IIT Delhi, New Delhi-110016, India * Corresponding author: [email protected], E-mail: [email protected]

Abstract

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Benefits of surface texturing for improving the performance behaviors of tribo-

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contacts are being explored and established by the investigators across the globe. Therefore,

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the objective of this paper is to summarize the information available related to the preparation

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of surface textures and performance outcomes in the presence of surface textures at the

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concentrated contacts. Mainly, recent research findings and practices followed for the study of friction, wear, lubrication, contact fatigue, vibration and noise at the generic concentrated

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contacts in presence of surface textures are reviewed for current status of research in the area and outlining the future prospects.

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Background

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Keywords: Surface contact and micro-texturing, Rolling/sliding concentrated contacts, Tribological behaviors, Contact fatigue, Contact vibration and noise

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Lubricated concentrated contacts found in many machine elements and mechanical systems (rolling bearing, cam and follower, gear set and IC engine) function under wide range of operating parameters (load, speed, material properties, surface finish and geometrical conformity) and in some cases even in harsh environments (i.e. at elevated operating temperature, dusty environments, contaminated lubricant and starved/parched lubrication). Thus, it is essential for developing the hardworking and energy efficient TRIB-14-1169

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Journal of Tribology. Received July 17, 2014; Accepted manuscript posted Febuary 11, 2015. doi:10.1115/1.4029770 Copyright (c) 2015 by ASME

rolling/sliding concentrated contacts with reliable performance and long life. Surface texture is emerging as one of the viable means [1, 2] having the expectation for addressing these concerns. The beneficial effects of surface textures in conformal contacts appear to be well established [3]. But such type of consolidated information is not available in case of textured

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concentrated contacts. Therefore, it is vital to summarize the findings and advancements of numerical and experimental studies in this area. Heavily loaded lubricated rolling/sliding

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concentrated contacts often operate in the mixed/boundary lubrication regimes [4] where the generic features (presence of dimple, bump, groove and ridge) on the mating surfaces of

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solids play crucial roles in the contacts’ performance [5, 6]. The recent research findings and

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practices followed for the study of friction, wear, lubrication, contact fatigue, vibration and

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noise using the generic concentrated contacts in the presence of surface textures are reviewed

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and described in the paragraphs to come.

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First evidence of using randomly distributed dimples over the roller surface for

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improving the life of the rolling element bearings operating in mixed/boundary lubrication regimes can be found in reference [7]. Later on, investigators [8] used the input data of the study [7] for generating the numerical results in order to understand the reasons for the

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enhancement of the fatigue life. The shape, size and pattern orientations of the surface

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features (textures) significantly influence the effectiveness of lubrication [9-15]. In case of

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frequent start/stop of motions, presence of surface features (pockets or dimples) on the

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mating solids appears promising in terms of reducing the interfacial friction and wear. Surface pockets filled with the lubricant help in maintaining the lubricity at the concentrated contacts during the repeated start-ups and stops of motions [15]. To have more understanding for the effects of surface texture on the performance of concentrated contacts, the available literature in the field is reviewed under four sections. However, in addition to these four

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Journal of Tribology. Received July 17, 2014; Accepted manuscript posted Febuary 11, 2015. doi:10.1115/1.4029770 Copyright (c) 2015 by ASME

sections, a section covering the creation of surface textures is also included for the general information to the readers.

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Creation of surface textures

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Various surface texturing methods, specimen materials and texture attributes

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(shape/size) employed by the researchers are summarized in Table 1. It is worth mentioning here that the surface texturing methods are broadly classified into three groups such as high energy beam/electric discharge methods (laser texturing and pulsed air arc treatment), etching

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techniques (electro-polishing, reactive ion etching, photochemical machining and maskless

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electrochemical texturing) and micro-machining/forming techniques (vibrorolling, abrasive

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jet machining, diamond embossing, shot blasting and photolithography, mechanical

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indentation, shot peening and micro CNC texturing).

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Table 1 Creation of texture and related details Texture detail (shapes and sizes)

Laser surface texturing (LST) [16- 20]

100C6 steel, nickel alloy 400, bearing steel GCrl5, spring steel 1095

Hemispherical dimples, diameter >100 μm, depth < 10 μm.

Pulsed air arc treatment [21]

SAE 5020 steel with hardness of 58 HRC

Hemispherical dimples, diameter < 20 μm.

Electro-polishing [22]

Medium carbon steel

Reactive ion etching (RIE) [23]

Silicon carbide

Micro-pools formation on the surface causing negative skewness. Pits of diameter 50 - 650 μm, depths 2-13 μm, dimple area density 2.8 to 22.5 %.

Photochemical machining [24]

Carbon steel

Maskless electrochemical texturing [25]

Electricity conducting materials(e.g. carbon steel)

Vibrorolling [26]

Different metals

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Circular (dia. 20 μm) and triangular (hypotenuse 50-300 μm) shaped micro features. 1. Grooves and squares (5, 20, 50 μm). 2. Dots, dashes, and chevron marks of sizes 400 to 800 μm having depth 20 to 80 μm Grooves of different patterns

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Observations/remarks

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Specimen material/ bounding solids

Method of texture creation

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Journal of Tribology. Received July 17, 2014; Accepted manuscript posted Febuary 11, 2015. doi:10.1115/1.4029770 Copyright (c) 2015 by ASME

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Laser beam can create different geometrical features on wide range of engineering materials. A two steps process is used to improve the bottom finish of dimples [20]. High voltage (6kV) is used between the electrode and substrate material to get hemispherical dimples on the surface. Sulphuric and phosphoric acids have been applied for electrolytic reactions producing micro-pools on the steel surface. Diameter and pattern of texture depend on the mask, and depth depends on the etching time. The major disadvantage of etching is its inability to provide dimensional accuracy. But with ion sputtering, precision etching on SiC is possible. Photolithography (preparation and exposure of photoresistive film) was followed by wet chemical etching using a mixture of HNO3:H3PO4:H2O to get micro-features on carbon steel. Maskless electrochemical etching has been carried out with AISI 430 steel as cathodic tool. Complexity of tool and material restriction are major factors of the process. This process can only be applied on electricity conducting materials. Diamond tool rolling with vibration caused fine scale plastic deformation on the workpiece.

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Texture detail (Shapes, size and dimensions of micro features)

Abrasive jet machining [27]

Silicon nitride

Hemispherical dimples of diameters 40, 80 and 120 μm with depth 5 μm.

Diamond embossing [28]

Metallic surfaces

Various shapes which depend on mould of silicone prepared through lithography.

Shot blasting and photolithography [29]

Cast iron

Grooves and dimples of width/diameter 60 μm and depth 6- 10 μm

Vibro-mechanical texturing [30]

Aluminium and hardened steel

Elliptical dimples having 50 -550 μm diameter along axial and circumferential directions and 2 - 50 μm depth

Mechanical indentation [31]

AISI 52100 steel

Hemispherical dimples, diameter 65 μm and 0.2- 1.45 μm depth

Shot peening [32]

AISI 52100 steel

Micro CNC texturing [33]

Polyoxymethylene (POM)

Observations/remarks

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Specimen material/ bounding solids

A jet of high velocity air with fine abrasive particles is directed towards the masked Si3N4 surface producing hemispherical dimple. In this process deburring is not required after texturing of ceramics. Diamond film is deposited on Si substrate through CVD. The method is suitable for embossing of flat and curved surfaces. Light polishing is required for removing the material accumulated around the micro- features. Identical surface pattern mask is required in preparation of surface texture through photolithography. Air with abrasive shots is used for material removal. Large area can be textured irrespective of materials’ chemical reactivity. Any material which can be turned on lathe can be textured with a vibrating single point cutting tool. This limits the scope of this technique to cylindrical shaped work pieces which can be turned on a lathe.

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Surface texturing method

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Journal of Tribology. Received July 17, 2014; Accepted manuscript posted Febuary 11, 2015. doi:10.1115/1.4029770 Copyright (c) 2015 by ASME

Cylindrical micro holes having both diameter and depth 125 μm

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Random peaks and valleys

This is a time consuming process as each dimple is obtained by plastic deformation using a CNC controlled Vicker indenter. The displaced material gets piled up around the periphery of micro- feature. Since it is a slow texturing process, the application of this process is limited to laboratory level study. Shot peening uses glass beads of diameter (0.07-0.11 mm) travelling at high velocity causing plastic deformation at the target surface. LST caused refilling of holes due to melting of polymer, hence micro CNC was attempted. This technique is well suited for polymeric surfaces where high energy beam methods fail due to melting of polymer.

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Journal of Tribology. Received July 17, 2014; Accepted manuscript posted Febuary 11, 2015. doi:10.1115/1.4029770 Copyright (c) 2015 by ASME

Among the different surface texturing techniques as mentioned in Table 1, laser beam texturing technique is one of the most widely used thermal energy based non-contact type advanced method. This micro-machining method can be employed for surface texturing on almost all type of materials. In laser texturing, laser beam melts and vaporises the undesirable

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material from the specimen leading to the desired shape and size of micro features. Among various types of lasers used for surface texturing, Nd: YAG laser is most suitable for creating

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the textures on steel surfaces. The collateral damage during laser-material interaction can be minimised by using laser with ultra short pulse duration. The accuracy of texturing can be

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improved by proper selection of laser and operating parameters [34]. The expelled material

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deposited around the dimples can be removed by mild lapping using diamond powder as

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abrasive. The microscopic views of flat surface of AISI 52100 steel after laser texturing and

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after lapping can be seen in Fig. 1(a) and Fig. 1(b), respectively.

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Fig. 1 Surface textures on flat surface (AISI 52100 steel) prepared using femto second pulse laser (a) View of dimples with ablated material around the edges, (b) View of dimples after lapping.

It is worth noting here that the thermal effects during the laser texturing change the

wettability [35] and roughness [36] of textured surface. Depending on the laser pulse duration (nano second or femto second), the thermal effect linked surface properties vary around the

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micro features [35, 37]. Absence of heat affected zone around the dimple is preferred, but it is difficult to achieve in practice [38].

Measurement of textured surface features and their characterizations before and after

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the experiments help in the understanding of the tribological mechanics/mechanisms. This requires high precision 2D/3D surface profiling/imaging of the virgin and textured surfaces,

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where surface metrology [39] plays a great role. Using measured parameters as inputs, the surface characterizations are possible by employing the existing mathematical models [40,

Influence of surface textures on lubrication

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41] and/or developing more advanced models.

This section presents the numerical [42-50] and experimental [51-60] findings

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pertaining to the lubrication aspects of concentrated contacts in the presence of surface textures. The film thickness expression adopted in the mathematical model of the lubricated

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concentrated point contacts in the presence of micro-pit(s) is expressed as [42]:  

X2 Y2 2 P( X ', Y ', T ) dX ' dY ' H ( X , Y , T )  H 0 (T )    ( X , Y , T )       ( X  X ')2  (Y  Y ')2 2 2

(1)

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Where ( X , Y , T ) is simulating the geometry of a micro-pit.

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The mathematical expression for ( X , Y , T ) is written as [42]:

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( X , Y , T )  A *1060( X  X s / w) *10 2

60( Y / w )2

 (X  Xs )  (Y )  *cos  2 *cos 2  w w    

(2)

Where ‘A’ represents the amplitude of the pit; ‘Xs’ is the position of centre of pit in the computational domain, and ‘w’ is wave length parameter defining the width of a micro-pit.

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Journal of Tribology. Received July 17, 2014; Accepted manuscript posted Febuary 11, 2015. doi:10.1115/1.4029770 Copyright (c) 2015 by ASME

The surface feature present at the starved lubricated contact significantly affects the position of the inlet meniscus [42]. The motion of meniscus and the geometry of the surface feature are two predominant factors which controlled the increase in the lubricant film thickness. Figure 2 shows dimensionless film thickness (H) mapping at the contact formed

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with multi micro-pitted surface under starved lubrication condition. The contact marked by

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unit circle in the middle of this figure shows increase in the film thickness behind the pit.

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Fig. 2 Film thickness mapping at micro-pitted contact under starved lubrication [42]

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Numerical simulation of surface textures has been reported by Zhu and co researchers

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[43-46] for study of the mixed lubrication mechanism at the textured concentrated contacts.

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Dimple influence area and number of interruptions have been reported as the key design parameters in the lubrication [43]. The influence of texture attributes, pattern and bottom shape in the performance behavior have also been studied [44-46]. In presence of surface micro-features, about 10 times less number of passes is needed in spreading the lubricant on the counter surface [47]. Mixed EHL lubrication performance of concentrated elliptic contacts formed between honed surface and a group of engineered surfaces under different TRIB-14-1169

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Journal of Tribology. Received July 17, 2014; Accepted manuscript posted Febuary 11, 2015. doi:10.1115/1.4029770 Copyright (c) 2015 by ASME

operating conditions reveal that the orientation of texture has a vital role in the lubricating film formation [48]. Transient film thickness variation by considering the passing of a single micro cavity through EHL contact does not affect the film thickness in pure rolling motion [50]. However, the viscosity of lubricant inside micro cavity while entering into the contact is

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less due to low pressure value, but as the micro cavity reaches in the center of contact (at high pressure within the cavity) drastic increase in viscosity of lubricant happens, which stops the

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lubricant flow. The tangential shear stress extracts the trapped lubricant out of the cavity by elastically deforming the contacting geometry. Moreover, under rolling/sliding motions local

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increase or decrease in film thickness occurs within the EHL contact in the presence of

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micro-cavity depending on its depth.

Investigations with ball and disc configuration in the area of lubricated textured

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concentrated contacts are performed by many researchers for having more tribological

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insights. In presence of shallow micro-cavities on the ball surface, film thickness increases

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with increase in velocity of the glass disc. Shallow surface features act as micro-reservoirs of lubricant which facilitated the film formation even during the thin film lubrication [51]. An optical interferogram image of an array of micro-dimples passing through EHL contact is

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shown in Fig. 3 indicating the variation in the film thickness. The regime of lubrication and

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the method of surface texturing highly influence the tribological behaviors of textured

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concentrated contacts [52-57].

Textured contacts were found to be helpful in minimizing the surface damage under

start up and/or reversal of motions [58-60]. Under starved/parched lubricated conditions, surface dimples were found to be acting as micro oil reservoirs, which supply lubricating oil at the contact by smearing action. It is reported that the micro-features having sizes larger

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Journal of Tribology. Received July 17, 2014; Accepted manuscript posted Febuary 11, 2015. doi:10.1115/1.4029770 Copyright (c) 2015 by ASME

than the elastic contact zone caused reductions in the film thickness. Moreover, chevrons were found most effective and grooves least effective in increasing the hydrodynamic lubricating film thickness [59]. Lubricant smeared from the micro geometries separates the

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rubbing surfaces more effectively when the surfaces move in opposite directions [60].

Fig. 3 Optical interferogram and film thickness profile with micro dimples at the EHL contact under rolling/sliding motion [51] (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier)

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Influence of surface textures on friction and wear

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Experimental studies of friction and wear with modified surface topography (by

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incorporating textures/dimples/grooves) at the concentrated contacts have been reported by many researchers. Table 2 summarizes the details of experiments in the chronological order.

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Journal of Tribology. Received July 17, 2014; Accepted manuscript posted Febuary 11, 2015. doi:10.1115/1.4029770 Copyright (c) 2015 by ASME

Table 2 Summary of experiments (friction and wear) in presence of surface textures at concentrated contacts Specimen materials

Details of microfeatures

Type of motion/operating parameters

2003

Wakuda et al. [27]

Silicon nitride, Hardened steel

Micro dimples of diameter 40- 120 μm, 5 μm depth, dimple area density 7.5 to 30%

Lubricated unidirectional line contacts, sliding speeds 0.012 – 1.2 m/s and PH = 0.78 GPa.

2007

Andersson et al. [61]

Hardened steel

Low and high frequency reciprocating motions at sliding velocities ranging 0.004- 0.16 m/s

2007

Nanbu et al. [62]

SAE 52100 steel

2009

Wang et al. [63]

Brass and bearing steel

2009

Gualtieri et al. [38]

Nitrided steel 30NiCrMo12, Stainless steel

Two different patterns comprising of micro-dimples: (i) dia. 35 μm and depth 20-30 μm, (ii) dia. 50 μm and depth 10-13 μm. Dimples of 60 μm diameter and 1-2 μm depth, grooves of 150 μm pitch and 50 μm widths. Dimples of 20 – 60 μm diameter and 0.6 – 1.8 μm depth, dimple area density 7 %. Circular dimples of 100 μm diameter, 50 μm depth, dimple area density 40 %.

2009

Vilhena et al. [64]

100Cr6 steel

Textures remained effective even under severe sliding conditions. Micro features of larger size in comparison to Hertzian contact width were found ineffective in friction reduction.

Friction

Longitudinal grooves increased the traction coefficient. However, transverse grooves or dimpled surfaces reduced traction coefficient under rolling/sliding conditions.

Lubricated unidirectional line contact, sliding speed 0.09 – 0.55 m/s, PH = 0.39 – 0.96 GPa

Friction

Lubricated unidirectional sliding of point contacts, PH = 1 GPa, sliding speed 40 cm/s

Nanohardness around the dimples, Friction

Lubricated reciprocating sliding of point contacts, PH = 0.87 GPa, sliding velocity 0.01 - 0.12 m/s

Friction and wear

Dimples of 20 μm diameters reduced the friction coefficient. Small size dimples caused an increase in the hydrodynamic pressure. Local heating induced modified surface layer was observed after laser texturing; With textured surface, friction reduced by 50% under hydrodynamic lubrication regime. Micro features larger than the Hertzian contact width yielded high friction and wear.

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Significant reductions in friction and wear were observed with deep and denser textures in the presence of high viscous oil. Moreover, with low viscous oil, surface with higher texture density yielded better results in comparison with smooth surface.

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Lubricated line contacts, rolling speed 30 m/s, 3 % slip, PH = 0.72 GPa

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Friction

Investigation/observation

Friction, wear

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Dimples of 221 μm diameter and 9.5 μm depth, texture area density 6.7 and 26.8 %

Performance parameters investigated

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Researchers

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Performance parameters investigated Friction and wear studies

Details of microfeatures

Type of motion/operating parameters

Kovalchenko et al. [65, 66]

H-13 hardened steel and AISI 52100 steel (60 HRC each)

(i) 12% dimple area density, 78 μm diameter, 5.5 μm depth, (ii)15 % density, 58 μm diameter, 5 μm depth

Lubricated unidirectional sliding point contacts, sliding speed 0.150.75 m/s and at 0.16-18MPa[64] and at 0.03- 0.76 m/s and at 0.7 GPa [65]

2012

Podgornik et al. [67]

Bearing steel

Lubricated unidirectional sliding point contacts, PH= 0.87 GPa, sliding speed 0.015 m/s.

Friction

2013

Sudeep et al. [68,69]

AISI 52100 Steel (58- 60 HRC)

Laser textured dimple diameter 64 μm and depth 16.5 μm, dimple area density 3.6 %. Dimples of 80 μm diameter and 5.5 μm depth. Dimple area density 12 %.

Lubricated reciprocating sliding point contacts, PH = 0.5- 0.7 GPa, sliding velocity 0.08-0.16 m/s.

Friction, temperature, and contact vibration

2013

Mo et al. [70]

Grooves of 150 μm width and 100 μm depth.

Lubricated reciprocating sliding of point contacts, PH = 1.15 GPa, frequency of 1 Hz.

Friction, wear, vibration and noise (squeal)

2013

Wang et al. [71]

Graphite iron brake material and Chromium steel ball Carbon steel and stainless steel (62 HRC)

Triangle shape having 266-443 μm sides, 0.530 μm depth, 5- 20 % dimple area density

Lubricated unidirectional sliding point contacts, PH = 0.97 GPa, sliding speed 0.19- 1.9 m/s.

Friction

2013

Sengu et al. [72]

AISI 52100 steel (59- 60 HRC)

Lopez Cervantes et al. [73]

UHMWPE and Steel

Lubricated unidirectional sliding of point contacts, sliding speed 0.09- 0.55 m/s, PH = 0.39- 0.96 GPa Lubricated unidirectional sliding of water lubricated point contacts PH = 19- 24 MPa, Slide to roll ratio (SRR) 1- 11 %, VR = 5- 55mm/s

Friction

2013

Multi-texture involving combinations of micro features Circular cavities of diameter 397 μm, depths 198 and 397 μm

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2011

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Specimen materials

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Friction

Investigation/Observation Transition of lubrication regime from boundary to hydrodynamic was observed at higher speed and viscosity [64]. Higher wear rate on the ball surface caused changes in contact geometry leading to transition of lubrication regime from boundary to mixed [65]. Textures resulted in 10 % increase in friction in comparison with smooth surface under starvation of lubricant. Reductions in both friction and temperature at high load and low sliding speeds were observed. Marginal reduction in vibration amplitude was found at contact resonance frequencies. Squeal depends on the groove width to pitch ratio. No correlation was established between friction and squeal during the investigations. Orientation of triangle’s shaped dimple was found to have more effect on friction. Large size (443 μm side length) triangular shaped dimples reduced friction. Reduction in friction coefficient is observed in presence of multi-sizes of dimples in comparison to mono-size dimples/ untextured surfaces. Reduction in traction at low values of SRR is reported.

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Based on the experimental and numerical studies, it is observed that the effects of surface texturing on lubrication of EHL concentrated contacts yield favorable results such as increase in local and average film thickness in presence of shallow micro dimples under rolling-sliding motions. However, these friction and wear investigations at the textured

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concentrated contacts are reported under mixed/boundary lubricated regimes in which one surface is kept stationary. Micro-textures are found to be acting as tiny lubricant reservoires

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feeding the lubricant in the contact in the mixed/parched lubricating conditions. Friction reduction happened when the size of textures were kept less than the Hertzian contact

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dimensions [61,63,66,68] and friction increased when feature dimensions were equal/larger

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than the Hertzian contact patch [27, 64, 67] for wide range of contact configurations and

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operating conditions having different dimple depths and dimple densities. It is also significant

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improving the fatigue life of the contact.

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to point out that the depth of micro features remains an important design parameter for

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5 Effects of surface textures with coatings/solid lubricants Effects of textures with coatings (DLC, TiCN, TiAlCN and Molybdnizing) and /or solid lubricants have also been explored on the tribological behaviors of concentrated

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contacts [21, 74-82]. Surface textures act as innumerable micro reservoirs for solid lubricants

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(MoS2 and Graphite) imparting the reduction in friction and wear behaviors of the contact

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especially under elevated temperature and humid/vacuum operating conditions. Different

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techniques such as burnishing [21, 75, 77], magnetron sputtering [75] and hot pressing [79] are employed to store the solid lubricants in the textures. Table 3 summarizes the details of experiments’ observations reported in this field in the chronological order.

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Table 3 Combined influences of surface textures with coatings/solid lubricants on the tribological behaviors Type of motion/operating parameters

Performance parameters

Investigation/observations

Pettersson et al. [74]

TiN and DLC coating on Si flat was followed by creation of grooves and square arrays of width 5, 20 and 50 µm keeping a load bearing area ratio of 75 %. Bearing steel ball is used as counter surface.

Reciprocating sliding; Normal load 5N, stroke length 2.5 mm, frequency 5 Hz. Dry test for 1000 cycles and boundary lubricated tests for 20,000- 2000,000 cycles.

Friction and wear

Textured, TiN coated Si flat surface caused more wear on steel ball but could trap the wear debris. Friction behavior of TiN coated textured surface was poor in comparison with un-textured surface. In presence of DLC coating, few textured surfaces displayed good friction behavior under boundary lubrication regime.

2006

Vovodin and Zabinski [75]

TiCN coat (cathodic vacuum arc deposition) was followed by LST to create dimples of 10and 20 µm diameter and 3 and 5µm depth on Inconel and steel ball, MoS2 and graphite applied through burnishing and magnetron sputtering.

Lubricated unidirectional sliding at PH = 0.8 GPa. Dimple area density 0.5 –50%

Friction and wear in humid air and dry nitrogen environment

Better wear life of contact was observed in the presence of surface texture and solid lubricant. Optimum area coverage of 10% is reported for dimples having diameter of 10-20 µm.

2007

Moshkovith et al. [21]

Pulsed air arc texturing (PAAT) of SAE5020 steel to get dimples of < 10 µm diameter followed by MoS2 burnishing.

Ball-on-flat unidirectional sliding at 300N load and 0.4 m/s velocity

Friction and wear

About 75 % longer preservation of solid lubricant was observed due to PAAT process. Burnishing of MoS2 increased the film life by more than three times by reducing the friction coefficient.

2008

Basnyat et al. [76]

Texturing (rectangular dimples of 70 µm width and 1 µm depth)on TiAlCN coating using Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) followed by deposition of MoS2 using magnetron sputtering on steel. Sliding against Si3N4 ball.

Ball-on-disc unidirectional sliding, speed 200 rpm, load 1N.

Friction and wear

Significant decrease in friction coefficient and wear was found at 25oC and at 570oC mainly due to micro reservoir action of dimples. At higher temperature, addition of Ag, Mo and MoS2 was found beneficial.

2009

Rapoport et al. [77]

Bearing steel surface was textured (LST with dimples of 65 µm diameter and 2 µm depth) and etched before being burnished with MoS2. To improve adhesion of MoS2 on steel surface, a sublayer of nanoparticles was fabricated.

Ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding at PH = 0.42 GPa and sliding speed of 0.25m/s

Friction and wear

Increase in the wear life of the contact was observed due to the high adhesion and density of MoS2 film burnished on a CdZnSe sublayer.

tN

ip sc r

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2003

ce p

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TRIB-14-1169

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Researchers

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Surface textures and nature of coating/surface treatment

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Type of motion/operating parameters

Performance parameters

Investigation/observations

Chouquet et al. [78]

DLC coated surface textured (through etching) with two different cavity diameters (65 μm and 75 μm) and cavity depths (1.3μm and 0.3 μm) on the surface of high speed steel disc and Steel balls (treated 100 Cr 6; 63 HRC) was used as counter surface

Lubricated unidirectional sliding at PH = 1.15 GPa, sliding speed 5.568.5 cm/s

Friction and wear tests comparing combined influence of DLC coating and texturing and DLC coating without texturing.

Significant reduction in friction coefficient at low sliding speeds was observed through lubricant retention. The Texture attributes played significant role in the tribological behavior.

2012

Hu et al. [79]

Dimples of 120 μm diameter and 14 μm depth have been machined using LST on steel surface followed by hot pressing as well as burnishing to have MoS2 coating. Steel ball is used as counter surface.

Lubricated reciprocating sliding at 100- 200 N load and 25 Hz frequency

2012

Ze et al. [80]

Unidirectional sliding velocity at PH = 0.42 GPa and at sliding speed 60 – 180 m/min,

2013

Amanov et al. [81]

Micro grooves of 50 μm width and 100 μm depth have been created using LST on WC/Co cemented carbide disc and filled with MoS2. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) ball is the counter surface Steel 52100 with Si-DLC coating (CVD) was textured using laser to get dimples of diameter 100 μm, depth 4 μm and pitch 400 μm. Alumina ball is used as counter surface.

2013

Li et al. [82]

2013

Shum et al. [83]

ot Co p

Friction, temperature, wear

Reduction in temperature at ball-disk interface and reduction in wear of both disk and titanium ball was observed due to the combined influence of texturing and solid lubricant.

Reciprocating sliding at PH = 0.8 GPa and frequency of 5 Hz.

Friction and wear

Better tribological behavior of contact at elevated temperature (200oC) is reported owing to enhanced mechanical properties.

Unidirectional sliding at load of 20 N, sliding speed 0.4 m/s at temperature in the range of 250C6000 C and a total sliding distance of 300m. Reciprocating sliding motion, at PH = 0.8- 2.5 GPa, sliding velocity 0.005 m/s and frequency of 0.85Hz.

Friction and wear

Texturing followed by molybdnizing yielded better tribological results even at elevated temperature.

Friction and wear

DLC coatings with 10 % dimple area density and 100 μm diameter of dimple showed improvements in friction and wear behavior compared to un textured + DLC coated surface.

sc r

ip

tN

Increase in wear life of coating was observed at increased texture density. Better wear life of hot pressed textured surface was found in comparison with burnished, textured and untextured surfaces.

. Dimples of 200 µm diameter and 30 µm depth were created on steel surface and then Molybdnized and dimples filled with MoS2. Alumina ball is used as counter surface. M2 steel Surface textured (Dimple diameter 40-300 μm, dimple density 2- 30 %) and DLC coated. WC- 6% Co ball is used as counter surface.

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Friction and wear

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2010

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Researchers

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Surface texturing and nature of coating/surface treatment

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Low friction and wear were observed with combined effects of textures and solid lubricant burnishing [80]. Figure 4 shows the SEM images illustrating the comparisons between textured surface (WC and Co cemented carbide) with coatings/solid lubricants to untextured surface with coatings/ solid lubricants. Four different disc surfaces namely smooth

ite d

without solid lubricant (SS), smooth with solid lubricant (SSL), textured without solid lubricant (TS) and textured with solid lubricant (TSL) were employed in the investigations.

py ed

Less wear of titanium balls sliding against TSL samples were recorded in comparison to the case with SS samples. More wear of the counter ball surface among all the cases were

Co

reported with TS sample. However, the magnitude of the wear of balls with SSL sample has

ed

Ma nu

sc r

ip

tN

ot

marginal difference compared with the SS under the same operating condition.

Ac

ce

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Fig. 4 SEM images of wear scars on WC and cobalt cemented carbide discs and titanium balls sliding against each other, (a) Smooth disc, (b) Disc with solid lubricant (MoS2), (c) Textured disc, (d) Textured disc with solid lubricant (MoS 2) (e) Titanium ball against smooth disc, (f) Titanium ball against disc with solid lubricant (MoS 2) (g) Titanium ball against textured disc, and (h) Titanium ball against textured disc with solid lubricant (MoS2) [80] (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier)

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6

Influence of surface textures on fatigue and contact dynamics Repeated rolling/sliding motions under loaded conditions cause fatigue failures at the

concentrated contacts [84], which is the most common mode of failure especially in the case of rolling bearing contacts [85]. Advances in metallurgical processes (like vacuum melting of

ite d

steel) have resulted in very high cleanliness and homogeneity in steels, which has reduced the

py ed

fatigue damage chances arising due to inclusions in the materials. However, fatigue failures of surfaces due to surface roughness, debris denting and some lubrication related issues are remaining as concerns for the researchers [86]. Other factors such as slide to roll ratio,

Co

traction, and presence of contaminants in the lubricant also reduce the fatigue life of heavily

ot

loaded concentrated contacts. It is worth noting here that well-designed surface topography

tN

with textures enhances the prospects of effective lubrication and reduces the asperity

ip

interaction in the regimes of mixed/starved lubrications, which lead to the improvement in the

sc r

fatigue life of concentrated contacts. Additionally, surface textures can act as particle traps

Ma nu

thereby reducing the harmful effects arising due to debris/ contaminants.

Attempts have been made to understand the effects of modified surface topography on

ed

the fatigue life of heavily loaded concentrated contacts [7, 8, 31, 32, 53, 87-91]. Randomly distributed small indentations were created (through a tumbling process) on the surfaces of

ce

pt

the rings and needle rollers of rolling bearings [7]. Significant improvement (of the order of 10-17 times of L50 hrs) in the fatigue life of rolling bearings was reported due to the presence

Ac

of surface textures while operating under mixed/boundary lubricated regimes. Later it is concluded that fatigue life enhancement could have happened due to the better lubrication in the presence of tiny oil pots on the surface [8]. Micro-dents were found to be assisting in running-in, which yielded longer pitting durability and prevented the scuffing under rolling/sliding motions at higher contact loads [87]. In order to ascertain the fatigue failure TRIB-14-1169

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mechanism, the subsurface shear stresses in case of textured and smooth contacts were numerically evaluated and correlated [88]. Better fatigue life with dimpled surfaces is achieved compared with honed/ turned/ground/shaped surfaces [88].

ite d

Experimental studies have been performed [31, 32, 53, 89-91] for exploring the influence of surface texturing on fatigue life of the hardened steel surface under heavily

py ed

loaded rolling/sliding motions. Deep dents (depth around 20 μm) caused negative effects on fatigue life, whereas the presence of shallow dimples (depth < 1.0 µm) at the rolling/sliding

Co

concentrated contacts operating at high load (characterized by PH = 5 GPa) increased the

ot

fatigue life. The statistical technique [89] has also been used to compare the life of textured

tN

and smooth contact pairs. It can be seen in Fig.5 that the design of surface textures T3 and T4 (characterized by high density of micro-dents) resulted in significant improvements of fatigue

Ac

ce

pt

ed

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sc r

ip

life in comparison with other cases i.e. without texture, T1 and T2 (low density textures).

Fig. 5 Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of different roller specimens (T1, T2, T3 and T4 corresponds to surface textures of different designs in terms of dimension and density) [89] (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier)

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Shot peening process leading to the creation of surface textures caused reduction in fatigue life of rolling/sliding concentrated contacts under mixed lubrication [32]. However, shot peening treatment followed by polishing increased the film thickness during the startup, helped to reduce the asperity interactions and thus improved the contact life. Dimples of two

ite d

different dimensions were machined on the roller surface using vibro- mechanical texturing method for conducting the rolling contact fatigue studies [91]. Textured surfaces exhibited

py ed

lower fatigue life in comparison with smooth surface. Spalling was found to occur at the location on the test specimen where dimples were present. It happened due to altered

Co

subsurface stress distribution in the presence of dimples. It is worth mentioning here that the dimensions of micro-textures were larger (diameter = 100 μm for circular dimple;

tN

ot

major/minor diameter = 240/100 μm for elliptical dimples, and depth = 6 μm in all cases) compared to previous studies [31, 32, 53, 89, 90] where the dimple dimensions were kept in

ip

the range of 15- 65 μm diameter and depth < 1 μm. Reduction in fatigue life was observed by

sc r

increasing the dimple depth beyond a threshold value [31, 32, 53, 89].

Ma nu

It is essential to distinguish between the mechanisms of reductions in the fatigue life of rolling/sliding concentrated contacts in the presence of surface defects (such as debris dents/micro-pits) and the apparent increase in fatigue life reported in certain studies with

ed

deliberately introduced surface textures. Surface originated fatigue (pitting/micro-pitting)

pt

occurs when asperities are present on the surface and spalling occurs even when surfaces are

ce

well separated by lubricant film [92]. Surface defects have significant effect on the pressure

Ac

distribution and film thickness if its depth is larger than the amplitudes of surface roughness [92, 93]. For small sized defects, the dent is likely to be absorbed by the elastic deformation [92, 93]. It can be concluded that the beneficial effects of surface texturing on fatigue life of heavily loaded lubricated concentrated contacts mainly occur under mixed/boundary lubrication regime, when the diameter and depth of micro features were chosen carefully

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depending upon the geometry of the contacts. Additionally, material and method of surface texturing also can be considered as critical design factors in achieving the beneficial effects. Textured surface of one of the solids of the contact pair in a tribo-contact allows oxide wear debris to trap into the micro-dimples. This phenomenon can either be beneficial (in case

ite d

of abrasive wear) or detrimental (in case of adhesive wear) depending on the wear mechanisms. Fretting phenomenon of ball-on-flat configuration for 10,000 and 20,000 cycles

py ed

were influenced in presence of surface textures [94]. Moreover, significant reduction (up to 84%) in the electrical resistance at the tribo-contacts was also observed in presence of surface

Co

textures because of trap of oxide debris into micro pores. Few experiments of long time

ot

duration have been performed to assess the fretting fatigue at the concentrated contacts in

tN

presence of surface textures [95]. Particular texture patterns caused significant increase in the number of strokes before transition from pure sliding to sticking conditions in the fretting

ip

investigations of concentrated contacts (PH = 920 MPa) formed between the steel ball to DLC

sc r

coated textured steel surfaces and steel ball to ground/polished surfaces under grease

Ma nu

lubrication [96]. Depth and pitch of trenches need to be smaller in comparison to the fretting stroke length to achieve better results. Experiments were also conducted [97] using steel ball on textured steel flat surface for stroke lengths of 12-215 μm for 2 ×105 cycles for assessing

ed

the performance at the concentrated contacts. Presence of micro-textures accelerated running-

pt

in during the fretting, which was more pronounced at higher loads. Significantly larger

ce

fretting wear scar was observed in case of micro textured surface in comparison with finished

Ac

surface. In order to evaluate the possible mechanism of accelerated running-in, the contact stiffness at the textured and plain smooth surfaces were measured using instrumented indentation. Reduction in stiffness at the textured contact is reported in comparison to plain smooth contact [97].

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Time and frequency domain analyses [68] of vibration response revealed marginal change in overall vibration level and reductions in contact resonance frequencies due to the presence of textures in comparison to polished surface. Experimental [70, 98] and numerical [98] investigations on friction induced vibration and noise at the contacts formed between

ite d

micro grooved surfaces and ball under reciprocating sliding motion report the squeal generation. The magnitude of squeal depended on the dimensional proportion of groove

py ed

width to pitch ratio. A ratio of 1:2 for width to pitch has yielded reduction in the squeal. Similarly, the impact between ball and the edges of grooves significantly suppressed the high

Summary

tN

7

ot

Co

frequency components of vibration and friction noise [98].

It is broadly noticed that the surface texture design at the concentrated contacts is strong

sc r

ip

function of regimes of lubrication, material properties of contacting solids, geometrical features of micro-dimples/shapes, orientation of micro patterns, and fabrication method of

Ma nu

surface textures/patterns. Moreover, the following points also have been noticed in particular in presence of surface textures at the concentrated contacts:

ed

 Surface textures at the rolling/sliding concentrated contacts yield beneficial results under

pt

boundary/mixed lubrication regimes arising due to operating conditions or frequent

ce

starts/stops of motion.

Ac

 Smearing out of lubricant from the micro-dimples of textured surfaces provide lubricity at the contacts even after the failure of lubrication line.  Texture attributes (shape, size, and orientation) play vital role in the lubrication. Micro features/dimples having dimensions lesser than the Hertzian contact size have obvious advantage in achieving the favorable tribological results. TRIB-14-1169

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 Experimental results are limited to application wise using arbitrary attributes of surface textures’ patterns.  Accelerated running-in of the counter smooth surfaces occurs under severe sliding motions due to hard cutting edges of dimples (especially in case of laser textured surfaces).

ite d

 Combined influence of surface textures and surface treatments (coatings and embedding of solid lubricants in micro features) are gaining attention due to obvious benefits in terms of

py ed

better tribological behaviors even under harsh operating environments.

 The beneficial effects of textures on improving the lubrication and reducing the friction do

Co

not necessarily cause a reduction in the fatigue life of concentrated textured contacts while operating under the starved/mixed lubrication regimes.

ot

 Nonetheless, fatigue life is found to be a strong function of texture dimensions (depth and

tN

width), texture orientation/patterns and method of texturing.

ip

 Surface textures can marginally alter the vibration and noise response generated at the

sc r

concentrated contacts due to the changes in the stiffness and damping.

Ma nu

 Surface textures have significant potential for providing the energy efficient and hardworking lubricated concentrated contacts with longer life.

Further research for proper role of surface textures at the concentrated contacts is needed to

Development of accurate mathematical models for study of lubrication regimes at the

ce

o

pt

ed

explore the followings:

o

Ac

textured concentrated contacts. Influence of surface textures in the mechanics and mechanisms of lubricant replenishment under the starvation phenomenon. o

Studies for role of combined influence of surface textures and formulated green lubricants.

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o

In depth exploring the effects of surface textures created by laser on the fatigue life.

o

An effect of surface textures on the stiffness and damping of concentrated contacts.

References

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[1] Sasaki, S., 2010 “Environmentally Friendly Tribology (Eco-Tribology),” J. Mech. Sci. Tech., 24, pp. 6771. [2] Koji, K., 2011, “Industrial Tribology in the Past and Future,” Tribol Online, 6, pp. 1-9. [3] Etsion, I., 2005, “State of the Art in Laser Surface Texturing,” ASME Trans, J Tribol, 127, pp. 248- 253. [4] Jacobson, B., 2000,” Thin Film Lubrication of Real Surfaces,” Tribol Int, 33, pp. 205-210. [5] Erdemir, A., 2005, “Review of Engineered Tribological Interfaces for Improved Boundary Lubrication,” Tribol Int, 38, pp. 249-256. [6] Yu, H., Huang, W., and Wang, X., 2013, “Dimple Patterns Design for Different Circumstances,” Lub Sci, 25, pp. 67–78. [7] Akamatsu, Y., Tsushiama, N., Goto, T., and Hibi. K., 1992, “Influence of Surface Roughness Skewness On Rolling Contact Fatigue Life,” Tribol Trans, 35, pp. 745-750. [8] Zhai, X., Chang, L. and Hoperch, M. R. and Nixon, H. P., 1997, “On Mechanisms of Fatigue Life Enhancement by Surface Dents in Heavily Loaded Rolling Line Contacts,” Tribol Trans 40, pp. 708-714. [9] Kaneta, M., Sakai, T., and Nishikawa, H., 1992, “Optical Interferometric Observations of the Effects of a Bump on Point Contact EHL,” ASME Trans, J Tribol, 114, pp. 779-784. [10] Venner, C. H., and Lubrecht, A. A., 1994, “Numerical Simulation of a Transverse Ridge in a Circular EHL Contact Under Rolling/Sliding,” ASME Trans, J Tribol, 116, pp. 751-761. [11] Hu, Y. Z., and Zhu, D. A., 2000, “Full Numerical Solution to the Mixed Lubrication in Point Contacts,” ASME Trans, J Tribol, 122, pp. 1-9. [12] Zhu, D., and Hu, Y. Z., 2001, “Effects of Rough Surface Topography and Orientation on the Characteristics of EHD and Mixed Lubrication in both Circular and Elliptical Contacts,” Tribol Trans, 44, pp. 391-398. [13] Ai, X., and Cheng, H.S., 1996, “The Effects of Surface Texture on EHL Point Contacts,” ASME Trans, J Tribol, 118, pp. 59-66. [14] Yang, P., Cui, J., Kaneta, M., and Nishikawa, H., 2004, “Influence of A Surface Bump or Groove on the Lubricating Performance and Dimple Phenomena in Simple Sliding Point EHL Contacts,” ASME Trans, J Tribol, 126, pp. 466-472. [15] Zhao, J., and Sadeghi, F., 2004, “The Effects of A Stationary Surface Pocket on EHL Line Contact StartUp,” ASME Trans, J Tribol, 126, pp. 672-680. [16] Vincent, C., Monteil, G., Barriere, T., and Gelin, J. C., 2008, “Control of the quality of laser texturing,” Microsyst Technol, 14, pp. 1553-1557. [17] Dumitru, G., Romano, V., Weber, H. P., Sentis, M., and Marine, W., 2002, “Femto Second Ablation of Ultrahard Materials,” Appl. Phys. A, 74, pp. 729-739. [18] Mourier, L., Mazuyer, D., Lubrecht, A. A., Donnet, C., and Audouard, E., 2008, “Action of a Femtosecond Laser Generated Micro-Cavity Passing Through a Circular EHL Contact,” Wear, 264, pp. 450-456. [19] Du, D., He, Y.F., Sui, B., Xiong, L. J., and Zhang, H., 2005, “Laser Texturing of Rollers by Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser,” J Mat Proc Tech, 161, pp. 456-461. [20] Gao, Y., Wu, B., Zhou, Y., and Tao S., 2011, “A Two-Step Nanosecond Laser Surface Texturing Process with Smooth Surface Finish,” Appl Surf Sci, 257, pp. 9960-9967. [21] Moshkovith, A., Perfiliev, V., Gindin, D., Parkansky, N., Boxman, R., and Rapoport, L., 2007, “Surface Texturing Using Pulsed Air Arc Treatment,” Wear, 263, pp. 1467–1469. [22] Nakatsuji, T., and Mori, A., 2001, “The Tribological Effect of Electrolytically Produced Micro-Pools And Phosphoric Compounds on Medium Carbon Steel Surfaces in Rolling - Sliding Contact,” Tribol Trans, 44, pp. 173-178. [23] Wang, X., and Kato, K., 2003, “Improving the Anti-Seizure Ability of Sic Seal in Water with RIE Texturing,” Tribol Lett; 14, pp. 275-280. [24] Zhang, J., and Meng, Y., 2012, “A Study of Surface Texturing of Carbon Steel by Photochemical Machining,” J Mat Proc Tech, 212, pp. 2133– 2140. [25] Parreira, J. G., Gallo, C. A., and Costa, H. L., 2012, “New Advances on Maskless Electrochemical Texturing (MECT) for Tribological Purposes,” Surf Coat Tech, 212, pp. 1-13. [26] Schneider, Y. G., 1984, “Formation of Surfaces with Uniform Micro-Patterns on Precision Machine and Instrument Parts,” Prec eng, 6, pp. 219-225.

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Table’s caption Table 1 Methods of texturing and related details. Table 2 Summary of experimental investigations (friction and wear) in presence of surface textures at concentrated contacts.

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Table 3 Combined influences of surface textures with coatings/solid lubricants on the tribological behaviors. .

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Figure’s caption

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Fig. 1 Surface textures on flat surface (AISI 52100 steel) prepared using femto second pulse laser (a) View of dimples with ablated material around the edges, (b) View of dimples after lapping.

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Fig. 2 Film thickness mapping at micro-pitted contact under starved lubrication.

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Fig. 3 Optical interferogram and film thickness profile with micro dimples at the EHL contact under rolling/sliding motion. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier)

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Fig. 4 SEM images of wear scars on WC and cobalt cemented carbide discs and titanium balls sliding against each other, (a) Smooth disc, (b) Disc with solid lubricant (MoS2), (c) Textured disc, (d) Textured disc with solid lubricant (MoS 2) (e) Titanium ball against smooth disc, (f) Titanium ball against disc with solid lubricant (MoS 2) (g) Titanium ball against textured disc, and (h) Titanium ball against textured disc with solid lubricant (MoS2) (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier)

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Fig. 5 Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of different roller specimens (T1, T2, T3 and T4 corresponds to surface textures of different designs in terms of dimension and density). (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier)

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