Tafsir al-jalalayn Part 1

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For the first time ever Tafsir al-Jalalayn is competently translated into an unabridged ..... So do this, for you are also fluent speakers of Arabic like him. When they.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

1

Tafsir al-Jalalayn Tafsir al-J a l a l a y ni soneoft hemos ts i g ni f i c a ntt a f s i r sf ort hes t udyoft heQur ’ a n.Compos e dbyt het wo“ J a l a l s ”-Jalal al-Din al-Mahalli (d. 864 ah / 1459 ce) and his pupil Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti (d. 911 ah / 1505 ce), Tafsir alJalalayn is generally r e g a r de da soneoft hemos te a s i l ya c c e s s i bl ewor k sofQur ’ a ni ce x e g e s i sbe c a us eofi t ss i mpl e style and one volume length. For the first time ever Tafsir al-Jalalayn is competently translated into an unabridged highly accurate and readable annotated English translation by Doctor. Feras Hamza.

About the Translator Doctor Feras Hamza, D.Phil. obtained his doctorate from the University of Oxford (Wolfson College) and is pr e s e nt l yRe s e a r c hAs s oc i a t ei nQur ’ a ni cS t udi e sa tt heI ns t i t ut eofI s ma i l iS t udi e s ,L ondon.Hei spr e s e nt l ya t work on a translation of Al-Ba y dā wī ’ s Tafsir and a monograph on the Birth of the Muslim Afterlife.

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

Tafseer al-Fatihah In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful: 2

Praise be to God, is a predicate of a nominal clause, the content of which is intended to extol God [by stating that]: He possesses the praise of all creatures, or that He [alone] deserves their praise. God is a proper noun for the One truly worthy of worship; Lord of all Worlds, that is, [He is] the One Who owns all of creation: humans, jinn, angels, animals and othe r sa swe l l ,e a c hofwhi c hma yber e f e r r e dt oa sa‘ wor l d’ ;ones a y s‘ t hewor l dof me n’ ,or‘ wor l doft hej i nn’e t c .T hi spl ur a lf or m wi t ht hey ā ’a ndt henūn[ s c .‘ ā l a mī n]i sus e dt ode not e , pr e domi na nt l y , c og ni z a ntbe i ng s( ūl ū‘ i l m) .T hee x pr e s s i on[ ‘ ā l a mī n]r e l a t e st o[ t het e r m]‘ s i g n’ ( ‘ a l ā ma ) , s i nc ei ti s an indication of the One that created it. T heCompa s s i ona t e ,t heMe r c i f ul :t ha ti st os a y ,t heOnewhopos s e s s e s‘ me r c y ’ ,whi c hme a nst owa ntwha ti s good for those who deserve it. Master of the Day of Judgement: that is, [the day of] requite, the Day of Resurrection. The reason for the specific mention [of the Day of Judgement] is that the mastery of none shall appear on that Day except that of God, may Hebee x a l t e d,a si si ndi c a t e dby[ God’ swor ds ]‘ Whos ei st heKi ng dom t oda y ? ’‘ God’ s ’[ Q.40: 16]( i foner e a dsi t mā l i k[ a soppos e dt oma l i k ] ,t he nt hi ss i g ni f i e st ha tHeha spos s e s s i onoft hee nt i r ea f f a i ront heDa yof Resurrection, or else that He is ever described by this [expression], in the same way as [He is described as] ‘ F or g i v e rofs i n’ ( g hā f i ra l -dhanb). Thus, one can validly take it as an adjective of a definite noun). You [alone] we worship, and You [alone] we ask for help: that is to say, we reserve worship for You [alone] by way of acknowl e dg i ngY ourOne ne s s( t a whī d)a nds oon,a ndwea s kf or[ Y our ]a s s i s t a nc ei nwor s hi pa ndi not he r things. Gui deust ot hes t r a i g htpa t h: t ha ti s , ‘ s howust hewa yt oi t ’ . T hi si ss ubs t i t ut e dby :

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

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The path of those whom You have favoured, with guidance ( f r om a l l a dhī nat og e t he rwi t hi t sr e l a t i v ec l a us ei s substituted by [ghayri l-ma g hdūbi‘ a l a y hi m] )not[ t hepa t h]oft hos ea g a i ns twhom t he r ei swr a t h,na me l y ,t he Jews, and nor of those who are astray, namely, the Christians. The subtle meaning implied by this substitution is that the guided ones are neither the Jews nor the Christians. But God knows best what is right, and to Him is the Return and the [final] Resort. May God bless our lord Muhammad (s), his Family and Companions and grant them everlasting peace. Sufficient is God for us; an excellent Guardian is He. There is no power and no strength save in God, the High, the Tremendous.

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

Surat al-Baqarah: 1-141 4

Al i fl ā mmī m: Godk nowsbe s twha tHeme a nsbyt he s e[ l e t t e r s ] .

{ ۤ   ۤ   } {                                        ‫ﭐ‬        }

That, meaning, this, Book, which Muhammad (s) recites, in it there is no doubt, no uncertainty, that it is from God ( t hene g a t i on[ l Ār a y baf Ī hi ]i st hepr e di c a t eofdhĀl i k a ;t heus eoft hede mons t r a t i v ehe r ei sintended to glorify [ t heBook ] ) .Ag ui da nc e( hudĀi sas e c ondpr e di c a t e ,me a ni ngt ha ti t[ t heBook ]‘ g ui de s ’ ) ,f ort heGod-fearing, namely, those that tend towards piety by adhering to commands and avoiding things prohibited, thereby guarding themselves from the Fire;

{                                  ٰ   ‫ﭐ‬                      ‫ﭐ‬                      ‫ﭐ‬  }

who believe in, that is, who accept the truth of, the Unseen, what is hidden from them of the Resurrection, Paradise and the Fire; and maintain the prayer, that is to say, who perform it giving it its proper due; and of what We have provided them, that is, of what we have bestowed upon them, expend, in obedience to God;

{                     ‫ﭐ‬                                                                        ‫ﭐ‬   }

a ndwhobe l i e v ei nwha tha sbe e nr e v e a l e dt oy ou,na me l y ,t heQur ’ ā n;a ndwha twa sr e v e a l e dbe f or ey ou,t ha t is, the Torah, the Gospel and other [scriptures]; and of the Hereafter, they are certain, that is, they know [it is real]. {             ‫ﭐ‬          ٰ                            ٰ         ٰ        }

Those, as described in the way mentioned, are upon guidance from their Lord, those are the ones that will prosper, that is, who will succeed in entering Paradise and be saved from the Fire. Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah {             ‫ﭐ‬          ٰ                            ٰ         ٰ        } 5

Those, as described in the way mentioned, are upon guidance from their Lord, those are the ones that will prosper, that is, who will succeed in entering Paradise and be saved from the Fire.

{                                  ٰ         ٰ                 ٰ                  ٰ          ‫ﭐ‬        }

God has set a seal on their hearts, impressing on them and making certain that no good enters them; and on their hearing, [in which He has] deposited something so that they cannot profit from the truth they hear; and on their eyes is a covering, that is, a veil so that they do not see the truth; and for them there will be a mighty chastisement, that is, intense and everlasting.

{                          ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬                           ‫ﭐ‬         }

T hef ol l owi ngwa sr e v e a l e dc onc e r ni ngt hehy poc r i t e s :a nds omepe opl et he r ea r ewhos a y ,‘ Webe l i e v ei nGod a ndt heL a s tDa y ’ , t ha ti s , i nt heDa yofRe s ur r e c t i onbe c a us ei ti sthe very last day; but they are not believers (the [ pl ur a l ]i mpor tofma n[ i nma ny a qūl ,‘ whos a y s ’ ]i st a k e ni nt oa c c ounthe r e ,a se x pr e s s e dbyapr onoun[ hum] that expresses this [plural] meaning). {                                                               ‫ﭐ‬         ‫ﭐ‬              }

They would deceive God and the believers, by manifesting the opposite of the unbelief they hide, so that they can avoid His rulings in this world; and only themselves they de c e i v e( y uk hā di ‘ ūn) ,f ort hee v i lc ons e que nc esoft he i r deception will rebound upon them, as they are disgraced in this world when God makes known to His Prophet what they are hiding, and they will be punished in the Hereafter; and they are not aware, and they do not know t ha tt he ya r ea c t ua l l yde c e i v i ngt he ms e l v e s( muk hā da ‘ a[ a l t houg hat hi r dv e r ba lf or m,f r om k hā da ‘ a ]a c t ua l l y denotes a one-wa ya c t i on,s uc ha s[ whe nones a y s ]‘ ā qa bt ua l -l i s s a ,‘ Ipuni s he dt het hi e f ’[ us i ngt het hi r dv e r ba l

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah f or m‘ ā qa ba ] ;t heme nt i onof‘ God’i n[ t hi ss t a t e me nt ]i sf or[ r he t or i c a l ]e f f e c t ;av a r i a ntr e a di ng[ f orwa -mā y uk hā di ‘ ūna ]ha swa -māy a k hda ‘ ūna ) . 6

{                                                         ‫ﭐ‬                              }

In their hearts is a sickness: doubt and hypocrisy, which ails their hearts, debilitating them; and God has increased t he i rs i c k ne s swi t hwha tHeha sr e v e a l e di nt heQur ’ ā n,s i nc et he ydi s be l i e v ei t ;a ndt he r ea wa i t st he m apa i nf ul chas t i s e me ntbe c a us et he yus e dt ol i e( r e a dy uk a dhdhi būnt oi mpl y[ t ha tt he yus e dt oc a l l ]t hePr ophe tofGod[ a l i a r ] , ory a k dhi būnt oi mpl yt he i r[ me nda c i t ywhe n]s a y i ng‘ webe l i e v e ’ ) . {                            ۤ          ‫ﭐ‬                                      }

Whe ni ti ss a i dt ot he m,t ha ti s ,t he s el a t t e r ,‘ Donots pr e a dc or r upt i oni nt hel a nd’ ,t hr oug hunbe l i e fa nd hi nde r i ng[ pe opl ef r om]f a i t h,T he ys a y ,‘ Wea r eonl yput t i ngt hi ng sr i g ht ’ ,t ha ti s ,‘ weare not engaging in c or r upt i on’ . God, e x a l t e dbeHe , r e f ut e st he m, s a y i ng : {              ٰ                    ‫ﭐ‬               ۤ   }

Truly (a-l ā ,‘ t r ul y ’ ,i sf ora l e r t i ng ) ,i nt e nde de mpha t i c a l l y ,t he ya r et hea gents of corruption, but they perceive, this, not.

{                ٰ                 ‫ﭐ‬               ۤ            ‫ﭐ‬                           ۤ            ‫ﭐ‬                                          }

When iti ss a i dt ot he m,‘ Be l i e v ea st hepe opl ebe l i e v e ’ ,t ha ti s ,a st heCompa ni onsoft hePr ophe t( s ) ,T he ys a y , ‘ S ha l lwebe l i e v ea sf ool sbe l i e v e ? ’ ,t ha ti s ,a st hei g nor a ntdo?Nowedonotf ol l owt he i rwa y .T hee x a l t e dOne refutes them, saying: Truly, they are the foolish ones, but they know, this, not. {                                             ۤ                     ٰ                               ۤ                       ‫ﭐ‬                  }

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

7

When they meet (la qū i sa c t ua l l yl a quy ū,butt heda mmaha sbe e n omi t t e d,be i ngt oo c umbe r s omef or pr onunc i a t i on;l i k e wi s et hey ā ’[ i somi t t e d] ,be c a us ei ti sunv oc a l i s e da ndi sf ol l owe dbyawā w) ;t hos ewho be l i e v e , t he ys a y , ‘ Webe l i e v e ’ ;butwhe nt he yg oa pa r t , a wa yf r omthem and return, to their devils, their leaders, t he ys a y , ‘ Wea r ewi t hy ou, i nr e l i g i on; wewe r eonl ymoc k i ng , t he m[ t hebe l i e v e r s ]byf e i g ni ngbe l i e f . {                                                               ‫ﭐ‬  }

God [Himself] mocks them, requiting them for their mockery, leaving them, that is, giving them respite, in their i ns ol e nc e ,t ha ti s ,i nt he i rt r a ns g r e s s i ngt hel i mi t sofunbe l i e f ;be wi l de r e d,wa v e r i ng ,i npe r pl e x i t y( y a ‘ ma hūni sa circumstantial qualifier). {                                                   ٰ       ‫ﭐ‬        ٰ     ‫ﭐ‬         ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬      ٰ        }

Those are they who have bought error for guidance, that is, they have exchanged the latter for the former; so their commerce has not profited them, that is to say, they have gained nothing from it, indeed, they have lost, because their destination is the Fire, made everlasting for them; nor are they guided, in what they did.

{             ٰ                                    ‫ﭐ‬                                                   ‫ﭐ‬        ‫ﭐ‬                    }

Their likeness, the way they are in their hypocrisy, is as the likeness of one who kindled, that is, [one who] lit a fire in darkness, and when it illumined all about him, so that he is able to see, and to feel warm and secure from t hos ehef e a r e d, Godt ooka wa yt he i rl i g ht , e x t i ng ui s hi ngi t( t hepl ur a l pr onoun[ i nnūrihim] takes into account the [ pl ur a l ]i mpor tofa l l a dhī ) ;a ndl e f tt hem i nda r k ne s s , una bl et os e e , wha ti sa r oundt he m, c onf us e da st ot hewa y , in fear; likewise are those who have found [temporary] security by professing faith, but who will meet with terror and punishment upon death; these [last] are: {                                  }

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah deaf, to the truth, so that they cannot hear it and accept it; dumb, mute as regards goodness, unable to speak of it; and, blind, to the path of guidance, so that they cannot perceive it; they shall not return, from error. 8

{         ٰ  ‫ﭐ‬              ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬            ٰ     ‫ﭐ‬                 ۤ            ٰ                              ٰ                     ‫ﭐ‬                  }

Or, the likeness of them is as a cloudburst, that is, [the likeness of them is] as people are during rain (ka-sayyib: t het e r mi sor i g i na l l ys a y y ūb,f r om [ t hev e r b]s ā ba ,y a s ūbu,me a ni ng‘ i tc a medown’ ) ;outoft hehe a v e n,outof the clouds, in which clouds is darkness, layer upon layer, and thunder, the angel in charge of them [sc. the clouds]; it is also said that this [thunder] is actually the sound of his voice; and lightning, the flash caused by his voice which he uses to drive them — they, the people under the rain, put their fingers, that is, their fingertips, in their ears against, because of, the thunderclaps, the violent sound of thunder, in order not to hear it, cautious of, fearful of, de a t h,i ft he ywe r et ohe a ri t .S i mi l a ri st hec a s ewi t ht he s e :whe nt heQur ’ ā ni sr e v e a l e d,i nwhi c h there is mention of the unbelief that is like darkness, the threat of punishment that is like the sound of thunder, and the clear arguments that are like the clear lightning, they shut their ears in order not to hear it and thereby incline towards [true] faith and abandon their religion, which for them would be death; and God encompasses the disbelievers in both knowledge and power, so they cannot escape Him. {                  ٰ          ‫ﭐ‬          ٰ                                  ‫ﭐ‬                                                                                      ٰ                      ‫ﭐ‬         }

The lightning well-nigh, almost, snatches away their sight, that is, takes it away swiftly; whensoever it gives them light, they walk in it, in its light; and when the darkness is over them, they stop, that is, they stand still: a simile of the pert ur ba t i ont ha tt heQur ’ ā ni ca r g ument sc a us ei nt he i rhe a r t s , a ndoft he i ra c k nowl e dg i ngt het r ut hsofwha t they love to hear and recoiling from what they detest; had God willed, He would have taken away their hearing and their sight, that is, the exterior faculty, in the same way that He took away their inner one; Truly, God has power over all things, [that] He wills, as for example, His taking away of the above-mentioned. {                                        ‫ﭐ‬                  ‫ﭐ‬                 ‫ﭐ‬       ‫ﭐ‬          ٰ    }

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah O people, of Mecca, worship, profess the oneness of, your Lord Who created you, made you when you were nothing, and created those that were before you; so that you may be fearful, of His punishment by worshipping Hi m( l a ‘ a l l a , ‘ s ot ha t ’ , i se s s e nt i a l l ya nopt a t i v e , butwhe ns pok e nbyGodi tde not e sa na f f i r ma t i v e ) , 9

{                                                                 ٰ        ‫ﭐ‬                                   ‫ﭐ‬                               ‫ﭐ‬      ٰ        ‫ﭐ‬                   ‫ﭐ‬  }

He Who assigned to you, created [for you], the earth for a couch, like a carpet that is laid out, neither extremely hard, nor extremely soft so as to make it impossible to stand firm upon it; and heaven for an edifice, like a roof; and sent down from the heaven water, wherewith He brought forth, all types of, fruits for your provision; so set not up compeers to God, that is partners in worship, while you know that He is the Creator, that you create not and that only One that creates can be God.

{         ٰ                  ‫ﭐ‬                             ‫ﭐ‬                                              ٰ                                         }

And if you are in doubt, in uncertainty, concerning what We have revealed to Our servant, Muhammad (s), of the Qur ’ ā n, t ha ti ti sf r om God, t he nbr i ngas ūr al i k ei t , t ha ti sa l s or e v e a l e d( mi nmi t hl i hi :min is explicative, that is, a s ūr al i k ei ti ni t se l oque nc e ,f i nea r r a ng e me nta ndi t sbe s t owa lofk nowl e dg eoft heUns e e n;as ūr ai sapa s s a g e with a beginning and end made up of a minimum of three verses); and call your witnesses, those other gods that you worship, besides God, that is, other than Him, so that it can be seen, if you are truthful, in [your claim] that Muhammad (s) speaks it from himself. So do this, for you are also fluent speakers of Arabic like him. When they could not do this, God said: {         ٰ                     ‫ﭐ‬         ‫ﭐ‬                 ‫ﭐ‬       ‫ﭐ‬         ‫ﭐ‬                                           }

And if you do not, do what was mentioned because you are incapable, and you will not (a parenthetical statement), that is, never [will you be able to], because of its inimitability, then fear, through belief in God and [belief] that this is not the words of a human, the Fire, whose fuel is men, disbelievers, and stones, like their very idols, indicating that its heat is extreme, since it burns with the [stones] mentioned, unlike the fires of this world that burn with wood and similar materials; prepared, and made ready, for disbelievers, so that they are punished Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah i ni t( t hi s[ phr a s e ,u‘ i dda tl i ’ l -k ā f i r ī na ,‘ pr e pa r e df ordi s be l i e v e r s ’ ]i se i t he rane ws e nt e nc eoras us t a i ne d circumstantial qualifier).

10

                     ٰ                           ٰ                                            ‫ﭐ‬      ٰ                                                      ٰ      ‫ﭐ‬                      ٰ                  ٰ       ٰ   ‫ﭐ‬                             ‫ﭐ‬         }

{          ٰ       

And give good tidings to, inform, those who believe, who have faith in God, and perform righteous deeds, such as the obligatory and supererogatory [rituals], that theirs shall be Gardens, of trees, and habitations, underneath whi c h, t ha ti s , unde r ne a t ht he s et r e e sa ndpa l a c e s , r i v e r sr un( t a j r ī mi nt a ht i hā ’ l -anhā r u) , t ha ti s , t he r ea r ewa t e r s in it (al-nahr is the place in which water flows [and is so called] because the water carves [yanhar] its way through i t ;t her e f e r e nc et oi ta s‘ r unni ng ’i sf i g ur a t i v e ) ;whe ns oe v e rt he ya r epr ov i de dwi t hf r ui t st he r e f r om,that is, whe ne v e rt he ya r eg i v e nt oe a tf r om t he s eg a r de ns , t he ys ha l l s a y , ‘ T hi si swha t , t ha ti s , t hel i k eofwha twewe r e pr ov i de dwi t hbe f or e ’ ,t ha ti s ,be f or et hi s ,i nPa r a di s e ,s i nc ei t sf r ui t sa r es i mi l a r( a ndt hi si se v i de nc edby[ t he following statement]): they shall be given it, the provision, in perfect semblance, that is, resembling one another in colour, but different in taste; and there for them shall be spouses, of houris and others, purified, from menstruation and impurities; therein they shall abide: dwelling therein forever, neither perishing nor departing t he r e f r om.Andwhe nt heJ e wss a i d,‘ Whydoe sGods t r i k eas i mi l i t udea boutf l i e s ,whe r eHes a y s ,Andi faf l y should rob them of anything [Q. 22:73] and about a spider, where He says, As the likeness of the spider [Q. 29:41]: what does God want with these vile creatures? God then revealed the following:

                                                      ٰ           ‫ﭐ‬                                            ‫ﭐ‬                          ‫ﭐ‬                                       ‫ﭐ‬                                                                     ‫ﭐ‬       }

{     ٰ     ‫ﭐ‬               

God is not ashamed to strike, t oma k e ,as i mi l i t ude( ma t ha l :i st hef i r s tdi r e c tobj e c t ;māe i t he rr e pr e s e nt sa n i nde f i ni t enounde s c r i be dbywha tc ome sa f t e ri ta ndc ons t i t ut e sas e c onddi r e c tobj e c t ,me a ni ng‘ wha t ev e rt ha t s i mi l i t udema ybe ’ ;ori t[ t hemā ]i se x t r at oe mpha s i s et hevileness [involved], so that what follows constitutes t hes e c onddi r e c tobj e c t ) ;e v e nofag na t , ( ba ‘ ūdai st hes i ng ul a rofba ‘ ūd) , t ha ti s , s ma l l f l i e s ; ora ny t hi nga bov ei t , Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

11

that is, larger than it, so that this explanation is not affected [by the size of the creature] with regard to the judgement [God is making]; as for the believers, they know it, the similitude, is the truth, established and given in t hi si ns t a nc e ,f r om t he i rL or d;buta sf ordi s be l i e v e r s ,t he ys a y ,‘ Wha tdi dGodde s i r ebyt hi sf oras i mi l i t ude ? ’ ( ma t ha l a ni sas pe c i f i c a t i on,me a ni ng ,‘ byt hi ss i mi l i t ude ’ ;māi sa ni nt e r r og a t i v eofr e j e c t i ona ndi st hes ubj e c t ; dhāme a nsa l l a dhī ,whos er e l a t i v ec l a us ec ont a i nsi t spr e di c a t e ,i not he rwor ds ,‘ wha tus ei st he r ei ni t ? ’ ) .God then responds to them saying: Thereby, that is, by this similitude, He leads many astray, from the truth on account of their disbelieving in it, and thereby He guides many, believers on account of their belief in it; and thereby He leads none astray except the wicked, those that reject obedience to Him. {      ٰ   ‫ﭐ‬          ۤ         ‫ﭐ‬                                       ‫ﭐ‬                               ٰ                    ‫ﭐ‬                          ‫ﭐ‬  }

Those such as, He has described, break the covenant of God, the contract He made with them in the [revealed] Books to belief in Muhammad (s), after its solemn binding, after it has been confirmed with them, and such as cut what God has commanded should be joined, of belief in the Prophet, of kinship and other matters (an [in the phr a s ea ny ūs a l a ,‘ t ha ti tbej oi ne d’ ]s ubs t i t ut e sf ort hepr onoun[ s uf f i x e d]i nbi hi[ oft hepr e c e di ngwor dsmā a ma r aL l ā hubi hi ,‘ t ha twhi c hGodha sc omma nde d’ ] ) ;a nds uc ha sdoc or r upt i oni nthe land, by way of their transgressing and impeding faith, they, the ones thus described, shall be the losers, since, they shall end up in the Fire, made everlasting for them. {                                                      ٰ              ٰ                    ‫ﭐ‬                  }

How do you, people of Mecca, disbelieve in God, when you were dead, semen inside loins, and He gave you life, in the womb and in this world by breathing Spirit into you (the interrogative here is either intended to provoke amazement at their [persistent] unbelief despite the evidence established, or intended as a rebuke); then He shall make you dead, after your terms of life are completed, then He shall give you life, at the Resurrection, then to Him you shall be returned!, after resurrection, whereupon He shall requite you according to your deeds; and He states, as proof of the Resurrection, when they denied it:

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah {                            ٰ    ٰ              ٰ            ‫ﭐ‬        ٰ     ‫ﭐ‬                   ‫ﭐ‬                          ‫ﭐ‬       } 12

He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth, that is, the earth and all that is in it, so that you may benefit from and learn lessons from it; then, after creating the earth, He turned to, that is, He made His object, heaven and levelled them (fa-s a wwā hunna :t hepr onoun[ -hunna ]r e f e r st o‘ he a v e n’ ,s i nc e ,i t[ he a v e n]i si mpl i c i ti nt he import of the sentence attributed to it [the pronoun]), that is to say, He made them thus, as [He says] in another verse, [fa-qa dā hunna ]s oHede t e r mi ne dt he m[ Q.41: 12] )s e v e nhe a v e nsa ndHeha sk nowl e dg eofa l lt hi ng s ,i n their totality and in their individual detail, so do you not then think that the One who has the power to create this to begin with, which is much greater than what you are, also has the power to bring you back [after death]? {                            ۤ                                                          ‫ﭐ‬                                                                    ‫ﭐ‬                         ٰ                          }

And, me nt i on,OMuha mma d( s ) , whe ny ourL or ds a i dt ot hea ng e l s , ‘ I a ma ppoi nt i ngone a r t hav i c e g e r e nt ’ , who shall act as My deputy, by implementing My rulings therein — a ndt hi s[ v i c e g e r e nt ]wa sAda m;T he ys a i d,‘ Wha t , will You appoint therein one who will do corruption therein, through disobedience, and shed blood, spilling it through killing, just as the progeny of the jinn did, for they used to inhabit it, but when they became corrupted God sent down the angels against them and they were driven away to islands and into the mountains; while we glorify, continuously, You with pr a i s e , t ha ti s , “ Wes a yGl or ya ndPr a i s ebet oY ou” , a nds a nc t i f yY ou? ’ , t ha ti s , ‘ We e x a l tY oua st r a ns c e nde nta bov ewha tdoesnotbe f i tY ou? ;t hel ā m[ ofl a k a , ‘ Y ou’ ]i se x t r a , a ndt hes e nt e nc e[ wa nuqa ddi s ul a k a , ‘ Wes a nc t i f yY ou’ ]i sac i r c ums t a nt i a l qua l i f i e r , t hei mpor tbe i ng , ‘ t hus , wea r emor ee nt i t l e dt obe Y ourv i c e g e r e nt s ’ ) ;He ,e x a l t e dbeHe ,s a i d,‘ As s ur e dl y ,Ik now wha ty ouk now not ’ ,oft hebe ne f i t sofma k i ng Adam a vicegerent and of the fact that among his progeny will be the obedient and the transgressor, and justice wi l lpr e v a i lbe t we e nt he m.T he ys a i d,‘ Godwi l lne v e rc r e a t ea ny t hi ngmor enobl ei nHi se y e st ha nusnormor e knowledgeable, since we have been created before it and have seen what it has not seen. God then created Adam from thes ur f a c eoft hee a r t h( a dī ma l -a r d[ a dī ml i t e r a l l yme a ns‘ s k i n’ ] ) ,t a k i ngaha ndf ulofa l li t sc ol our s and mixing it with different waters, then made him upright and breathed into him the Spirit and he thus became a living being with senses, after having been inanimate. Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah {         ٰ               ۤ   ٰ                                          ٰ     ‫ﭐ‬                                 ‫ﭐ‬                  } 13

And He taught Adam the names, that is, the names of things named, all of them, by placing knowledge of them into his heart; then He presented them, these names, the majority of which concerned intellectual beings, to the a ng e l sa nds a i d,t ot he mi nr e pr oa c h,‘ Nowt e l lMe ,i nf or m Me ,t hena me soft he s e ,t hi ngs named, if you speak t r ul y ’ ,i ny ourc l a i mt ha tIwoul dnotc r e a t ea ny t hi ngmor ek nowl e dg e a bl et ha ny ou,ort ha ty oua r emor e deserving of this vicegerency; the response to the conditional sentence is intimated by what precedes it. {       ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬                                                    ٰ              }

T he ys a i d,‘ Gl or ybet oY ou! ,e x a l t i ngY oua bov et ha ta nys houl dobj e c tt oY ou,Wek now note x c e ptwha tY ou have taught us. Surely You are ( i nna k aa nt ae mpha s i s e st he[ pr e c e di ngs uf f i x e dpr onoun]k ā f )t heKnowe r ,Wi s e ’ , from whose knowledge and wisdom nothing escapes. {                                                    ‫ﭐ‬      ٰ    ٰ  ‫ﭐ‬                 ۤ                                                                                                        }

He ,e x a l t e dbeHe ,s a i d,‘ Ada m,t e l lt he m,t hea ng e l s ,t he i rna me s ’ ,a l loft het hi ng sna me d;s o,hena me de a c h thing by its appellation and mentioned the wisdom behind its creation; And when he had told them their names He ,e x a l t e d,s a i d,i nr e buk e ,‘ Di dInott e l ly out ha tIk now t heUns e e ni nt hehe a v e nsa ndt hee a r t h? ,wha ti s unseen in them, And I know what you reveal, what you ma ni f e s t e dwhe ny ous a i d,‘ Wha t ,wi l lY oua ppoi nt t he r e i n…’ ,a ndwha ty ouwe r ehi di ng ,wha ty ouwe r ek e e pi ngs e c r e twhe ny ouwe r es a y i ngt ha tGodwoul dnot create anything more knowledgeable or more noble in His eyes than us. {         ٰ  ‫ﭐ‬                    ‫ﭐ‬      ٰ                                         ‫ﭐ‬         ٰ                       }

And,me nt i on,whe nWes a i dt ot hea ng e l s ,‘ Pr os t r a t ey our s e l v e st oAda m’ ,apr os t r a t i ont ha ti sabow of salutation; s ot he ypr os t r a t e dt he ms e l v e s ,e x c e ptI bl ī s ,t hef a t he roft hej i nn,whowa sa mongt hea ng e l s ,he

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah refused, to prostrate, and disdained, became proud and said, I am better than he [Q. 7:12]; and so he became oneoft hedi s be l i e v e r s , a c c or di ngt oGod’ sk nowledge. 14

{         ٰ  ‫ﭐ‬                       ‫ﭐ‬       ٰ                                                           ‫ﭐ‬                     ‫ﭐ‬                       }

AndWes a i d,‘ Ada m,dwe l l( a nt a ,‘ y ou’[ of‘ dwe l ly ou’ ]he r er e i t e r a t e st hec onc e a l e dpr onoun[ oft hepe r s onof the verb uskun], so that it [wa-z a wj uk ]ma ybema deas uppl e me ntt oi t ) ;a ndy ourwi f e ,E v e( Ha wwā ’ )— who was created from his left rib — in the Garden, and eat thereof, of its food, easefully, of anything without restrictions, where you desire; but do not come near this tree, to eat from it, and this was wheat or a vine or s ome t hi nge l s e , l e s ty oube , bec ome , e v i l doe r s ’ , t ha ti s , t r a ns g r e s s or s . {       ٰ         ٰ                 ‫ﭐ‬                                            ‫ﭐ‬                                                         ٰ    ‫ﭐ‬               }

T he nS a t a n,I bl ī s ,c a us e dt he mt os l i p,hec a us e dt he mt ober e mov e d( f a -azalla humā :av a r i a ntr e a di ngha sf a a z ā l a humā :hec a us e dt he mt obea wa yf r om i t )t he r e f r om, t ha ti s , f r om t heGa r de n, whe nhes a i dt ot hem, ‘ S ha l l Ipoi nty out ot het r e eofe t e r ni t y ’ [ c f .Q.20: 120] ,a nds wor et ot he m byGodt ha thewa sonl yg i v i ngg ooda dv i ce t ot he m,a nds ot he ya t eofi t ;a ndbr oug htt he m outofwha tt he ywe r ei n,ofbl i s s ;a ndWes a i d,‘ Godown,t o earth, both of you and all those comprised by your seed; some of you, of your progeny, an enemy to the other, through your wronging one another; and in the earth a dwelling, a place of settlement, shall be yours, and e nj oy me nt ,ofwha t e v e rofi t sv e g e t a t i ony ouma ye nj oy ,f orawhi l e ’ ,[ unt i l ]t het i mey ourt e r ms[ ofl i f e ]a r e concluded. {       ‫ﭐ‬         ‫ﭐ‬                              ٰ                          ٰ         }

T he r e a f t e rAda mr e c e i v e dc e r t a i nwor dsf r om hi sL or d,wi t hwhi c hHei ns pi r e dhi m( av a r i a ntr e a di ng[ ofĀda mu] ha sa c c us a t i v eĀda maa ndnomi na t i v ek a l i mā t u) ,me a ni ngt hey[ t hewords] came to him, and these were [those of] the verse Lord, we have wronged ourselves [Q. 7:23], with which he supplicated, and He relented to him, that is, He accepted his repentance; truly He is the Relenting, to His servants, the Merciful, to them.

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah {                                                                                                                     ‫ﭐ‬          } 15

Wes a i d,‘ Godownf r om i t ,f r om t heGa r de n,a l lt og e t he r( Heha sr e pe a t e dt hi s[ phr a s equl nāi hbi t ū]i nor de rt o supplement it with), yet (fa-i mmā :t henūnoft hec ondi t i ona lpa r t i c l ei n[ ‘ i f ’ ]ha sbe e na s s i mi l a t e dwi t ht hee x t r a mā )t he r es ha l lc omet oy ouf r om Meg ui da nc e ,aBooka ndapr ophe t ,a ndwhoe v e rf ol l owsMyg ui da nc e , believing in me and performing deeds in obedience of Me, no fear shall befall them, neither shall they grieve, in the Hereafter, since they will be admitted into Paradise. {          ٰ                  ‫ﭐ‬  ٰ            ٰ              ٰ                              ‫ﭐ‬    }

Asf ort hedi s be l i e v e r swhode nyOurs i g ns , OurBook s , t hos es ha l l bet hei nha bi t a nt soft heF i r e , a bi di ngt he r e i n’ , enduring perpetually, neither perishing nor exiting therefrom. {        ‫ﭐ‬        ٰ                       ۤ                                             ‫ﭐ‬                   ‫ﭐ‬                 ٰ    }

O Children of Israel, sons of Jacob, remember My favour wherewith I favoured you, that is, your forefathers, saving them from Pharaoh, parting the sea, sending clouds as shelter and other instances, for which you should show gratitude by being obedient to Me; and fulfil My covenant, that which I took from you, that you believe in Muhammad (s), and I shall fulfil your covenant, that which I gave to you, that you shall be rewarded for this with Paradise; and be in awe of Me, fear Me and not anyone else when you have abandoned belief in him [the Prophet].

{        ‫ﭐ‬       ٰ                         ٰ                                        ۤ                                                           }

Andbe l i e v ei nwha tIha v er e v e a l e d,oft heQur ’ ā n,c onf i r mi ngt ha twhi c hi swi t hy ou,of the Torah, by its a g r e e me ntwi t hi t ,i nr e s pe c tt o[ a f f i r ma t i onof ]God’ sOne ne s sa ndpr ophe t hood;a ndbenott hef i r s tt o disbelieve in it, from among the People of the Scripture, for those who will come after you will depend on you and so you will bear their sins. And do not sell, exchange, My signs, those that relate to the description of Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah Muhammad (s) in your Book; for a small price, for a trivial and temporary affair of this world; that is to say, do not suppress this for fear of losing what you hope to earn from lowly individuals among you; and fear Me, and none other in this matter.

{                            ‫ﭐ‬                     ٰ  ‫ﭐ‬        ‫ﭐ‬                 }

16

And do not obscure, confuse, the truth, that I have revealed to you, with falsehood, that you fabricate; and do not conceal the truth, the description of Muhammad (s), wittingly, that is, knowing it to be the truth.

{     ٰ    ‫ﭐ‬              ‫ﭐ‬         ٰ   ‫ﭐ‬               ٰ   ‫ﭐ‬               }

And establish prayer, and pay the alms, and bow with those that bow, that is, pray with those who pray, Muhammad (s) and his Companions: this was revealed concerning their religious scholars, who used to say to their kinf r oma mongt heMus l i ms , ‘ S t a yf i r mupont her e l i g i onofMuha mma d( s ) , f ori ti st het r ut h’ .

{                   ٰ      ‫ﭐ‬                                                 ‫ﭐ‬        ‫ﭐ‬               }

Will you bid others to piety, to belief in Muhammad (s), and forget yourselves, neglecting yourselves and not bidding them to the same, while you recite the Book?, in which there is the threat of chastisement, if what you do contradicts what you say. Do you not understand? the evil nature of your actions, that you might then repent? ( t hes e nt enc ea bout‘ f or g e t t i ng ’ c ons t i t ut e st he[ s y nt a c t i c a l ]l oc usoft hei nt e r r og a t i v eofdi s a v owa l ) .

{     ٰ    ‫ﭐ‬                                   ٰ   ‫ﭐ‬         ‫ﭐ‬             ‫ﭐ‬     }

Seek help, ask for assistance in your affairs, in patience, by restraining the soul in the face of that which it dislikes; and prayer. The singling out of this for mention is a way of emphasising its greati mpor t a nc e ;i noneha dī t h,[ i ti s s t a t e d] ,‘ Whe ns ome t hi ngbot he r e dt hePr ophe t( s ) ,hewoul di mme di a t e l yr e s or tt opr a y e r ’ ;i ti ss a i dt ha tt he address here is to the Jews: when greed and desire for leadership became impediments to their faith, they were enjoined to forbearance, which constituted fasting and prayer, since, the former stems from lust and the latter Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah yields humility and negates pride. For it, prayer, is grievous, burdensome, except to the humble, those that are at peace in obedience,

{          ٰ                                 ٰ                              ‫ﭐ‬  }

17

who reckon, who are certain, that they shall meet their Lord, at the Resurrection, and that to Him they are returning, in the Hereafter, where He will reward them.

{         ٰ   ‫ﭐ‬                                            ۤ    ‫ﭐ‬                  ‫ﭐ‬                 ٰ    }

O Children of Israel, remember My favour wherewith I favoured you, by giving thanks through obedience to Me, and that I have preferred you, your forefathers, above all the worlds, of their time;

{                                                     ٰ                                                                     ‫ﭐ‬    }

and fear, be scared of, the day when no soul for another shall give satisfaction, which is the Day of Resurrection, and no intercession shall be accepted (read either tuqbal or yuqbal) from it, that is, it is not the case that it has power to intercede, for it then to be accepted from it [or rejected, as God says], So now we have no intercessors [ Q. 26: 100] ; nora nyc ompe ns a t i on, r a ns om, bet a k e n, ne i t he rs ha l l t he ybehe l pe d, t oa v oi dGod’ sc ha s t i s e me nt.

{                     ۤ         ٰ                                                            ‫ﭐ‬     ۤ                                   ٰ                }

And, remember, when We delivered you, your forefathers: the address here and henceforth directed to those living at the time of the our Prophet, is about how God blessed their forefathers, and is intended to remind them ofGod’ sg r a c es ot ha tt he ymi g htbe l i e v e ;f r om t hef ol kofPha r a ohwho were visiting you with, that is, making you taste, evil chastisement, of the worst kind (the sentence here is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the pe r s onoft hepr onoun[ s uf f i x e d]i nna j j a y nā k um, ‘ Wede l i v e r e dy ou’ ) ;s l a ug ht e r i ngy our , ne wl y -born, sons: this is explaining what has just been said; and sparing, retaining, your women, [doing so] because of the saying of some

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah of their priests that a child born among the Israelites shall bring about the end of your rule [Pharaoh]; and for you therein, chastisement or deliverance, was a tremendous trial, a test or a grace, from your Lord. 18

{                                                  ٰ                  ‫ﭐ‬                       }

And, remember, when We divided, split in two, for you, on account of you, the sea, such that you were able to c r os si ta nde s c a pef r om y oure ne my ;a ndWede l i v e r e dy ou,f r om dr owni ng ,a nddr owne dPha r a oh’ sf ol k ,hi s people with him, while you were beholding the sea crashing down on top of them. {          ٰ                                ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬                          ٰ              ٰ         }

Andwhe nWea ppoi nt e df or( wā ‘ a dnāorwa ‘ a dnā )Mos e sf or t yni g ht s ,a tt hee ndofwhi c hWeshall give him the Torah for you to implement, then you took to yourselves the calf, the one which the Samaritan fashioned for you as a god, after him, that is, after he departed for Our appointment, and you were evildoers, for taking it [in worship], because you directed your worship to the wrong place.

{                                                       }

Then We pardoned you, erasing your sins, after that, act of worship, so that you might be thankful, for Our favour upon you.

{                                ‫ﭐ‬           ‫ﭐ‬                       }

Andwhe nWeg a v et oMos e st heS c r i pt ur e , t heT or a h, a ndt heCr i t e r i on( wa ’ l -f ur qā ni sa ne x pl i c a t i v es uppl e me nt [of Torah]), that is, the one that discriminates (faraqa) between truth and falsehood and between what is licit and illicit, so that you might be guided, by it away from error.

                                                ٰ                ۤ       ‫ﭐ‬             ٰ        ۤ                ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬                                      ٰ              ٰ                  }

{       ‫ﭐ‬         ‫ﭐ‬            

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

19

And when Moses said to his people, t hos ewhowor s hi ppe dt hec a l f ,‘ Mype opl e ,y ouha v edonewr onga g a i ns t yourselves by your taking the [golden] calf, for a god; now turn to your Creator, away from that worship [of the calf] and slay one another, that is, let the innocent of you slay the guilty; That, slaughter, will be better for you in y ourCr e a t or ’ ss i g ht ’ ,whoma dei te a s i e rf ory out oa c c ompl i s ht hi sa nds e ntdownada r kc l oudov e ry ou,s ot ha t none of you was able to see the other and show him mercy, such that almost seventy thousand of you were killed; and He will turn to you [relenting], before your [turning in] repentance; truly He is the Relenting, the Merciful. {                             ٰ ‫ﭐ‬                            ‫ﭐ‬        ٰ                       ٰ      ٰ                 }

And when you said, having gone out with Moses to apologise before God for your worship of the calf, and having he a r dwha theha ds a i d[ t oy ou] ;‘ OMos e s ,wewi l lnotbe l i e v ey out i l lwes e eGodope nl y ’ ,with our own eyes; and the thunderbolt, the shout, took you, and you died, while you were beholding, what was happening to you.

{                                        ٰ              }

Then We raised you up, brought you back to life, after you were dead, so that you might be thankful, for this favour of Ours.

{                           ۤ       ٰ                           ‫ﭐ‬            ٰ                    ٰ       ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬                                ‫ﭐ‬                       }

And We made the cloud overshadow you, that is, We sheltered you with fine clouds from the heat of the sun while you were in the wilderness; and We sent down, in them [the clouds], upon you manna and quails — which a r e[ r e s pe c t i v e l y ,at y peofc i t r usk nowna s ]t ur unj a bī na ndt hequa i l— a ndWes a i d:‘ E a toft heg oodt hi ng sWe ha v epr ov i de df ory ou’ ,a nddonots t or ea nyofi ta wa y , butt he ywe r enotg r a t e f ul f ort hi sf a v oura nds t or e dthe food, and so they were deprived of it; And they did not wrong Us, in this, but themselves they wronged, since the evil consequences [of this] befell them. {           ‫ﭐ‬               ٰ    ٰ                                              ‫ﭐ‬           ‫ﭐ‬                                                  ‫ﭐ‬       ٰ             ‫ﭐ‬                 } Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

20

Andwhe nWes a i d,t ot he m,a f t e rt he yc a meoutoft hewi l de r ne s s ,‘ E nt e rt hi sc i t y ,e i t he rt heHol yHous e[ of Jerusalem] (Bayt al-Ma qdi s )orJ e r i c ho( Ar ī hā ) ,a nde a tf r e e l yt he r e i nwhe r e v e ry ouwi l l ,pl e nt i f ul l ya ndwi t hout a nyr e s t r i c t i ons ,a nd e nt e ri ta tt heg a t e ,i t sg a t e ,pr os t r a t i ng ,bowi ng ,a nds a y ,‘ ourr e que s ti sf or[ a n] e x one r a t i on’ ,t ha ti s ,‘ T ha twebee x one r a t e df r om ourt r a ns g r e s s i ons ’ ,a ndWes ha l lf or g i v e( na g hf i r :av a r i a nt r e a di ngha soneoft het wopa s s i v ef or msy ug hf a rort ug hf a r , ‘ [ t he y ]wi l l bef or g i v e n’ )y ouy ourt r a ns g r e s s i onsa nd Wes ha l l g i v emor et ot hos ewhoa r ev i r t uous ’ — through obedience — in terms of reward. {                                 ‫ﭐ‬                              ‫ﭐ‬                                    ‫ﭐ‬                               ‫ﭐ‬           }

Then the evildoers, among them, substituted a saying other than that which had been said to them, and said i ns t e a d, ‘ Ag r a i ni ns i deaha i r ’ a nde nt e r e d[ t het own]dr a g g i ngt he ms e l v e sont he i rr e a r s ;s oWes e ntdownupon the evildoers (the replacement of the second person [of the previous verse] with the overt identification in the t hi r dpe r s ona l l a dhī naz a l a mū,‘ t hee v i l doe r s ’ ,i si nt e nde dt oe mpha s i s et hede pr a v i t yoft he i ra c t i on)wr a t h,a punishment of plague, from the heaven for their wickedness, for deviating from obedience, and within a very short period of time just under seventy thousand of them were dead. {               ‫ﭐ‬                         ‫ﭐ‬                  ‫ﭐ‬                                                                 ‫ﭐ‬               ‫ﭐ‬        ‫ﭐ‬             ‫ﭐ‬                        ٰ      ٰ     ‫ﭐ‬          }

And, me nt i on, whe nMos e ss oug htwa t e rf orhi spe opl e , f ort he ys uf f e r e dt hi r s ti nt hewi l de r ne s s , Wes a i d, ‘ S t r i k e with your staff the rock, (the one that ran off with his robe, a light cube-l i k e[ r oc k ]a boutt hes i z eofama n’ she a d, made of marble) and he struck it, and there exploded, there burst and gushed forth, from it twelve fountains, equal to the number of tribes, each people, [each] tribe among them, came to know their drinking-place, which t he ydi dnots ha r ewi t ha nyoft heot he r s .AndWes a i dt ot hem,‘ E a ta nddr i nkoft ha twhi c hGodha spr ov i de d, a nddonotbede g e ne r a t ei nt hee a r t h,s e e k i ngc or r upt i on’( muf s i dī ni sac i r c ums t a nt i a lqua l i f i e remphasising its ope r a t or ,t hes ubj e c toft hev e r b[ l āt a ‘ t ha w,‘ donotbede g e ne r a t e ’ ]de r i v e df r om ‘ a t hi y a ,me a ni nga f s a da ,‘ t o c or r upt ’ ) .

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah                 ‫ﭐ‬                  ‫ﭐ‬    ٰ                 ‫ﭐ‬                                                                                        ‫ﭐ‬                                            ‫ﭐ‬                    ٰ                 ٰ                       } 21

{                                        ٰ       ‫ﭐ‬                   ‫ﭐ‬                    ‫ﭐ‬                                                 ‫ﭐ‬                                 ‫ﭐ‬           ‫ﭐ‬                                           

Andwhe ny ous a i d,‘ Mos e s ,wewi l lnote ndur eonesort of food, that is to say, manna and quails; pray to your Lord for us, that He may bring forth for us, something, of (min here is explicative) what the earth produces — g r e e nhe r bs ,c uc umbe r s ,g a r l i c ,l e nt i l s ,oni ons ’ ,he ,Mos e s ,s a i d,t ot he m,‘ Woul dy ou exchange what is better, mor enobl e , t ha ti s , doy ous ubs t i t ut et hi s , wi t hwha ti sl owl i e r ? ’ ( t heha mz aofa -t a s t a bdi l ūnai sf orr e buk e ) ;t he y t husr e f us e dt oc ha ng et he i rmi nda ndhe[ Mos e s ]s uppl i c a t e dt oGod, a ndHe , e x a l t e dbeHe , s a i d, ‘ Godownt oa c i t y , whi c he v e rc i t yi tma ybe ;y ous ha l l ha v e , t he r e , wha ty oude ma nde d’ofv e g e t a bl epr oduc e ;Anda ba s e me nt , submissiveness, and wretchedness, that is, the signs of poverty on account of their submissiveness and debasement that always accompany them, even if they be rich, in the same way that a coin never changes its mi nt ;we r ec a s tupont he m, a ndt he yi nc ur r e d, e nde dupwi t hGod’ swr a t h;t ha t , t ha ti s , t ha ta f f l i c t i ona ndwr a t h, was because they used to disbelieve the signs of God and slay prophets, such as Zachariah and John, without right, that is, unjustly; that was because they disobeyed, and they were transgressors, overstepping the bounds in di s obe di e nc e( he r et her e pe t i t i on[ dhā l i kbi -mā‘ a s a wwa -k ā nūy a ‘ t a dūn]i sf ore mpha s i s ) . {                                                                                        ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬         ‫ﭐ‬                       ‫ﭐ‬     ٰ       ‫ﭐ‬                    ‫ﭐ‬                    ‫ﭐ‬       }

Surely those who believe, [who believed] before, in the prophets, and those of Jewry, the Jews, and the Christians, and the Sabaeans, a Christian or Jewish sect, whoever, from among them, believes in God and the Last Day, in the time of our Prophet, and performs righteous deeds, according to the Law given to him — their wage, that is, the reward for their deeds, is with their Lord, and no fear shall befall them, neither shall they grieve (the [ s i ng ul a r ]pe r s onoft hev e r bsā ma na ,‘ be l i e v e s ’ ,a nd‘ a mi l a ,‘ pe r f or ms ’ ,t a k e sa c c ountoft he[ s i ng ul a r ]f or m of ma n,‘ whoe v e r ’ ,buti nwha tc ome sa f t e r wa r ds[ oft hepl ur a lpr onouns ]i t s[ pl ur a l ]me a ni ng[ i st a k e ni nt o account]). {                                     ‫ﭐ‬              ٰ                            ‫ﭐ‬                                                  } Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

22

And, mention, when We made a covenant with you, your pledge to act according to what is in the Torah, and We, had, raised above you the Mount, which We uprooted from the earth [and placed] above you when you refused t oa c c e pti t[ s c .t heT or a h] ,a ndWes a i d,‘ T a k ef or c e f ul l y ,s e r i ous l ya ndwi t he f f or t , wha tWeha v eg i v e ny ou,a nd remember what is in it, acting in accordance with it, so that you might preserve yours e l v e s ’ , f r om t heF i r eora c t s of disobedience. {          ‫ﭐ‬                                         ‫ﭐ‬                   ٰ                              }

T he ny out ur ne da wa yt he r e a f t e r ,a ndbutf orGod’ s bounty and His mercy towards you, you would have been among the losers [there is no commentary on this verse].

{                                               ‫ﭐ‬                     ‫ﭐ‬         ‫ﭐ‬                     }

And verily (wa-la-qa d:t hel ā mi sf oroa t hs )y ouk now t ha tt he r ewe r et hos ea mongy ouwhot r a ns g r e s s e d, violated, the Sabbath, by fishing, when We had forbidden you to do so — these were the inhabitants of Eilat — a ndWes a i dt ot hem, ‘ Bea pe s , de s pi s e d! ’ , r e j e c t e d, a ndt he ybec a mes o: t he ydi e dt hr e eda y sl a t e r . {                                                                                      }

And We made it, this punishment, an exemplary punishment, a lesson to dissuade others from doing what they did; for all the former times and for the latter, that is, for the people of that time or those that came later; and an admonition to such as who fear, God: these are singled out for mention here because they, in contrast to others, are the ones who benefit thereby.

{           ‫ﭐ‬                        ‫ﭐ‬                                        ۤ                                              ‫ﭐ‬                   ٰ                  }

And, mention, when Moses said to his people, when one among them was killed and the killer was not known, a nds ot he ya s k e dMos e st opr a yt oGodt or e v e a l t hek i l l e r , whi c hhedi d; ‘ Godc omma ndsy out os a c r i f i c eac ow’ .

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah T he ys a i d,‘ Doy out a k eusi nmoc k e r y ? ’ ,t ha ti s ,ma k i ngf unofuswhe ny oua ns werusl i k et hi s ?Hes a i d,‘ It a k e r e f ug ewi t h, I s e e kdef e nc ewi t h, Godl e s tI s houl dbeoneoft hei g nor a nt ’ , oneoft hos ewhoi ndul g ei nmoc k e r y . 23

{                        ‫ﭐ‬      ٰ                                                                                                             ‫ﭐ‬           }

Butwhe nt he yr e a l i s e dt ha thewa sbe i ngs e r i ous , T he ys a i d, ‘ Pr a yt oy ourL or df orus , that He may make clear to uswha ts hema ybe ’ ,i t st r uena t ur e ,He ,Mos e s ,s a i d,‘ He ,God,s a y ss hei sac owne i t he rol d,norv i r g i n,t ha ti s , y oung ,mi ddl i ngbe t we e nt het wo,i nt e r msofa g e ;s odowha ty ouha v ebe e nc omma nde d’ ,bywa yofs a c r i f i c i ng it. {           ‫ﭐ‬                                                                                                                  ‫ﭐ‬           }

T he ys a i d,‘ Pr a yt oy ourL or df orus ,t ha tHema k ec l e a rt ouswha the rc ol ourma ybe ’Hes a i d,‘ Hes a y ss hes ha l l be a golden cow, bright in colour, that is, of a very intense yellow, gladdening to beholders: its beauty will please those that look at it. {                    ‫ﭐ‬                                            ‫ﭐ‬                                            ‫ﭐ‬           }

T he ys a i d, ‘ Pr a yt oy ourL or df orus , t ha tHema k ec l e a rt ouswha ts hema ybe :doe si tg r a z ef r e e l yori si tus e di n labour?; the cows (that is, the species described in the way mentioned), are all alike to us, because there are ma nyoft he ma ndweha v enotbe e na bl et of i ndt heones oug hta f t e r ;a ndi fGodwi l l s ,wes ha l l t he nbeg ui de d’ t oi t .I noneha dī t h[ i ti sr e por t e d] :‘ Ha dt he ynotut t e r e dt hepr ov i s o[ i ns hā ’ aL l ā h] ,i twoul dne v e rha v ebe e n ma dec l e a rt ot hem’ . {                                            ‫ﭐ‬           ‫ﭐ‬                                         ‫ﭐ‬               ‫ﭐ‬                                                       }

Hes a i d,‘ Hes a y ss hes ha l l beac ownotbr ok e n,nots ubdue df orl a bour ,t ha ti s ,t opl oug ht hee a r t h,c hur ni ngi t s s oi lf ors owi ng( t ut hī ra l -a r d:t hec l a us ede s c r i be st hewor ddha l ūl ,a ndc ons t i t utes part of the negation); or to water the tillage, that is, the land prepared for sowing; one safe, from faults and the effects of toil; with no Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

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bl e mi s h,ofac ol ourot he rt ha nhe rown,onhe r ’ .T he ys a i d,‘ Nowy ouha v ebr oug htt het r ut h’ ,t ha ti s ,[ now]you have explained it clearly; they thus sought it out and found it with a boy very dutiful towards his mother, and they eventually purchased it for the equivalent of its weight in gold; and so they sacrificed her, even though they very nearly did not, on a c c ountofi t se x c e s s i v ec os t .I naha dī t h[ i ti ss t a t e dt ha t ] ,‘ Ha dt he ys a c r i f i c e da nyc ow,i t woul dha v es uf f i c e dt he m, butt he yma dei tdi f f i c ul tf ort he ms e l v e sa nds oGodma dei tdi f f i c ul tf ort he m’ .

{                                   ‫ﭐ‬                    ‫ﭐ‬                         

Andwhe ny ouk i l l e dal i v i ngs oul ,a nddi s put e dt he r e on( i ddā r a ’ t um:t het ā ’[ oft her oot -f or mi t dā r a ’ t um]ha s be e na s s i mi l a t e dwi t ht hedā l )— and God disclosed what you were hiding (this is a parenthetical statement; the story begins here [with wa-i dhqa t a l t umna f s a n, ‘ a ndwhe ny ouk i l l e das oul ’ …a ndc ont i nue si nt hef ol l owi ng ] ) : {                                         ٰ        ‫ﭐ‬       ‫ﭐ‬                                 ‫ﭐ‬            }

s oWes a i d,‘ S mi t ehi m,t hes l a i nma n,wi t hpa r tofi t ’ ,a nds owhe nhewa ss t r uc kwi t hi t st ong ueori t st a i l ,he c a meba c kt ol i f ea nds a i d,‘ S o-and-s ok i l l e dme ’ ,a nda f t e rpoi nt i ngoutt woof his cousins, he died; the two [killers] were denied the inheritance and were later killed. God says: even so, is the revival, for, God brings to life the dead, and He shows you His signs, the proofs of His power, so that you might understand, [that you might] reflect and realise that the One capable of reviving a single soul is also capable of reviving a multitude of souls, and then believe.

                ‫ﭐ‬             ‫ﭐ‬                                                   ‫ﭐ‬                                                     ‫ﭐ‬                                 ‫ﭐ‬                                         ‫ﭐ‬             ٰ                                 }

{                 

Then your hearts became hardened, O you Jews, they [your hearts] became stiffened against acceptance of the truth, thereafter, that is, after what is mentioned of the bringing back to life of the slain man and the other signs before this; and they are like stones, in their hardness, or even yet harder, than these; for there are stones from whi c hr i v e r sc omeg us hi ng ,a ndot he r ss pl i t( y a s hs ha qqa q:t hei ni t i a l t ā ’[ oft her oot -form yatashaqqaq] has been Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

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a s s i mi l a t e dwi t ht hes hī n) ,s ot ha twa t e ri s s ue sf r om t he m;a ndot he r sc omedown, from on high, in fear of God, while your hearts are unmoved, unstirred and not humbled; And God is not heedless of what you do, but instead, Heg i v e sy our e s pi t eunt i ly ourt i mec ome s( t a ‘ ma l ūna ,‘ y oudo’ :av a r i a ntr e a di ngha sy a ‘ ma l ūna ,‘ t he ydo’ , indicating a shift to the third person address). {                                                                 ‫ﭐ‬                                                                                   }

Are you then so eager, O believers, that they, the Jews, should believe you, seeing there is a party of them, a g r oupoft he i rr a bbi s , t ha the a r dGod’ swor d, i nt heT or a h, a ndt he nt a mpe r e dwi t hi t , c ha ng i ngi t , a ndt ha t , a f t e r they had comprehended it, [after] they had understood it, knowingly?, [knowing full well] that they were indulging in mendacity (the hamza [at the beginning of the verb a-fa-t a t ma ‘ ūn]i s[ a ni nt e r r og a t i v e ]f orr e j e c t i on, i not he rwor ds , ‘ Donotbes oe a g e r , f ort he yha v edi s be l i e v e dbe f or e ’ ) . {                                                              ‫ﭐ‬                                 ۤ              ٰ                                    ۤ                       ‫ﭐ‬                  }

Andwhe nt he y ,t hehy poc r i t e sf r om a mongt heJ e ws ,me e tt hos ewhobe l i e v e ,t he ys a y ,‘ Webe l i e v e ’ ,t ha t Muhammad (s) is a prophet and that he is the one of whom we have been given good tidings in our Book; but when they go in private one to another, they, their leaders the ones not involved in the hypocrisy, say, to those hy poc r i t e s :‘ Doy ous pe a kt ot he m,t hebe l i e v e r s ,ofwha tGodha sdi s c l os e dt oy ou,t ha ti s ,wha tHeha sma de k nownt oy ouofMuha mma d’ s( s )de s c r i pt i oni nt heT or a h,s ot ha tt he yma yt he r e bydi s put e( t hel ā m ofl i y uhā j j ūk um,‘ t ha tt he yma ydi s put ewi t hy ou’ ,i st hel ā m of‘ be c omi ng ’ )wi t hy oube f or ey ourL or d? ,i nt he Hereafter and hold the proof against you for not following him [Muhammad (s)], despite your knowledge of his sincerity? Have y ounounde r s t a ndi ng ? ’oft hef a c tt ha tt he ywi l lc ont e ndwi t hy oui fy ous pe a kt ot he mi nt hi s way? So beware. {                                            ‫ﭐ‬                         }

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah God says: Know they not ( t hei nt e r r og a t i v ei sa f f i r ma t i v e ,t hei ns e r t e dwā w[ ofa -wa-l ā ]i st oi ndi c a t et he supplement) that God knows what they keep secret and what they proclaim?, that is, what they hide and what they reveal in this matter and all other matters, so that they may desist from these things. {                                              ‫ﭐ‬                                    }

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And there are some of them, the Jews, that are illiterate, unlettered, not knowing the Scripture, the Torah, but only desires, lies which were handed down to them by their leaders and which they relied upon; and, in their rejection of the prophethood of the Prophet and fabrications of other matters, they have, mere conjectures, and no firm knowledge.

{                                                                                                            ‫ﭐ‬                  ٰ                                       ‫ﭐ‬                                }

So woe, a severe chastisement, to those who write the Scripture with their hands, that is, fabricating it t he ms e l v e s ,t he ns a y ,‘ T hi si sf r om God’t ha tt he yma ys e l li tf oras ma l lpr i c e ,oft hi swor l d:t he s ea r et heJ e ws , the ones that alter e dt hede s c r i pt i onoft hePr ophe ti nt heT or a h, a swe l l a st he‘ s t oni ng ’ v e r s e , a ndot he rde t a i l s , and rewrote them in a way different from that in which they were revealed. So woe to them for what their hands have written, of fabrications, and woe to them for their earnings, by way of bribery (rishan, plural of rishwa). {                        ‫ﭐ‬                                     ‫ﭐ‬                             ‫ﭐ‬                                                      ‫ﭐ‬                          }

Andt he ys a y ,whe nt hePr ophe tpr omi s e dt he mt heF i r e ,‘ t heF i r es ha l lnott ouc hus ,t ha ti s ,a f f l i c tus ,s a v ea numbe rofda y s ’ ,onl yas hor tt i meoff or t yda y s :t hes a mel e ng t hoft i met he i rf or e f a t he r swor s hi ppe dt hec a l f , after which time it [the Fire] wi l lc e a s e .S a y ,t ot he m Muha mma d( s ) :‘ Ha v ey out a k e nwi t hGodac ov e na nt ? ,a pledge from Him to this? God will not fail in His covenant, in this matter, or — nay — say you against God what y oudonotk now?( a ’ t t a k ha dht um:t hec onj unc t i v eha mz aha sbe e nomitted on account of the interrogative hamza sufficing). {                            ‫ﭐ‬             ۤ                 ۤ                                        ٰ     }

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

27

Not so, it will touch you and you will abide therein; whoever earns evil, through associating another with God, and is encompassed by his transgression, in the singular and the plural, that is to say, it overcomes him and encircles him totally, for, he has died an idolater — those are the inhabitants of the Fire, therein abiding ( k hā l i dūn: t hi s[ pl ur a l noun]t a k e sa c c ountoft he[ pl ur a l ]i mpor tofma n, ‘ whoe v e r ’ ) .

{                              ‫ﭐ‬            ٰ                ‫ﭐ‬                              ‫ﭐ‬    }

And those who believe and perform righteous deeds — those are the inhabitants of Paradise, therein abiding.

                                         ‫ﭐ‬                ‫ﭐ‬                                                  ‫ﭐ‬     ٰ              ٰ       ‫ﭐ‬                               ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬                                ۤ                               }

{                   

And, mention, when We made a covenant with the Children ofI s r a e l , i nt heT or a h,whe r eWes a i d:‘ Y ous ha l l not wor s hi p( av a r i a ntr e a di ng[ f orl āt a ‘ budūna ]ha s[ t hi r dpe r s onpl ur a l ]l āy a ‘ budūn[ ‘ t he ys ha l lnotwor s hi p’ ] )a ny ot he rt ha nGod( l āt a ‘ budūnai l l āL l ā hai sapr e di c a t ede not i ngapr ohi bi t i on;onema ya l s or e a dl āt a ‘ budū [Worship you not]); and to be good, and righteous, to parents, and the near of kin: here kinship is adjoined to parents; and to orphans, and to the needy; and speak well, [good] words, to men, commanding good and forbidding evil, being truthful with regard to the status of Muhammad (s), and being kind to them [sc. orphans and the needy] (a variant reading [for hasanan] has husnan, the verbal noun, used as a hyperbolic description); a ndobs e r v epr a y e ra ndpa yt hea l ms ’ ,whi c hy oua c t ually accepted, but, then you turned away, refusing to fulfil these [obligations] (here the second person address is used, but their forefathers are [still] meant); all but a few of you, rejecting it, like your forefathers. {                                                                                                                           }

Andwhe nWema deac ov e na ntwi t hy ou,a ndWes a i d:‘ Y ous ha l lnots he dy ourownbl ood,s pi l l i ngi tby slaying onea not he r ;ne i t he re x pe ly ourownf r om y ourha bi t a t i ons ’ :l e tnooneofy oue x pe lt heot he rf r om hi shous e ; then you confirmed it, that is, you accepted this covenant, and you bore witness, upon your own souls. Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah                                      ٰ                                        ‫ﭐ‬                                                                                            ۤ   ٰ                } 28

{                                  ‫ﭐ‬                ‫ﭐ‬         ٰ                         ‫ﭐ‬                  ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬                         ٰ                                                       ‫ﭐ‬                                    

Then there you are killing one another, and expelling a party of you from their habitations, conspiring ( t a z z ā ha r ūna :t heor i g i na l t a ’ha sbe e na s s i mi l a t e dwi t ht hez ā ’ ;av a r i a ntr e a di ngha si twi t hout[ t hea s s i mi l a t i on, t ha ti s , t a z ā ha r ūna ] ) , a s s i s t i ngonea not he r , a g a i ns tt he mi nsin, in disobedience, and enmity, injustice, and if they c omet oy oua sc a pt i v e s( av a r i a ntr e a di ng[ f orus ā r ā ]ha sa s r ā ) ,y our a ns om t he m( av a r i a ntr e a di ng[ f or t a f dūhum]ha st uf ā dūhum) ,t ha ti st os a y ,y oude l i v e rt he mf r om c a pt i v i t ywi t hmone ye t c . ,a nd this [ransoming] wa soneoft het hi ng st owhi c ht he ywe r epl e dg e d;y e tt he i re x pul s i onwa sf or bi dde ny ou( muha r r a mun‘ a l a y k um i k hr ā j uhumi ss e ma nt i c a l l yc onne c t e dt owa -t uk hr i j ūna , ‘ a nde x pe l l i ng ’ , a ndt hes t a t e me ntt ha tc ome si nbe t we e n is parenthetical, that is, [expulsion was forbidden you] in the same way that non-ransoming was forbidden you). Qur a y z aha da l l i e dt he ms e l v e swi t ht heAws ,a ndt heNa dī rwi t ht heKha z r a j ,bute v e r yme mbe rofa na l l i a nc e would fight against a fellow ally, thus destroying e a c hot he r ’ shome sa nde x pe l l i ngonea not he r ,t a k i ngpr i s one r s a ndt he nr a ns omi ngt he m.Whe nt he ywe r ea s k e d:‘ Whydoy ouf i g htt he ma ndt he npa yt he i rr a ns om? ’ ,t he y woul dr e pl y ,‘ Be c a us eweha v ebe e nc omma nde dt or a ns om’ ;a ndt he ywoul dbea s k e d,‘ S o,why do you fight t he mt he n? ’ ,t owhi c ht he ywoul ds a y ,‘ F orf e a rt ha toura l l i e sbehumi l i a t e d’ ;God,e x a l t e d,s a y s :Wha t ,doy ou believe in part of the Book, that is, the part about ransom, and disbelieve in part?, namely, the part about renouncing fighting, expulsion and assistance [against one another]; What shall be the requital of those of you who do that, but degradation, disgrace and ignominy, in the life of this world: they were disgraced when Qurayza we r es l e wna ndt heNa dī rwe r ee x pe l l e dt oS y r i a , a nd ordered to pay the jizya; and on the Day of Resurrection to ber e t ur ne dt ot hemos tt e r r i bl eofc ha s t i s e me nt ?AndGodi snothe e dl e s sofwha ty oudo( t a ‘ ma l ūna ,orr e a d y a ‘ ma l ūna , ‘ t he ydo’ ) . {                          ‫ﭐ‬                          ‫ﭐ‬           ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬         ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬      ٰ       }

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah Those are the ones who have purchased the life of this world at the price of the Hereafter, by preferring the former to the latter — for them the punishment shall not be lightened, neither shall they be helped, [neither shall they be] protected against it.

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                    ‫ﭐ‬              ٰ                                                 ‫ﭐ‬                                 ‫ﭐ‬             ‫ﭐ‬                       ‫ﭐ‬                                   ‫ﭐ‬   ٰ                       } {                               

And We gave Moses the Scripture, the Torah, and after him We sent successive messengers, that is, We sent them one after another, and We gave Jesus son of Mary the clear proofs, that is, the miracles of bringing the dead back to life and healing the blind and the leper, and We confirmed him, We strengthened him, with the Holy Spirit (the e x pr e s s i onr ūha l -qudus is an example of annexing [in a genitive construction] the noun described to the adjective [qualifying it], in other words, al-r ūha l -muqaddasa), that is, Gabriel, [so described] on account of his [ J e s us ’ s ]s a nc t i t y ;hewoul da c c ompany him [Jesus] wherever he went; still you refuse to be upright, and whenever there came to you a messenger, with what your souls did not desire, [did not] like, in the way of truth, y oube c a mea r r og a nt ,y oudi s da i ne dt of ol l ow hi m( i s t a k ba r t um,‘ y oube c a mea r r og a nt ’ ,i st her e s pons et ot he pa r t i c l ek ul l a mā ,‘ whe ne v e r ’ ,a ndc ons t i t ut e st hei nt e r r og a t i v e ,a ndi sme a nta sar e buk e ) ;a nds ome ,oft he m, you called liars, such as Jesus, and some you slay?, such as Zachariah and John (the present tenses [of these v e r bs ]a r eus e dt ona r r a t et hepa s te v e nt s[ a st houg ht he ywe r ee v e nt si nt hepr e s e nt ] ,i not he rwor ds ,‘ [ a nd s ome ]y ous l e w’ ) . {                                         ‫ﭐ‬                                            }

Andt he ys a y ,t ot hePr ophe tmoc k i ng l y :‘ Ourhe a r t sa r ee nc a s e d’( g hul fi st hepl ur a lofa g hl a f ) ,t ha ti st os a y , wrapped up in covers and cannot comprehend what you say; God, exalted be He, says: Nay (bal introduces the rebuttal), but God has cursed them, removed them far from His mercy and degraded them when they rejected [the messengers], for their unbelief, which is not the result of anything defective in their hearts; and little will

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah they believe (fa-qa l ī l a nmāy u’ mi nūn:t hemāhe r ei se x t r a ,e mpha s i s i ngt he‘ l i t t l e ne s s ’i nv ol v e d) :t ha ti s ,t he i r belief is minimal. 30

{           ‫ﭐ‬            ‫ﭐ‬                                                                       ‫ﭐ‬                                                                     ‫ﭐ‬                                    }

Whe nt he r ec a met ot he m aBookf r om God,c onf i r mi ngwha twa swi t ht he m,i nt heT or a h,t ha ti st heQur ’ ā n— and they formerly, before it came, prayed for victory, for assista nc e ,ov e rt hedi s be l i e v e r s ,s a y i ng :‘ God,g i v eus a s s i s t a nc ea g a i ns tt he mt hr oug ht hePr ophe tt ha ts ha l l bes e nta tt hee ndoft i me ’ ;butwhe nt he r ec a met ot he m what they recognised, as the truth, that is, the mission of the Prophet, they disbelieved in it, out of envy and for f e a rofl os i ngl e a de r s hi p( t her e s pons et ot hef i r s tl a mmāpa r t i c l ei si ndi c a t e dbyt her e s pons et ot hes e c ondone ) ; and the curse of God is on the disbelievers. {                                    ٰ                                                ٰ                      ‫ﭐ‬                           ‫ﭐ‬                                                    ‫ﭐ‬            }

Evil is that for which they sell their souls, that is, their shar eoft her e wa r d[ i nt heHe r e a f t e r ]( bi ’ s a mā , ‘ e v i l i st ha t [ f or ]whi c h’ :māhe r ei sa ni nde f i ni t epa r t i c l e ,r e pr e s e nt i ng‘ at hi ng ’ ,a ndc ons t i t ut esas pe c i f i c a t i onqua l i f y i ngt he s ubj e c tof[ t hev e r b]bi ’ s ,‘ e v i li s ’ ,t hev e r yt hi ngbe i ngs i ng l e doutf orcriticism); that they disbelieve in that, Qur ’ ā n,whi c hGodha sr e v e a l e d,g r udg i ng( ba g hy a n he r ei sa nobj e c tdenot i ngr e a s onf ory a k f ur ū,‘ t he y di s be l i e v e ’ ) ,t ha ti s ,outofe nv y ,t ha tGods houl dr e v e a l( r e a de i t he ry unz i lory una z z i l )ofHi sbount y ,t he Inspiration, to whomever He will of His servants, to deliver the Message; and they were laden, they returned, with anger, from God for their disbelief in what He has revealed (the indefinite form, bi-g ha da bi n, ‘ wi t ha ng e r ’ , i s used to emphasise the awesomene s s[ oft he‘ a ng e r ’ ] ) ,upona ng e r ,whi c ht he yde s e r v e df or me r l y ,whe nt he y neglected the Torah and disbelieved in Jesus; and for the disbelievers there shall be a humiliating chastisement. {                                       ‫ﭐ‬                                                                 ‫ﭐ‬                                                                                                                              }

Andwhe ni twa ss a i dt ot he m, ‘ Be l i e v ei nwha tGodha sr e v e a l e d, t ha ti s , t heQur ’ ā na ndot he r[ Book s ] , t he ys a i d, ‘ Webe l i e v ei nwha twa sr e v e a l e dt ous ’ , t ha ti s , t heT or a h;a nd( wā , he r ei ndi c a t e sac i r c ums t a nt i a l qua l i f i e r )t he y disbelieve in what is beyond that, what is other than tha torwha tc a mea f t e r wa r ds ,s uc ha st heQur ’ ā n;y e ti ti s Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

31

the truth (wa-huwa ’ l -haqqu is a circumstantial qualifier) confirming (musaddiqan, a second circumstantial qua l i f i e rf ore mpha s i s )wha ti swi t ht he m.S a y ,t ot he m:‘ Whyt he nwe r ey ous l a y i ngt hepr ophets of God f or me r l y ,i fy ouwe r ebe l i e v e r s ? ’i nt heT or a ha ndi ni ty ouwe r ef or bi dde nt ok i l lt he m:t hi sa ddr e s s ,c onc e r ni ng what their forefathers did, is directed towards those present at the time of our Prophet, on account of their approval of it [that is, of what the forefathers had done]. {                                          ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬                ‫ﭐ‬    ٰ                      }

And Moses came to you with clear proofs, miracles, such as the staff, his hand, and the parting of the sea; then you took to yourselves the calf, as a god, after him, after he had gone to the appointment, and you were evildoers, for taking it [in worship].

                                                              ‫ﭐ‬                                                                ‫ﭐ‬               ٰ                            ‫ﭐ‬                                                  } {                  

And when We made a covenant with you, to act according to what is in the Torah, and raised over you the Mount ,t odr opi tony ou,whe ny ouha dr e f us e dt oa c c e pti t ;Wes a i d,‘ T a k ef or c e f ul l y ,s e r i ous l ya ndwi t he f f or t , wha tWeha v eg i v e ny ou,a ndl i s t e n’ ,to what you have been commanded, and be prepared to accept it, They s a i d,‘ Wehe a r ,y ourwor ds ,a nddi s obe y ’ ,y ourc omma nd;a ndt he ywe r ema det odr i nkt hec a l fi nt he i rhe a r t s , that is to say, the love of it [the golden calf] intoxicated their hearts in the way that wine does, on account of their unbe l i e f .S a y ,t ot he m:‘ E v i li st ha t ,t hi ng ,whi c hy ourbe l i e f ,i nt heT or a h,e nj oi nsony ou,[ i nt hewa yof ]t he wor s hi poft he[ g ol de n]c a l f , i fy oua r ebe l i e v e r s ’ , i ni t , a sy ouc l a i m; me a ni ng , y oua r enotbe l ievers, for faith does not command that you worship the calf — their forefathers are meant here. Likewise, you do not believe in the Torah, because you have denied [the prophethood of] Muhammad (s), whereas faith in it does not command you to reject him. {                            ‫ﭐ‬                    ‫ﭐ‬                          ‫ﭐ‬             ‫ﭐ‬       ‫ﭐ‬                      }

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

32

S a y ,t ot he m:‘ I ft heAbodeoft heHe r e a f t e r ,t ha ti s ,Pa r a di s e ,wi t hGodi spur e ly yours, that is, exclusively, and not for other people, as you allege, then long for death — i fy ous pe a kt r ul y ’( he r ebot hc ondi t i ona l sa r e c onne c t e dt ot hev e r bt a ma nnū,‘ l ongf or ’ ,s ot ha tt hef i r s ti sde pe nde ntupont hes e c ond,i not he rwor ds ,‘ I fy ou speak truly when you claim that it is yours, then you will naturally incline to what is yours, and since the path to it i sde a t h, l ongf ori t[ de a t h] ’ ) . {          ‫ﭐ‬               ‫ﭐ‬                                                         }

But they will never long for it, because of that which their own hands have sent before them, as a result of their rejection of the Prophet (s), the consequence of their mendacity. God knows the evildoers, the disbelievers and He will requite them.

{                             ‫ﭐ‬                        ‫ﭐ‬                                                                                         ‫ﭐ‬                  ٰ          ‫ﭐ‬                        }

Andy ous ha l lf i ndt he m( t hel ā m ofl a -tajidannahum is for oaths) the people most covetous of life, and, more covetous of it than, the idolaters, who reject the [idea of the] Resurrection, for the former know that their j our ne y ’ s end will be the Fire, while the idolaters do not believe even in this; any one of them would love, wishes, t ha themi g htbeg i v e nl i f ef orat hous a ndy e a r s( l a wy u‘ a mma r ,‘ [ i fonl y ]hemi g htbeg i v e nl i f e ’ :t hepa r t i c l el a w, ‘ i fonl y ’ , r e l a t e st ot hev e r ba l nouna ndf unc t i onswi t ht hes e ns eofa n, ‘ t ha t ’ , a ndt og e t he rwi t hi t sr e l a t i v ec l a us e e x pl a i nst he[ i mpl i c i t ]v e r ba lnouni nt heobj e c toft hev e r by a wa ddu,‘ hewoul dl ov e ’ ) ;y e t ,a nyoneoft he m,hi s be i ngg i v e nl i f e( a ny u‘ a mma r a ,‘ t ha thes houl dbeg i v e nl i f e ’ ,c ons t i t ut e st hes ubj e c toft hev e r bmuz a hz i hi hi , ‘ t ha ti ts houl dbudg ehi m’ [ t hi sv e r bc ome sl a t e r ] , a st houg hi twe r et a ‘ mī r uhu, ‘ t heg i v i ngofl i f et ohi m’ )s ha l l not budge, remove, him from the chastisement, of the Fire. God sees what they do( y a ‘ ma l ūnama ybea l t er na t i v e l y r e a dt a ‘ ma l ūna ,‘ y oudo’ ) ,a ndwi l lr e qui t et he m.[ ‘ AbdAl l ā h]I bnS ūr y āa s k e dt hePr ophe t( s ) ,or‘ Uma r[ b.a l Kha t t ā b] ,a boutwhi c ha ng e lbr i ng sdownt her e v e l a t i on,a ndher e pl i e dt ha ti twa sGa br i e l ;he[ I bnS ūr y ā ]t hen s a i d, ‘ Hei soure ne my , be c a us ehebr i ng sc ha s t i s e me ntwi t hhi m;ha di tbe enMi c ha e l , wewoul dha v ebe l i e v e di n hi m, be c a us ehebr i ng sf e r t i l i t ya nds e c ur i t y . ’ T he n, t hef ol l owi ngwa sr e v e a l e d:

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah {                 ٰ                                                    ‫ﭐ‬                    ٰ                                                       } 33

S a y ,t ot he m:‘ Whoe v e ri sa ne ne myt oGa br i e l ,l e thi m di ei ne x a s pe r a t i on— he it was that brought it, the Qur ’ ā n, down upon your heart by the leave, by the command, of God, confirming what was before it, of scriptures, a guidance, from error, and good tidings, of Paradise, for the believers.

{                          ‫ﭐ‬             ٰ                                  ۤ                             }

Whoe v e ri sa ne ne myt oGoda ndHi sa ng e l sa ndHi sme s s e ng e r s ,a ndGa br i e l( r e a dJ i br ī lorJ a br ī l ,J i br a ’ i lor J a br a ’ i l ,J i br a ’ ī lorJ a br a ’ ī l ) ,a ndMi c ha e l( Mī k ā l ,a l s or e a dMī k ā ’ ī l ,orMī k ā ’ i l ;as uppl e me ntt oma l ā ’ i k a t i hi ,‘ Hi s a ng e l s ’ ,a ne x a mpl eoft hes pe c i f i cbe i ngs uppl e me nt e dt ot hec ol l e c t i v e )— then surely God is an enemy to the di s be l i e v e r s ’ ( Hes a y s‘ t ot hedi s be l i e v e r s ’ i ns t e a dof‘ t ot he m’ i nor de rt opoi ntoutt heir status). {            ‫ﭐ‬                                                                    }

AndWeha v er e v e a l e dt oy ou,O Muha mma d( s ) ,c l e a rpr oof s ,l uc i d[ one s ]( ba y y i nā t i n,‘ c l e a rpr oof s ’ ,i sa circums t a nt i a lqua l i f i e r ;t hi swa si nr e s pons et oI bnS ūr y ās a y i ngt ot hePr ophe t( s ) ,‘ Y ouha v enotbr oug htus a ny t hi ng ’ ) ; a ndnonedi s be l i e v e si nt he mex c e ptt hewi c k e d, t hes eha v edi s be l i e v e di nt he m. {                                                                                   }

Why, whenever they make a covenant, with God that they will believe in the Prophet (s) when he appears, or that they will not give assistance to the idolaters against the Prophet (s), does a party of them reject it?, cast it away r e pudi a t i ngi t( t hi si st her e s pons et ot hec l a us ebe g i nni ngwi t hk ul l a mā ,t hei nt e r r og a t i v eofr e buk e ) .Na y( ba l indicates a transition), but most of them are disbelievers. {                                              ‫ﭐ‬  ٰ     ٰ      ‫ﭐ‬                  ‫ﭐ‬                                                ‫ﭐ‬                                    }

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

34

When there came to them a messenger from God, namely, Muhammad (s), confirming what was with them, a party of them who were given the Scripture have cast away the Scripture of God, that is, the Torah, behind their backs, that is to say, they have not acted according to what it said about belief in the Messenger and otherwise; as though they did not know, what is contained in it, to the effect that he is a true Prophet, or that it is the Book of God.

         ٰ                                     ٰ          ٰ                           ‫ﭐ‬                         ‫ﭐ‬       ‫ﭐ‬                           ٰ     ‫ﭐ‬    ٰ           ٰ                       ٰ                ٰ          ٰ     ‫ﭐ‬                         ‫ﭐ‬    }

      ‫ﭐ‬                    ‫ﭐ‬                                                                            ‫ﭐ‬                                                                   ‫ﭐ‬                                                                                        {                                                                    ٰ       

Andt he yf ol l ow( wa ’ t t a ba ‘ ūi sas uppl e me ntt ona ba dha ,‘ [ i t ]c a s ta wa y ’ )wha tt hede v i l sus e dt or e l a t e ,dur i ng t het i meof ,S ol omon’ sk i ng dom,i nt hewa yofs or c ery: it is said that they [the devils] buried these [books of sorcery] underneath his throne when his kingdom was taken from him; it is also said that they used to listen stealthily and add fabrications to what they heard, and then pass it on to the priests, who would compile it in books; this would be disseminated and rumours spread that the jinn had knowledge of the Unseen. Solomon gathered these books and buried them. When he died, the devils showed people where these books were, and the latter brought the m outa ndf oundt ha tt he yc ont a i ne ds or c e r y ,a nds a i d,‘ Y ourk i ng dom wa sonl yt ha nk st o wha ti si nhe r e ’ ;t he yt he nt ookt ol e a r ni ngt he ma ndr e j e c t e dt heS c r i pt ur e soft he i rpr ophe t s .I nor de rt o de mons t r a t eS ol omon’ si nnoc e nc ea ndi nr e pudi a t i onoft heJ e wswhe nt he ys a i d,‘ L ooka tt hi sMuha mma d,he me nt i onsS ol omona soneoft hepr ophe t s , whe nhewa sonl yas or c e r e r ’ , God, e x a l t e d, s a y s : S ol omondi s be l i e v e d not, that is, he did not work magic because he disbelieved, but the devils disbelieved, teaching the people sorcery ( t hi ss e nt e nc ei sac i r c ums t a nt i a l qua l i f i e rr e f e r r i ngt ot hepe r s ong ov e r ni ngt hev e r bk a f a r ū) ;a nd, t e a c hi ngt he m, that which was revealed to the two angels, that is, the sorcery that they were inspired to [perform] (al-malakayn, ‘ t het woa ng e l s ’ :av a r i a ntr e a di ngha sa l -ma l i k a y n,‘ t het wok i ng s ’ )whowe r e ,i nBa by l on— a town in lower Iraq — Hā r ūta ndMā r ūt( he r et hena me sa r es t a ndi ngi nf or‘ t het woa ng e l s ’ ,ora ne x pl i c a t i onoft hel a t t e r ) .I bn ‘ Abbā ss a i d, ‘ T he ywe r et wos or c e r e r swhous e dt ot e a c h[ pe opl e ]ma g i c ’ ;i ti sa l s os a i dt ha tt he ywe r et woa ng e l s Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

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that had been sent to teach [sorcery] to people as a trial from God. They taught not any man, without them s a y i ng ,bywa yofc ouns e l ,‘ Wea r ebutat e mpt a t i on,at r i a l f r om Godfor people, so that He may test them when t he ya r et a ug hti t : whoe v e rl e a r nsi ti sadi s be l i e v e r , butwhoe v e rr e nounc e si t , hei sabe l i e v e r ; donotdi s be l i e v e ’ , by learning it; if this person refused and insisted on learning it, they would teach him. {                                     ‫ﭐ‬                                ‫ﭐ‬                           }

Y e ti fonl yt he y ,t heJ e ws ,ha dbe l i e v e d,i nt hePr ophe ta ndt heQur ’ ā n,a ndbe e nf e a r f ul ,ofGod’ sc ha s t i s e me nt , by abandoning acts of disobedience towards Him, such as sorcery (the response to the [conditional clause be g i nni ngwi t h]l a w, ‘ i f ’ , ha sbe e nomi t t e d, [ buti ti si nt i ma t e dt obe ]‘ t he ywoul dha v ebe e nr e wa r de d’ , a ndt hi si s indicated by [His following words]) verily, a reward from God would have been better, than that for which they sold themselves, if they had but known, that this is better they would not have preferred that over this (lama t hūba t un,‘ v e r i l yt her e wa r d’ ,i st hes ubj e c t ;t hel ā mi st ha tofoa t hs ;a ndmi n‘ i ndi ’ L l ā hik ha y r un,‘ f r om God, woul dha v ebe e nbet t e r ’ , i st hepr e di c a t e) . {                                    ‫ﭐ‬             ‫ﭐ‬                                                  ‫ﭐ‬             }

O you whobe l i e v e , donots a y , t ot hePr ophe t( s ) , ‘ Obs e r v eus ’ , ( r ā ‘ i nāi sa ni mpe r a t i v ef or mf r om mur ā ‘ ā t )whi c h they used to say to him, and this was a derogatory term in Hebrew, derived from the noun al-r u‘ ūna [ ‘ t houg ht l e s s ne s s ’ ] .T he yf oundt hi sv e r ya mus i ng and used to address the Prophet (s) in this way, and so the be l i e v e r swe r ef or bi dde nt ous ei t ;buts a y ,i ns t e a d,‘ Re g a r dus ’ ,t ha ti s ,l ooka tus ,a ndg i v ee a r ,t owha ty oua r e commanded and be prepared to accept it; and for disbelievers awaits a painful chastisement, that is, the Fire. {         ‫ﭐ‬         ‫ﭐ‬           ‫ﭐ‬                                       ‫ﭐ‬                                                       ‫ﭐ‬             ‫ﭐ‬                             ‫ﭐ‬             }

Those disbelievers of the People of the Scripture and the idolaters, from among the Arabs (al-mus hr i k ī na , ‘ i dol a t e r s ’ ,i sas uppl e me ntt oa hl a l -k i t ā bi ,‘ Pe opl eoft heS c r i pt ur e ’ ,a ndt hemi n,‘ of ’ ,i se x pl i c a t i v e ) ,donotwish that any good, any Inspiration, should be revealed to you from your Lord, out of envy of you, but God singles out for His mercy, [for] the office of His Prophet, whom He will; God is of bounty abounding. Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah {                  ٰ          ‫ﭐ‬                                                                                         } 36

When the disbelievers began to deride the matter of abrogation, saying that one day Muhammad enjoins his Companions to one thing a ndt he nt hene x tda yhef or bi dsi t ,Godr e v e a l e d:Andwha t e v e rv e r s e( māi st he conditional particle), that has been revealed containing a judgement, We abrogate, either together with its recital or not [that is only its judgement, but its recital continues]; there is a variant reading, nunsikh, meaning ‘ [ Wha t e v e rv e r s e ]Wec omma ndy ouorGa br i e lt oa br og a t e ’ ,orpos t pone ,s ot ha tWedonotr e v e a lt he judgement contained in it, and We withhold its recital or retain it in the Preserved Tablet; a variant reading [of nuns i ’ hā ]i snuns i hā , f r om‘ t of or g e t ’ : s o‘ [ Wha t e v e rv e r s eWea br og a t e ]orWema k ey ouf or g e t , t ha ti s , Wee r a s e f r om y ourhe a r t ’ ;t her e s pons et ot hec ondi t i ona ls e nt e nc e[ beg unwi t hmā ]i s :Webr i ng[ i npl a c e ]abet t e r ,one that is more beneficial for [Our] servants, either because it is easier [to implement] or contains much reward; or the like of it, in terms of religious obligation and reward; do you not know that God has power over all things?, including abrogating and substituting [verses]? (the interrogative here is meant as an affirmative). {                         ‫ﭐ‬                          ‫ﭐ‬      ٰ    ٰ  ‫ﭐ‬                  ‫ﭐ‬                    }

Do you not know that to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, doing what He pleases, and that you have none, besides God, other than God, neither protector, to safeguard you, nor helper?, to keep away His chastisement when it comes.

{        ‫ﭐ‬                         ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬                               ٰ                                                      }

Whe nt heMe c c a nsa s k e d[ t hePr ophe t ]t oe nl a r g et hes i z eofMe c c aa ndma k eS a f āf ul l ofg ol d, t hef ol l owi ng was revealed: Or do you desire to question your Messenger as Moses was questioned, by his people, aforetime?, when they asked him to show them God openly among other things; whoever exchanges belief for unbelief, taking the latter in place of the former by refraining from contemplating the clear proofs and by requesting others instead, has surely strayed from the even way, meaning, he has mistaken the proper path (al-s a wā ‘ essentially means al-wa s a t , ‘ mi ddl ewa y ’ ) . Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah       ٰ          ‫ﭐ‬                      ‫ﭐ‬           ٰ           ‫ﭐ‬            ‫ﭐ‬        ‫ﭐ‬                                                                                                                 ‫ﭐ‬                        }

{            

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Ma nyoft hePe opl eoft heS c r i pt ur el ongt ha t( l a w,‘ [ i fonl y ]t ha t ’ ,r e pr e s e nt s[ t hei mpor tof ]t hev e r ba lnoun) they might make you disbelievers, after you have believed, from the envy (hasadan is the object denoting reason), being, of their own souls, that is to say, their wicked souls have prompted them to this [attitude]; after the truth, with regard to the Prophet (s), has become clear to them, in the Torah; yet pardon, leave them be, and be forgiving, stay away, and make no encroachments against them, till God brings His command, concerning fighting them; truly God has power over all things. {                             ‫ﭐ‬            ‫ﭐ‬                                                           ٰ   ‫ﭐ‬                ٰ   ‫ﭐ‬               }

And perform the prayer, and pay the alms; whatever good, in the way of obedience, such as [observing] kinship and charity, you shall offer for your own souls, you shall find it, that is, its reward, with God; assuredly God sees what you do, and will requite you for it.

{                                                                  ٰ                                       ‫ﭐ‬                          }

And t he ys a y ,‘ Nones ha l l e nt e rPa r a di s ee x c e ptt hos ewhoa r eJ e ws( hūdi st hepl ur a l ofhā ’ i d)orChr i s t i a ns ’ :t hi s i swha tt heJ e wsofMe di naa ndt heChr i s t i a nsofNa j r ā ns a i dwhe nt he ydi s put e dwi t ht hePr ophe t( s ) , e a c hpa r t y separately claiming Paradise for its members exclusively. Such, sayings, are their desires, their false passions. Say, t ot he m: ‘ Pr oduc ey ourpr oof , y oure v i de nc ef ort hi s , i fy ous pe a kt r ul y ’ , i nt hi sma t t e r . {                                                                                                            ٰ     }

Nay, but, others will also enter Paradise, namely, whoever submits his purpose to God, that is, adheres to His c omma nds( wa j h,‘ f a c e ’[ s c .‘ pur pos e ’ ] ,i she r ementioned because it is the most noble part of the body, so that [when it has submitted] there is all the more reason for the other parts [to follow]), being virtuous, affirming Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah God’ sOne ne s s ,hi sr e wa r di swi t hhi sL or d,t her e wa r dofhi sde e dsbe i ngPa r a dise, and no fear shall befall them, neither shall they grieve, in the Hereafter.

38

                   ‫ﭐ‬                              ‫ﭐ‬                                         ‫ﭐ‬                      ‫ﭐ‬                        ٰ              ‫ﭐ‬          ٰ       ‫ﭐ‬                 ٰ      ٰ       ‫ﭐ‬                  ‫ﭐ‬           } {                           

T heJ e wss a y ,‘ T heChr i s t i a nss t a ndonnot hi ng ’ ,t ha tc a nbeus e da ss uppor t[ f ort he i rc l a i ms ] ,a ndt hey rejected J e s us ;a ndt heChr i s t i a nss a y , ‘ T heJ e wss t a ndonnot hi ng ’ , t ha tc a nbeus e da ss uppor t[ f ort he i rc l a i ms ] , a ndt he y rejected Moses; yet they, both groups, recite the Scripture, revealed to them: in the Scripture of the Jews there is the confirma t i onofJ e s us ,a ndi nt ha toft heChr i s t i a nst he r ei st hec onf i r ma t i onofMos e s( y a t l ūna ’ l -k i t ā ba ,‘ t he y r e c i t et heS c r i pt ur e ’ :t hes e nt e nc ei sac i r c ums t a nt i a lqua l i f i e r ) .T hus ,i nt hewa yt ha tt he s eha v es a i d,t he ignorant, from among the Arabs and othe r s , s a yt hel i k eofwha tt he s es a y( t hi sl a s tphr a s e[ mi t hl aqa wl i hi m, ‘ t he l i k eofwha tt he ys a y ’ ]i st hee x pl i c a t i onofdhā l i k a ,‘ t ha t[ wa y ] ’ ) :t ha ti st os a y ,t oe v e r ype r s onofr e l i g i ont he y woul ds a y ,‘ Y ouha v enoba s i s ’ ;Gods ha l lde c i debe t we e nt he m on the Day of Resurrection regarding their differences, in religion and will admit the confirmer into Paradise and the falsifier into the Fire. {                    ‫ﭐ‬                           ‫ﭐ‬                                                             ٰ                      ٰ          ‫ﭐ‬                          ‫ﭐ‬                                        }

And who does greater evil — that is, none does more evil — t ha nhewhoba r sGod’ spl a c e sof worship, so that His Name be not invoked in them, in prayer and praise, and strives to ruin them?, through destruction and i mpe di ngpe opl ef r om t he m:t hi swa sr e v e a l e dt oi nf or m oft heBy z a nt i ne s ’de s t r uc t i onoft heHol yHous e[ s c . Jerusalem], or [it was revealed] when the idolaters barred the Prophet (s) from entering Mecca in the year of the ba t t l eofHuda y bi y y a ;s uc hme nmi g htne v e re nt e rt he m, s a v ei nf e a r( i l l āk hā ’ i f ī nai sapr e di c a t e , a l s of unc t i oni ng a sac omma nd, t ha ti st os a y , ‘ F r i g ht e nt he m by threats of waging war against them, so that not one of them shall e nt e ri tf e e l i ngs e c ur e ’ ) ;f ort he mi nt hi swor l di sde g r a da t i on,de ba s e me ntt hr oug hbe i ngk i l l e d,t a k e nc a pt i v e and forced to pay the jizya; and in the Hereafter a mighty chastisement, namely, the Fire. {                    ‫ﭐ‬            ‫ﭐ‬                                             ‫ﭐ‬            ‫ﭐ‬          }

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

39

The following was revealed either when the Jews criticised the change of the direction of prayer [qibla], or concerning the supererogatory prayers on animal-back during journeys, which one may pray in any direction: To God belong the East and the West, that is, the entire earth, because these two [directions] represent both sides of it [the earth]; whithersoever you turn, your faces in prayer by His command, there is the Face of God, the direction of prayer with which He is pleased. Lo! God is Embracing, His bounty embracing all things, Knowing, how to manage His creation.

{                        ‫ﭐ‬      ٰ   ٰ     ‫ﭐ‬                       ٰ                   ‫ﭐ‬       ‫ﭐ‬             }

Andt he y ,t heJ e wsa ndt heChr i s t i a ns ,a ndt hos et ha tc l a i mt ha tt hea ng e l sa r eGod’ sda ug ht e r s ,s a y( r ead waqā l ūor[ s i mpl y ]qā l ū)‘ Godha st a k e nt oHi ms e l fas on’ ;Gods a y s :Gl or ybet oHi m! ,a sawa yofe x a l t i ngHi ms e l f above this; Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth, as possessions, creatures and servants, and this sovereignty c ont r a di c t sha v i ngac hi l d, a ndi se x pr e s s e dby[ t hepa r t i c l e ]mā , ‘ a l l t ha t ’ , i nor de rt oi nc l ude all [creation] that is not rational; all obey His will, submitting to that which is required from each one of them: here the emphasis is on rational beings. {                                             ٰ               ‫ﭐ‬      ٰ    ٰ  ‫ﭐ‬          }

Creator of the heavens and the earth, making them exist without any exemplary precedent; and when He decrees, wills, a thi ng ,t oe x i s t ,Hebuts a y st oi t‘ Be ’a ndi ti s ,t ha ti st os a y ,i tbe c ome s( f a -y a k ūnu:av a r i a nt reading has fa-y a k ūna , ona c c ountofi tbei ngt her e s pons e[ i nt hes ubj unc t i v emood]t ot hej us s i v es t a t e me nt ) . {                         ‫ﭐ‬                                                                          ‫ﭐ‬                                          ‫ﭐ‬                                        ‫ﭐ‬          }

And they, that is the disbelievers of Mecca, who donotk now, s a y , t ot hePr ophe t( s ) : ‘ Whydoe sGodnots pe a kt o us ? ,[ t os a y ]t ha ty oua r eHi sMe s s e ng e r ;Whydoe sas i g nnotc omet ous ? ’ ,oft hes or tweha v er e que s t e di n order to show your sincerity. So, in the same way that these [disbelievers] have spoken, spoke those before them, from among past communities, to their prophets, the like of what they say, in [their] obstinacy and demand for signs; their hearts are much alike, in terms of unbelief and stubbornness: this is meant as consolation Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah for the Prophet (s). Yet We have made clear the signs to a people who are certain, [a people] who know that t he s ea r e[ God’ s ]s i g nsa nds ot he ybe l i e v ei nt hem, f ort or e que s tot he rs i g nswoul dbeobdur a c y .

{       ‫ﭐ‬                                              ‫ﭐ‬                     }

40

We have sent you, Muhammad (s), with the truth, the guidance, a bearer of good tidings, of Paradise, for those who respond to this [guidance], and warner, of the Fire, to those who do not respond to it. You shall not be asked about the inhabitants of Hell-fire, that is, about why the disbelievers did not believe, for your responsibility is only t ode l i v e rt heMe s s a g e( av a r i a ntr e a di ngofl āt us ’ a li sl āt a s ’ a l ,‘ donota s k ’ ,wi t h the final apocopation of the vowel on account of it being an imperative).

{                         ‫ﭐ‬                      ‫ﭐ‬                    ‫ﭐ‬                             ‫ﭐ‬            ٰ       ‫ﭐ‬            ‫ﭐ‬                                      ٰ      ٰ       ‫ﭐ‬               ‫ﭐ‬        ٰ            }

Never will the Jews be pleased with you, neither the Christians, not until you follow their creed, their religion, S a y :‘ God’ sg ui da nc e ,t ha ti s ,I s l a m,i st het r ueg ui da nc e ’ ,be s i de swhi c ht he r ei sonl ye r r or .Andi fy ouwe r e( wa la-i n:t hel ā mi sf oroa t hs )t of ol l owt he i rwhi ms ,hy pot he t i c a l l ys pe a k i ng ,[ whi ms ]t owhi c ht he ya r ec a l l i ngy ou, after the knowledge, the Divine revelation, that has come to you, you shall have against God neither friend, to protect you, nor helper, to defend you against Him. {      ٰ   ‫ﭐ‬          ٰ                                                ٰ                                   ٰ        ‫ﭐ‬                     ‫ﭐ‬  }

Those to whom We have given the Scripture (this is the subject of the sentence), and who recite it with true r e c i t a t i on,t ha ti s ,whor e c i t ei ta si twa sr e v e a l e d( ha qqat i l ā wa t i hi ,‘ i t st r uer e c i t a t i on’ ,i sac i r c ums t a nt ial qualifier; haqqa is in the accusative because it is the object of the verbal noun), they believe in it (this is the predicate): this was revealed concerning a group of Ethiopians that presented themselves [to the Prophet] and accepted Islam; and whoever disbelieves in it, that is, in the revealed Book, by distorting it, they shall be the losers, because they will be destined for the Fire, made everlasting for them.

{            ‫ﭐ‬                                           ۤ     ‫ﭐ‬                   ‫ﭐ‬                     }

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah O Children of Israel, remember My favour wherewith I favoured you, and that I have preferred you over all the worlds: a similar verse has already been mentioned. 41

{                                                                                                                    ‫ﭐ‬    }

And beware of, fear, a day when no soul shall for another, on this [Day] be requited, that is, [when no soul for another] shall be of any avail, and no compensation, no ransom, shall be accepted from it, nor any intercession s ha l l be ne f i ti t , ne i t he rs ha l l t he ybehe l ped, a g a i ns tGod’ sc ha s t i s e me nt .

{           ‫ﭐ‬                                                                                                                            ٰ      ‫ﭐ‬         }

And, me nt i on, whe nhi sL or dt e s t e d, t r i e d, Abr a ha m( I br ā hī m:a l s or e a dI br ā hā m)wi t hc e r t a i nwor ds , with certain commands and prohibitions with which He charged him: it is said that these included the rituals of the Pilgrimage, the rinsing of the mouth, snuffing up water into the nostrils [to clean them], cleaning of the teeth, trimming facial hair, combi ngoft heha i r , t r i mmi ngt hef i ng e r na i l s , s ha v i nga r mpi ta ndpubi cha i r , c i r c umc i s i ona ndwa s hi ngone ’ s private parts after elimination; and he fulfilled them, he performed them thoroughly; He, God, exalted, said, to hi m:‘ Ima k ey oual e a de r ,a ne x e mpl a ri nr e l i g i on, f ort hepe opl e . ’S a i dhe ,‘ Andofmys e e d? ’ ,mypr og e ny ,ma k e l e a de r s[ f r om a mongt he m] ;Hes a i d,‘ Myc ov e na nt ,ofl e a de r s hi p,s ha l lnotr e a c ht hee v i l doe r s ’ ,t hedi s be l i e v e r s from among them: this indicates that [the covenant] will reach only those who are not evildoers. {       ‫ﭐ‬       ‫ﭐ‬              ‫ﭐ‬                                                              ٰ                                                      ‫ﭐ‬                                       ‫ﭐ‬                   }

Andwhe nWea ppoi nt e dt heHous e ,t heKa ‘ ba ,t obeapl a c eofv i s i t a t i on,t owhi c ht he yf l oc kf r om e v e r y direction, for the people, and a sanctuary, of safety for them from the injustice and attacks that befall other pl a c e s :ape r s onc oul dc omea c r os shi sf a t he r ’ sk i l l e rt he r e ,a ndy e tnota c tv i ol e nt l ya g a i ns thi m;a nd:‘ T a k e ( i t t a k hi dhūi sa l s or e a di t t a k ha dhū,ma k i ngi tapr e di c a t e ) ,O pe opl e ,t oy our s e l v e sAbr a ha m’ ss t a t i on,t he founding stone he used when bui l di ngt heHous e ,f orapl a c eofpr a y e r ’ ,s ot ha ty oupe r f or mt wouni t sofpr a y e r f ort hec i r c uma mbul a t i on;AndWema deac ov e na ntwi t hAbr a ha ma ndI s hma e l ,Wec omma nde dt hem:‘ Pur i f y My House, of graven images, for those that shall go round it and those that cleave to it, in ritual residence, to Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah t hos ewhobowa ndpr os t r a t et he ms e l v e s ’ , t ha ti s , t hos ewhopr a y :( a l -r uk k a ‘ a nda l -s uj ūda r et hepl ur a l sofr ā k i ‘ , ‘ onebowi ng ’ , a nds ā j i d, ‘ onepr os t r a t e d’ , r e s pe c t i v e l y ) . 42

{       ‫ﭐ‬               ‫ﭐ‬          ٰ                                                          ‫ﭐ‬          ‫ﭐ‬         ‫ﭐ‬                              ‫ﭐ‬                    ‫ﭐ‬                       ٰ          ‫ﭐ‬                             }

Andwhe nAbr a ha ms a i d,‘ MyL or d,ma k et hi s ,pl a c e ,al a nds ec ur e ,i nwhi c ht he r ei ss a f e t y :Godg r a nt e dhi m hi s request, making it a sanctuary in which no human blood is shed, no injustice is committed towards anyone, no prey is hunted and which is never deserted in any of its parts; and provide its people with fruits: something which actually happened when there came itinerants from as far as Syria, whereas before, it had been devoid of any vegetation or water; such of them as believe in God and the Last Da y ’( t hi sphr a s es t a ndsi npl a c eofi t spe opl e , a ndt he ya r ehe r es i ng l e doutf orme nt i oni nt her e que s ti na c c or da nc ewi t hGod’ ss a y i ngMyc ov e na nts ha l lnot r e a c ht hee v i l doe r s ) ;He ,e x a l t e d,s a i d,‘ Andwhoe v e rdi s be l i e v e s ,Iwi l l a l s opr ov i dewi t hf r ui ts, to him I shall give e nj oy me nt( r e a de i t he rumt i ‘ uhuoruma t t i ‘ uhu) ,byg r a nt i nghi ms us t e na nc ei nt hi sl i f e ,al i t t l e ,t hel e ng t hofhi s life, but then I shall compel him, I shall drive him in the Hereafter to the chastisement of the Fire, so that he cannot find an escape — howe v i l aj our ne y ’ se nd! ’ , apl a c et owhi c ht or e t ur n. {         ‫ﭐ‬         ‫ﭐ‬                                          ٰ             ‫ﭐ‬                  ‫ﭐ‬        ٰ                    }

And, mention, when Abraham raised up the foundations, the supports or the walls, of the House, building it (min al-ba y t ,‘ oft heHous e ’ ,i ss e ma nt i c a l l yc onne c t e dt oy a r f a ‘ u,‘ r a i s e sup’ ) ,a ndI s hma e lwi t hhi m( wa -I s mā ‘ ī l ui sa s uppl e me ntt oI br ā hī mu) ,bot hoft he ms a y i ng :‘ OurL or d!Re c e i v et hi s ,bui l di ng ,f r om us .T r ul yY oua r et he Hearing, of words, the Knowing, of deeds. {       ‫ﭐ‬         ‫ﭐ‬                                                                                                                ‫ﭐ‬           }

Our Lord! And make us submissive, compliant, to You and, make, of our seed, our progeny, a community, a pe opl e ,s ubmi s s i v et oY ou( mi n[ i nt hephr a s emi ndhur r i y y a t i nā ,‘ ofours e e d’ ]he r eis partitive, and is used here i na c c or da nc ewi t hGod’ sa bov e -mentioned saying My covenant shall not reach the evildoers); and show us, teach us, our holy rites, our ceremonies for worship or for the pilgrimage, and relent to us. Surely You are the Relenting, Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah the Merciful: they asked Him to turn towards them, despite their [moral] impeccability, out of humbleness and in order to teach their progeny. 43

{      ‫ﭐ‬        ‫ﭐ‬                                ‫ﭐ‬    ٰ      ‫ﭐ‬                     ٰ                                                ‫ﭐ‬           }

Our Lord! And send among them, the people of this House, a messenger, one of them and God granted him this petition with [the sending of] Muhammad (s), who sha l lr e c i t et ot he mY ours i g ns ,t heQur ’ ā n,a ndt e a c ht hem t heBook ,t heQur ’ ā n,a ndWi s dom,t ha ti s ,wha tt hef or me rc ont a i nsofj udg e ment s ,a ndpur i f yt he m,c l e a ns e them of idolatry; You are the Mighty, the Victor, the Wise, in His creation. {         ‫ﭐ‬              ‫ﭐ‬                      ‫ﭐ‬                ‫ﭐ‬                                                                     }

Whot he r e f or e ,me a ni ng‘ none ’ ,s hr i nk sf r om t her e l i g i onofAbr a ha m, abandoning it, except he who fools himself?, that is to say, either the one who ignores that his soul has been created for God, and that it is obliged to worship Him, or the one who treats it with frivolity and degrades it. Indeed We chose him, We elected him, in this world, for prophethood and friendship, and in the Hereafter he shall be among the righteous, those of the high stations [al-da r a j ā ta l -‘ ul ā , c f . Q. 20: 75] .

{            ‫ﭐ‬                                                   }

Andme nt i on:Whe nhi sL or ds a i dt ohi m,‘ S ubmi t ’ ,obe yGoda ndde v ot ey ourr e l i g i onpur e l yt oHi m,hes a i d,‘ I ha v es ubmi t t e dt ot heL or doft heWor l ds ’ . {                                             ‫ﭐ‬        ٰ    ‫ﭐ‬        ‫ﭐ‬                                                    ٰ      }

AndAbr a ha me nj oi ne d( wa s s ā ;ma ya l s ober e a da ws ā )uponhi ss onst hi s ,c r e e d,a nd[ s odi d]J a c ob,uponhi s s ons , s a y i ng :‘ Mys ons , Godha sc hos e nf ory out he[ t r ue ]r e l i g i on, t her e l i g i onofs ubmi s s i on[ t oGod]( i s l ā m) , s e e that you die not save in submission: he forbade them from abandoning this submission [to God], and enjoined them to adhere firmly to it until death overtook them. Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah {                                     ٰ                                                    ٰ            ٰ                                                                                ‫ﭐ‬                                         } 44

Whe nt heJ e wss a i dt ot hePr ophe t( s ) , ‘ Doy ounotk nowt ha tont heda yofhi sde a t hJ a c obc ha r g e dhi ss onswi t h J uda i s m? ’ ,t hef ol l owi ngwa sr e v e a l e d:Or ,we r ey ouwi t ne s s e s ,pr e s e nt ,whe nde a t hc a met oJ a c ob?Whe n( i dh, ‘ whe n’ , s ubs t i t ut e sf ort hepr e c e di ngi dh)hes a i dt ohi ss ons , ‘ Wha twi l l y ouwor s hi pa f t e rme ? ’ , a f t e rI di e ? ;T he y s a i d, ‘ Wewi l l wor s hi py ourGoda ndt heGodofy ourf a t he r sAbr a ha ma ndI s hma e l a ndI s a a c( i nr e c og ni t i onoft he predominant [mention of the father figures] Ishmael is also counted as a father, and also because the status of an unc l ei sa k i nt ot ha tofaf a t he r ) , OneGod( i l ā ha nwā hi da n, ‘ OneGod’ , s ubs t i t ut e sf ori l ā ha k a , ‘ y ourGod’ ) , t oHi m wes ubmi t ’( t hei ni t i a la m[ oft hephr a s ea mk unt um,‘ Or ,we r ey ou…’ ]i ss i mi l a rt ot heha mz aofde ni a l[ s c .a k unt um] ,t hes e ns ebe i ng ,‘ Y ouwe r enotpr e s e nta thi sde a t h,s ohowdoy oua s c r i bet ohi m wha tdoe snotbe f i t hi m? ’ ) . {                                                                                                    }

That (tilka, is the subject of this sentence and denotes Abraham, Jacob and his sons, and is feminine because it agrees with the gender of its predicate) is a community that has passed away, has gone before; theirs is what t he yha v ee a r ne d,t her e wa r df ort he i rde e ds( l a hāmāk a s a ba t ,t he i r si swha tt he yha v ee a r ne d’ ,c ons t i t ut e st he commencement of a new sentence) and yours (the Jews are being addressed here) is what you have earned; you shall not be asked about what they did, in the same way that they will not be asked about what you did, this latter statement being an affirmation of the former. {          ‫ﭐ‬                                                                    ٰ                                      }

Andt he ys a y ,‘ BeJ e wsorChr i s t i a ns( t hepa r t i c l ea wi sf orde t a i l ;t hef i r s toft he s ei st hes a y i ngoft heMe di na n J e ws , whi l et hes e c ondi st ha toft heChr i s t i a nsofNa j r ā n) , a ndy ous ha l l beg ui de d’ . S a y , t ot he m: ‘ Na y , wef ol l ow, r a t he rt hec r e e dofAbr a ha m, aha nī f( ha nī f a ni sac i r c ums t a nt i a l qua l i f i e rr e f e r r i ngt oI br ā hī ma , t ha ti st os a y , one that inclines away from all other religions to the upright religion); and he was not of thei dol a t e r s ’ .

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah {                                                                             ‫ﭐ‬                ٰ        ٰ                        ‫ﭐ‬                                                  ٰ                                               ‫ﭐ‬             ۤ       } 45

S a y :( t hi sa ddr e s si st ot hebe l i e v e r s )‘ Webe l i e v ei nGod,a ndi nt ha twhi c hha sbe enr e v e a l e dt ous ,t heQur ’ ā n, and revealed to Abraham, the ten scrolls, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, his sons, and that which was given to Moses, the Torah, and Jesus, the Gospel, and the prophets, from their Lord, of Books and signs, we make no division between any of them, believing in some and disbelieving in others in the manner of Jews and Christians, a ndt oHi mwes ubmi t ’ . {         ‫ﭐ‬         ‫ﭐ‬              ‫ﭐ‬                                                                  ‫ﭐ‬                                                    }

And if the y ,t heJ e wsa ndt heChr i s t i a ns ,be l i e v ei nt hel i k e( mi t hl ,‘ t hel i k e ’i se x t r a )ofwha ty oube l i e v ei n,t he n they are truly guided; but if they turn away, from belief in it, then they are clearly in schism, in opposition to you; God will suffice you, O Muhammad (s), against them, and their schisms; He is the Hearer, of their sayings, the Knowe r ,oft he i rc i r c ums t a nc e s :Gods uf f i c e dhi m[ wi t hr e g a r dt ot he m]byk i l l i ngQur a y z a ,e x pe l l i ngNa dī ra nd exacting the jizya from them. {                                    ‫ﭐ‬                           ‫ﭐ‬          }

T hema r kofGod( s i bg ha t a ’ L l ā hi : av e r ba l nounr e a f f i r mi ngt hee a r l i e rā ma nnā , a ndi ti si nt hea c c us a t i v e , be c a us e of the verbal constructioni mpl i e d, t ha ti st os a y , s a ba g ha nā ’ L l ā hu, ‘ Godha sma r k e dus ’ ) : t hi sde not e sHi sr e l i g i on, the one towards which He made human beings naturally inclined, as it leaves its mark on a person, in the same way that a dye leaves its mark on a garment; and who has, that is, none [has], a better mark (sibghatan, ‘ ma r k i ng ’ ,i sf ors pe c i f i c a t i on)t ha nGod?AndHi m wewor s hi p:t heJ e wss a i dt ot heMus l i ms ,‘ Wea r et hepe opl e of the first Book and our direction of prayer (qibla) is more ancient, and prophets were never sent from among t heAr a bs ; i fMuha mma dwe r eapr ophe t , hewoul dha v ebee noneofus ’ . T hus , t hef ol l owi ngwa sr e v e a l e d: {                                                                                                                   }

Taken from, tafsir.com

Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Juza’ [1], Surat al-Fatihah & al-Baqarah

46

S a y ,t ot he m:‘ Woul dy out he ndi s put ewi t husc onc e r ni ngGod,t ha tHec hos eapr ophe tf r om a mongt heAr a bs , and He is our Lord and your Lord?, and so it is for Him to choose whom He will, Our deeds belong to us, for which we will be requited, and to you belong your deeds, for which you will be requited, so that it is not improbable that among our deeds there will be those for which we will deserve to be honoured; and to Him we are sincerely devoted, in religion and in deed, unlike you, hence, we are more worthy to be chosen (the hamza [of at uhā j j ūna nā ,‘ woul dy out he ndi s put e ’ ]i sf orr e j e c t i on,a ndt het hr e ec l a us e st ha tf ol l owi ta r ea l lc i r c ums t a nt i a l qualifiers). {                                  ‫ﭐ‬             ‫ﭐ‬                                                        ‫ﭐ‬                               ٰ                                                                                                        }

Or,na y ,doy ous a y( t a qūl ūna ,a l s or e a dy a qūl ūna ,‘ dot he ys a y ? ’ ) :‘ Abr a ha m,I s hma e l ,I s a a ca ndJ a c ob,a ndt he Tribes — t he ywe r eJ e ws , ort he ywe r eChr i s t i a ns ? ’ S a y , t ot he m: ‘ Ha v ey out he ng r e a t e rk nowl e dg e , orha sGod? , that is, God has greater knowledge; He dissociated Abraham from both [groups], when He said, Abraham was not a Jew, nor a Christian [Q. 3:67]; and those mentioned with him [Abraham] are his followers [in not belonging to either group]. And who does greater injustice than he who conceals, hides from people, a testimony, he has, r e c e i v e df r om God? ,t ha ti s ,t he r ei snonemor eunj us tt ha nhi m:t he s ea r et heJ e ws ,f ort he yc onc e a l e dGod’ s t e s t i monya boutAbr a ha m’ spur ef a i t hi nt heT or a h;AndGodi snothe e dl e s sofwha ty oudo’ :[ t hi si s ]at hr eat for them. {                                                                                                     }

That is a community that has passed away; theirs is what they have earned, and yours is what you have earned; you shall not be asked about what they did: a similar [verse] has already been mentioned above.

Taken from, tafsir.com