Tafsir Of Surah Mary - Al-Islam

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This compilation of the Tafsir of Surah Maryam (Mary), is comprised of her. − narrative as well as the .... Tabari, in his Tafsir, mentions numerous ... descendent of Mathan whose son was 'Imran, the father of prophet Musa . The Bani. (ª). −. −.

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fÎqj»A fJ§ ϼ§ :±Î»DM ÁÈÀ»A jÎmB°N»A ieBv¿ Å¿

− Tafsir of Surah Maryam − Chapter 19 Of the Holy Quran

Mary

Compiled by:

'Ali 'Abdur-Rasheed − From Important Sources of Quranic Commentaries

fÎqj»A fJ§ ϼ§ :±Î»DM ÁÈÀ»A jÎmB°N»A ieBv¿ Å¿

− TAFSIR OF SURAH MARYAM − CHAPTER NINETEEN OF THE HOLY QURAN

MARY Compiled by: 'Ali 'Abdur-Rasheed − From Important Sources of Quranic Commentaries © 2010 'Ali 'Abdur-Rasheed [email protected]

All rights reserved. This publication may only be printed or copied for individual use. Otherewise, no portion of this publication may be reproduced without the express written consent of the author.

FORWARD ä ç åå å ä æ å ä æ ä ä æ ä å æ ä ä æ ä æ ä ì ä ì ää ì åæ ä è ä ä AÌ°· ì Ëä ,fYC ì Ëä åÑÝv»A Ð ä åÂÝn»A ê ,fÀv»A ê ê fYAÌ»A ê ê êɼ»ê fÀZ»A Ó¼§ É» Å¸Í Á» Ë ,f»ÌÍ Á» Ë f¼Íê Á» Ðh»A fYÞA ç ä ä ç ä Ð ä ä ì ä å ä ä æä ä ä æ å æ ì Ð ä ç ä AjÍhà ëì ä å Ð ä ä æ å ÊfJ§ Ð êÉ»Ìmi ê åä Ëä ,ÓJNVÀ»A ê ê æ ä fÀZ¿ ê ê Ë AjÎrI ê ,ÔiÌ»A êÒ¯B· ÐÓ»Gê ɼmiC ,Ó°ñvÀ»A êÉÃgHI ê êê êɼ»A Ó»G BΧAe Ë ê ä ä æä ä ä ä ç å ç ì ä ä æä ä ì Ð ä ä å êÒÀÖC åä ì ä Ëä äoUj»A å æ ä åɼ»A ä Ëä ÐÔfÈ»A æð åÁÈħ æÁÇjÈ ì ê ,ÓUf»A ê êÉNÎI ê æ ê½ÇC ÐÓ¼§ Ë ,AjÎÄ¿ ê BUAjmê Ëä KÇgC ÅÍh»A í ê\ÎIBv¿ ê ä äå ì ä ç æä Ð ä å ä©JMA ä ì êÅ¿ä ÐÓ¼§ .ÔfÈ»A ÂÝn»A Ë ,AjÎÈñM ê All praise is due to Allah, the One, Unique, Everlasting who did not beget nor was begotten and there is none comparable to Him. Prayers and peace be upon Muhammad, His servant, the chosen and His messenger, the select. (Allah) sent ± him to the totality of mankind as a bearer of good news; a warner and one inviting (mankind) to Allah with His permission, a brilliant light. (Prayers and peace) be upon his household, the leaders of guidance and the lamps (of guidance) in darkness. Those whom Allah removed from them impurity and purified them thoroughly. Peace be upon he whom follows guidance. This is my third compilation of Tafsir which I have compiled with the intent of − exposing English-speaking individuals to the rich tradition of Quranic commentary. − − − Previously, I have compiled the Tafsir of Surah Yusuf (AS) and Surah al-Kahf (the Cave) in recognition of the fact that these compilations have some significance for − our society which is dominated by the Judeo-Christian faiths. Yusuf (AS), of course is the biblical figure Joseph. al-Kahf is comprised of the narratives of the miraculous seven sleepers of the cave; the prophet Moses (AS) and the narrative of Zhul-Qarnain, the master of Gog and Magog. − This compilation of the Tafsir of Surah Maryam (Mary), is comprised of her narrative as well as the narratives of her son, the prophet 'Isa (Jesus); the prophet − Zakariya− (Zachariah); his son Yahya (John the Baptist); the prophet Ibrahim ± − (Abraham) and the prophet Musa (Moses). In addition, this chapter also makes − − (Aaron); Isma'il − − (Jacob); Harun mention of prophets such as Ishaq ± − (Isaac); Ya'qub (Ishmail); and the prophet Idris (Akhnukh), may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon them all. − Contained in this Surah are compelling arguments in denial of the belief that the prophet 'Isa (AS) is the son of God or part of a divine trinity. No doubt that one of − as divine the issues preventing the non-Muslim's acceptance of the Quran − revelation is the Quran's clear and logical refutation of these beliefs.

I have translated the commentaries related to this chapter not with the intent of sparking controversy around the topic of 'Isa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary). Rather, it is with the hope of clarifying the Islamic perspective of this great prophet of Allah, the Exalted. After all, as Muslims we also view the prophet 'Isa as one the greatest of prophet sent to mankind. Likewise, we are awaiting his return in the end times to set the world aright after its drift toward total anarchy and faithlessness which has been prophesied in all monotheistic faiths. The Islamic view of the end times envisions the prophet 'Isa (Jesus) returning under the − − al-Mahdi, peace be upon them both. 'Isa, authority of the awaited savior of Islam, Imam − (anti-Christ) and initiate a period of great conflict peace be upon him, will slay the Dajjal and strife in the world. In the end, al-Mahdi, peace be upon him, will re-establish faith to the world's inhabitants and rule the world with truth and justice after being dominated by faithlessness, tyranny and oppression. We pray that Allah will hasten his blessed return and bring the world back from the brink of its own demise. In an effort to make the navigation of this document easier, active links have been created with bookmarks enabling the reader to go to specific groupings of verses. Bookmarks are located to the left of the document window. In addition, footnote numbers are also active links which transfer the reader to the appropriate footnote. Each footnote also has an active link which will return the reader back to the point in the text where the footnote number is located. − Therefore, with prayers upon the prophet of Islam, Muhammad and his pure and noble ± family, I begin this work in the hope of bringing about a greater understanding of this − particularly for those of us in western societies. wondrous Quran, 'Ali Abdur-Rasheed May 23, 2010 8 Jumada II, 1431 QH±

Ò¿f´À»A − − − − In Majma' al-Bayan, 'Allamah Tibirsi indicates that Surah Maryam is a Makkan Surah ± − and that there is a consensus that its verses number ninety-eight. In Tafsir al-Burhan, Sayyid al-Bahrani ± − indicates that verse 58 and 71 were revealed in Madeenah.

BÈN¼Îz¯ − − Regarding the virtues of this Surah, the prophet (x) has said: "Whomever recites (Surah − and had Maryam) is given the reward in the number of he whom had attested to Zakariya − − Ibrahim; − − − and denied him (as well as) Yahya; Maryam; 'Isa; Musa; Harun; Ishaq; ± ±− Ya'qub − ten blessings and (the blessings ( in the number of he who prayed to Allah − for a Isma'il 1 child and in the number of he who had not prayed for a child." − as-Sadiq − Imam (ª) said: "He who is devoted in recitation of Surah Maryam, he does not ± ±− die until he achieves that which makes him free of need in himself, his wealth and his child. In the hereafter, he will be one of the companions of 'Isa Ibn Maryam and given the − Ibn Dawud − in this world." 2 reward similar to the king Sulaiman ______________

Ðé æ Ð ì ì ê êÅÀYj»A êɼ»A êÁnIæ ê êÁÎYj»A Ø ØÐ ÐØ {w¨ÎÈ·} − Ha, − ½ Ya, − ½ 'Ayn, Sad Kaf, [Maryam 19:1] ±− − − that these 'Allamah Tibirsi relates a tradition narrated on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas ± å ä ä æå å åå letters, known as disjunctive letters (Ò¨ñ´À»A ²ËjZ»A), are symbols of God's names wherein ä − represents Kareem, the Generous (ÁÍj¸»A − Kaf the Guide (ÐeBÈ»A ê ), the Ya−½ ê ), the Ha−½ for Hadi, signifies Hakeem, the Wise (ÁθZ»A ê ä ), 'Ayn represents 'Aleem, the All-Knowing (Á쨻A ê ä ) and ± Sad the Truthful (¶eBv»A ê ).3 In a tradition from 'Ata ± − signifies Sadiq, ±− ± − and al-Kalabi, they indicate that its meaning is:

ä ä æ ä åä ä æä è è æ ä æ ä è æ ä ë êÉ´¼b» ê ê Ï¯ê ¶eBu ê ê ê ê eBÇ ê ÁÈÍfÍC ê ê ²B· ê ê ê ê Á»B§ Êf§Ë ê ÉNÍjJI ê ê ¶Ì¯ ÊfÍ ÊeBJ¨»

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− is for His creation; (He is) a Guide for His servants; His hand (meaning His power) is "Kaf above their hands; (the One) knowledgeable of his creation and Truthful in His promise." − In the same source, 'Allamah Tibirsi also relates that Ameer al-Mumineen (ª) has said ± that these letters signify attributes of God and he would make supplication using these letters as in:

ä åä æä − Ha, − Ya, − ½ 'Ayn, Sad..." #...w¨ÎÈ· BÍ ¹»DmC$ "I beseech You O Kaf, ±−

4

− ± Makarem − In al-Amthal, Shaikh Nasir relates that these disjunctive letters have a second − al-Husain interpretation related to the revolution of Imam (ª) and he explained these ± − indicates Karbala; − Ha − ½ indicates the disjunctive letters in the following manner: "Then Kaf − ½ indicates upon Yazeed 'Ayn destruction of the descendants of the prophet (x); the Ya

è æ

èæ ä indicates upon the issue of thirst (sñ§ä) and Sad ± − indicates upon the patience (jJu) and è ä firmness (PBJQ) of al-Husain (ª) and his sacrificed followers." 5 ± − − Tabari, in his Tafsir, Jami' al-Bayan, mentions numerous sources to explain the ± significance of these letters. Here's a summary of his narrations: − means Kabeer; Ha −½ is Hadi; − Ya −½ is Yameen (some reports mention Hakeem); Kaf 'Ayn is ± − 'Alim (some reports indicate 'Azeez and 'Adil) and Sad He also mentions ± − signifies Sadiq. ±− − 'Ali (ª) wherein he uses these letters as names of Allah − in the narration attributed to Imam æ æ ê ê w¨ÎÈ· BÍ O Kaf, − Ha, − ½ Ya, − ½ 'Ayn, Sad, prayer, as in: Ï»ê j°«G ± − forgive me!. There are other opinions as well about the meaning of these letters. Those discussions, however, are too lengthy for our purposes here. _______________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

æ ä æ ä ä¹Iið ä êÒÀYi ìê ä ä åÊfJ§ ä æ ä åj·g} {BÍj·k ê − [Maryam 19:2] "A mention of the mercy of your Lord to His servant Zakariya."

ç é ä ç åì ä Ð ä ê ÕEfÃê ÉIi ÔeBà AgG} {Bΰa ê

"When he called upon his Lord in a low voice." [Maryam 19:3]

ç é ä ð ä ä å æ åä æ ä ä ç æ ä å æ ì ä ä ä æ ä ð å æ ä ä ä ä ð ð ä ä ê Li ¹ÖF§fI ê ê Å·C Á» Ë BJÎq pCj»A ½¨NqA Ë ÏÄ¿ê Á¤¨»A ÅÇË ÏÃGê Li ¾B³} {Bδq "He said: My Lord! Surely my bones are weakened and my head flares with hoariness, and, my Lord! I have never been unsuccessful in my prayer to Thee:" [Maryam 19:4] − − In Majma' al-Bayan, 'Allamah Tibirsi indicates that the mercy mentioned in the second ± − − (ª) prayer when he prayed for an heir. verse refers to Allah's answering Zakariya's Zakariya− (ª) was one of the latter prophets of the Bani Israel descended from the prophet − − (ª), the brother of prophet Musa (ª). Zakariya− (ª) was also related to Maryam (ª), Harun the mother of prophet 'Isa (ª). Some reports say that Maryam (ª) was the sister of − (ª) wife while others claim that she was the daughter of his wife's sister. Zakariya's − (ª) wife both of In Tafsir al-Qummi, he indicates that Maryam was the sister of Zakariya's − whom were descendents of the Bani Mathan. The prophet Musa (ª) was also a − whose son was 'Imran, − the father of prophet Musa (ª). The Bani descendent of Mathan − were the leaders of the Bani Israel at the time of Zakariya− (ª) while the kings of Mathan − bin the Bani Israel in previous times were descended from the children of Sulaiman − − (ª), was descended from Yahuda, − − the brother of prophet Yusuf, − Dawud (ª). Dawud peace be upon them both. − In Tafsir at-Tibyan, Shaikh Tusi ± − mentions that Zakariya− (ª) may have three spellings in ä ää ä −½ (ÕFÍj·k 'Arabic: Zakariya ê ) with an elongated Alif; Zakariya− (BÍj·k ê ) with a shortened Alif and

ää

−½ Zakariyya (ìÐj·k ê ) with a doubled Ya. Zakariya− (ª) was an ascetic and leader of the Jewish learned men. He lived in a sanctuary away from populated areas where he and Maryam were deeply devoted to prayer and spiritual reflection. It is due to his devotion that, when Zakariya− (ª) called upon God, his prayer was answered with mercy.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− The Surah begins with mention of God's mercy upon His servant, Zakariya− (ª), when Zakariya− (ª) called upon God in a low or secretive voice. This secretive voice is ä å). For ascetics, the − understood to mean an intimate supplication or Munajah (ÒUBÄ¿ − Munajah is a powerful medium in connecting to God Almighty. Zakariya− (ª) first projects his own state of frailty before His Lord: "He said: My Lord! Surely ä ää my bones are weakened..." Shaikh Tusi ± − points out about the word {ÅÇË}: "It is weakness − and decrease in strength...(among äits uses) is in His (the Exalted's) saying (in the Surah å æ ä æ ä æä å åæ ä åä æ ä ä å ä ä å æ ä å æ æ −Ali 'Imran)'': − {ÅÎÄ¿Û¿ ê ê ÁNÀ· ÆGê Æ̼§ÞA ÁNÃC Ë AÌÃlZM Ü Ë AÌÄÈMê Ü Ë} 'And be not infirm, and be not − 'Imran − 3:139] grieving, and you shall have the upper hand if you are believers.' [Ali In saying that his bones have become weakened, it is akin to making an analogy to a structure whose frame is damaged, implying that when man's bones have become weak, he becomes weakened overall. Then, he uses beautifully subtle phrase in saying that his head was ablaze in gray: æ ä "And ää æ å ì ½¨NqG} my head flares with hoariness," meaning with grayness.The word Ishta'ala {pCj»A ê literally means that his head was set ablaze. A fire consumes every combustible thing in its path only leaving ashes in its wake. Like a fire, old age had turned all of his hair gray, like ashes. It is very eloquent expression signifying that he has become weakened and elderly. It is said that at this juncture in his life, Zakariya− (ª) was 120 years old while his wife was 98. 6 Next, Zakariya− (ª) bears witness to God's generosity toward him in that he acknowledges that he has never been unsuccessful in his prayers to God: "My Lord! I have never been unsuccessful in my prayer to Thee." Literally, it means: With supplication to You, my Lord, I have never been unfortunate. This is because Zakariya− (ª) always received a å æ å) from God, the Mighty and Majestic. This statement itself bears ä goodly reply (êÒIBUâA ê ÅnY witness that Zakariya− (ª) was one of God's pure servants whose supplication has never been rejected nor ignored. ______________________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ä æ ä ä ä æ åä æ äç æ ä æ ä ä êî ¹Ãf» Å¿ê Ï»ê Kȯ Aj³B§ ê ä êOÃB· Ë ÐÕEiË ê ä åO°aê ÏÃGðê Ë} ê ÏMCj¿A {BÎ»Ë ê ä æÅ¿ê äÏ»AÌÀ»A "And surely I fear my cousins after me, and my wife is barren, therefore grant me from Thyself an heir." [Maryam 19:5]

æ ä æ ä ó ä åæ ä æ å ä ä å ä ä Li ð ä åɼ¨UA êê ê {BÎyi Ë LÌ´¨Í ¾Eê Å¿ê TjÍê Ë ÏÄQjÍ} î − and make him, my Lord, "Who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Ya'qub, one in whom Thou art well pleased." [Maryam 19:6] In this verse, Zakariya− (ª) begins to cite the causes that have led him to petition God − Almighty for an heir. In Majma', as in numerous other commentaries, 'Allamah Tibirsi cites ± that Zakariya− (ª) feared his paternal uncles and their descendents as they were considered to be the worst of the Bani Israel. al-Qummi asserts that it was the relatives of his wife who was Maryam's (ª) sister. As previously mentioned, They were − Ibn Mathan − who were among the leading clans of the Bani Israel descendents of 'Imran − (ª) time. He feared their domination after his death. during Zakariya's Secondly, due to the fact that his wife was also elderly, he also feared that the opportunity − (ª) concerns were beyond his own personal to bear children had passed. Zakariya's fortunes. As a revered spiritual leader and senior member of the Bani Israel clan, Zakariya− (ª) feared dying without an heir to take his place would allow the worst of the Bani Israel to dominate after his death. Perhaps he also feared for the well being of those under his guardianship, like his wife and Maryam (ª). Zakariya− (ª) prays to God Almighty to grant him an heir from Himself. The significance of this phrase is that through it, Zakariya− (ª) acknowledges that a successor will have to be specially ordained by God Almighty due to he and his wife's incapabilities in that regard. − ± mentions that there are three ideas about the meaning In al-Amthal, Shaikh Nasir − (ª) inheritance. He says: "What is the intent of inheritance here? Islamic Zakariya's commentators have put forth a good deal of research around this answer. Some of them believe that the inheritance here means inheritance of property. Some consider it pointing to the position of prophethood. Some others consider it possible that the intent of the meaning is comprehensive including each of the two preceding views. Many of the Shi'ah scholars have selected the first (view). At times, a group of the (Sunni) scholars have selected the second (view). While some others, like Sayyid Qutb ± (in the Shade of the − and al-Alusi − (in Spirits of Meanings), have selected the third meaning." Quran) Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"Those who restrict inheritance to inheritance of property base it upon the apparent åæ (meaning) of the word inheritance (TiâA ê ) in this meaning because this word, when it is devoid of any other associated context, it means the inheritance of property. When we − in matters of meaning, like verse 32 of view (the word), it is used in parts of the Quran − − Surah Fatir: ± 'Then We gave the Book for an inheritance to those whom We chose from among Our servants...' Then, certainly there exists an indicater of context in the example of this instance. In addition, a portion of the traditions convey that numerous guidance and warnings regarding bringing harm to the Ahbar ± − and they were the learned men of the Jews." − was the leader of the learned men. When we go "In the time of the Bani Israel, Zakariya − was from the family of Sulaiman − Ibn Dawud − and in beyond that, the wife of Zakariya − Ibn Dawud, − certainly it could be that consideration of the outstanding wealth of Sulaiman − may have feared that this wealth may be it referred to inheritance of property. Zakariya placed in the hands of unrighteous people and they might seize the wealth. Or it might fall into the hands of the irreligious and immoral." "By itself, it could be a reason for the coming into existence and the spread of corruption in the society. Due to that, he sought from his Lord that He provide him with a righteous heir in order to inherit this wealth and contemplate upon it and spend it in the most virtuous places." − ± − (ª), the Pure, the "Well-known traditions related on the authority of Fatimah az-Zahra − (x) and she it is who provided evidence with this daughter of the Messenger of Allah verse with regards to returning (the property of) Fadak. That (matter) came to (be known − ± − Bakr) and she said: O Abu − to) Fatimah and she was (thereafter) present before (Abu − that you can inherit from your father and I cannot inherit Bakr! Is it in the Book of Allah from my father? You have come with an unprecedented thing! Does my action purpose − and your discarding it behind your back when (Allah) − your abandoning the Book of Allah − says in that: narrate the news of Yahya, the son of Zakariya?" ± "Therefore grant me from Thyself an heir. Who should inherit me and inherit from me − and make him, my Lord, one in whom Thou art well pleased." children of Ya'qub, − − the − mentioned here is Ya'qub − Ibn Mathan, In Majma', 'Allamah Tibirsi says that the Ya'qub ± − Ibn Mathan, − the father of prophet Musa − and al-Kalabi say he − (ª). Miqatil brother of 'Imran − Ibn Ishaq is the father of Maryam. It is also said it is a reference to Ya'qub ± − (ª), the − grandson of the prophet Ibrahim (ª).

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

Tibirsi says that Zakariya− (ª) was married to the sister of Maryam's mother, the daughter ± − and her lineage returns to Ya'qub − (ª) because she is the from the children of of 'Imran − Ibn Dawud − (ª) who was from the descendents of Yahuzha − − (Yahuda), − Sulaiman the son of − (ª). Ya'qub − (Levi), another son of Ya'qub − (ª). There Zakariya− (ª) was from the descendents of Lawi − (ª) are differences in the verse's meaning. It is said its meaning is he will inherit Zakariya's − according to Abu− Salih. property and inherit prophethood from the family of Ya'qub, ± − ± It is − (ª) prophethood and prophethood from the said its meaning is he will inherit Zakariya's − − (ª), according to al-Hasan family of Ya'qub and Mujahid. ± − After mentioning these points, 'Allamah Tibirsi gives the following analysis: ± "Our companions give evidence with the verse that prophets inherit property and that the intent in the inheritance mentioned in (the verse) is property, not knowledge or − inheritance in language and Shari'ah is prophethood in that they say that the word Mirath å åæ ä only applied upon that which is transferred from the one leaving inheritance (TËiÌÀ»A ) to the

å

one inheriting (TiAÌ»A ê ), like property. It is not used in other than property except in a figurative and expanded manner. Also, an actual meaning is not changed to the figurative without an indication." − said in his Du'a: − "And make him, my Lord, one in whom Thou art well "Then, Zakariya pleased." Meaning: make that guardian (Waliy), O my Lord! who inherits from me well-pleasing with You, obedient to Your command. When we ascribe inheritance upon prophethood, it is not for that meaning, it is foolish language. Do you not see that it is not − good that anyone say: O Allah! Raise for us a prophet and make him reasoning, well-pleasing in his ethics? (It is) because when he is a prophet, he has already entered − upon (Allah's) pleasure and that is the greatest of the pleasure in prophethood." − clearly explains that he fears from his "That which we say is strengthened in that Zakariya cousins after him in his saying: 'And surely I fear my cousins after me...' and he only seeks an heir due to his fear and it is not appropriate that he fear from them anything − was the most except in property, not in prophethood or knowledge because Zakariya − the Exalted, that he should fear that Allah − would raise a learned with regards to Allah, prophet unsuitable for prophethood and that he should bequeath his knowledge and wisdom to he whom was not suitable for both. It is because (a prophet) is raised in order to disseminate knowledge and spread it among people. Then how can he fear in a matter which it is the aim of (the prophet) being raised? "

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"It is said that this references for you the inheritance of property because in that is the addition of being sparing and stingy. We say may God forbid that the two matters are equal! Surely, property is given to the believer and non-believer, the righteous and the wicked." "It is not impossible that he should assist his cousins when they were of the people of corruption that they would take possession of his wealth and spend it in that which they should not. Rather, in that is the point of wisdom. Certainly the strengthening of sinfulness and helping them in their blameworthy deeds is forbidden in faith. Then, he would be reckoned as being stingy and withholding, then he is not just. His saying: 'And surely I fear my cousins after me...' it is understood that his fear is only in their ethics and their deeds and the meanings (implied in these), not in their eminent people. Just as he − only fears his outcome. The intent in (I fear) is the cousins wasting my who fears Allah − the Exalted." money and their using it in disobedience to Allah, ________________

ç é ä å æ ä æ å ä æ ä æ ä æ ä Ð ä æ ä å å æ å ä å ð äå ì ì ä ä {BÎÀm ê ½J³ Å¿ê É» ½¨Và Á» ÓÎZÍ ÉÀmA êÂݬIê ºjrJà BÃGê BÍj·k ê BÍ} − Surely We give you good news of a boy whose name shall be Yahya: "O Zakariya! ± We have not made before anyone his equal." [Maryam 19:7]

ä æ ä ä è å å å ä ìä ä ä ää æ ä ä ç æ å ä ä ð ¾B³} ê ä êOÃB· Ë ÂÝ« Ï»ê ÆÌ¸Í ÐÓÃC Li ê ÏMCj¿A {BÎN§ ê ê Å¿ê O¬¼I f³ Ë Aj³B§ î ê ê jJ¸»A

"He said: O my Lord! When shall I have a son, and my wife is barren, and I myself have reached indeed the extreme degree of old age?" [Maryam 19:8]

ä Ðä ä ç æ ä å ä æ ä ä å æ ä æ ä åæ ä ä æ ä ä è ä ì ä ä ä å ä ä ð ϼ§ ÌÇ ¹Iií ¾B³ ¹»h· ê ¾B³} {B×Îq ¹M Á» Ë ½J³ Å¿ê ¹N´¼a f³ Ë ÅÎÇ X

"He said: So shall it be; your Lord says: It is easy to Me, and indeed I created you before, when you were nothing." [Maryam 19:9] − (ª) prayer for an heir, his prayer was answered by God, the Following Zakariya's Mighty and Majestic, as his prayers had always been answered in the past. He was given the good news of a son to be born named Yahya (ª). According to ± å ð ä å − Shaikh Tusi the word {jrJÃ} means news which would make ± − in at-Tibyan, − (ª) happiness apparent in his face. He also mentions that he was Zakariya's named Yahya ± because God Almighty enlivened him for the sake of faith, according − to Qutadah.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ç

é ê ä means that no one before him had − In Majma', 'Allamah Tibirsi says the meaning of {BÎÀm} ± − been named Yahya, according to Qutadah, Ibn Juraij, as-Sadi and Ibn Zaid. In addition, ± he mentions that this name is a distinction for Yahya ± from two perspectives: − be He Glorified, had taken charge of his naming and had not entrusted "First, that Allah, that to his parents and second, that his being given a name never previously given − 'Abdullah (as-Sadiq-AS) indicates upon his virtue. Abu said: 'Likewise is al-Husain (ª) it ± ± ±− had not been previously given as a name and the skies never cried except upon the two (meaning Yahya Forty companions have said it. That by which (the skies) ± and al-Husain). ± cried, he (ª) said, was its raising red and its setting red. The murderer of Yahya was ± illegitimate and the murderer of al-Husain was illegitimate.'" ±

7

− Ibn 'Uyyainah narrates on the authority of 'Ali Ibn Zaid on the authority of 'Ali Ibn "Sufyan al-Husain (ª) who said: 'We left with al-Husain (ª) and he never descended upon a place ± ± − One of descent nor did he depart from a place except he mentioned Yahya ± Ibn Zakariya. − the Mighty and Majestic, was day he said: One of the disgraces of this world for Allah, − led to an injustice among the injustices of the that the head of Yahya Ibn Zakariya ± children of Israel.'" 8 − "It is (also) said that the meaning of (Allah's) saying is that: We had not made for him previously a namesake born as a child of barren women similar to him. It is like His saying: "Do you know anyone equal to him?" [Maryam 19:65], in other words, an example − and Mujahid." − (like him), according to Ibn 'Abbas − In Tafsir al-Burhan, Sayyid al-Bahrani ± − narrates a tradition from a Sunni source on the − on authority of Ibn Sheeruwaih ad-Dulaimi in his book, al-Firdaus in the chapter of Qaf − who said: "The Messenger of Allah − (x) said in His, the Mighty the authority of Ibn 'Abbas and Majestic's saying: 'We have not made before anyone his equal.' He (x) said: 'That is Yahya ± and the coolness my eyes, al-Husain." ±

9

− 'Imran − wherein Zakariya− (ª) prays − The narrative of Zakariya− (ª) is also related in Surah Ali − pray to his Lord; he said: My Lord! Grant for a child: "There (in the Mihrab) ± − did Zakariya me from Thee good offspring; surely Thou art the Hearer of prayer. Then the angels − gives you the good news of called to him as he stood praying in the sanctuary: That Allah − and honorable and chaste and a prophet from among Yahya ± verifying a Word from Allah, − 'Imran − 3:38-39] the good ones." [Ali

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− − 'Allamah Tibirsi, in his commentary of this verse in Majma', says that the Word from Allah ± which Yahya (ª) verified was that which was related to 'Isa Ibn Maryam (ª), as Yahya (ª) ± ± was the first to verify him. His affirmation of 'Isa first occurred while he was still in his own mother's womb, as will be mentioned in more detail below. Zakariya− (ª) was entrusted with the care for Maryam in his monastery. He treated her like she was his own child. He served her devotedly like a servant bringing for her whatever she required himself on a daily basis. One day while visiting her, he noticed the signs of pregnancy in Maryam. He became very − anxious because he feared her being insulted by the Bani Israel with enmity. Zakariya went to his wife and informed her of that. That day she was pregnant with Yahya. His wife ± said: ' Bring her to me that I can observe her!' − wife had not stood for her, in anger As soon as Maryam entered upon her and Zakariya's and disapproval. At once she felt harsh movement within her own stomach and a voice from within her stomach called out: 'O mother! The leader of women, including the leader of men, has entered upon you and you have not stood for her.' She abruptly rose from her place. She said that she felt as though her child in her stomach bowed to her in respect of what was in Maryam's stomach. This action was an answer to your doubt of her and your complaint to your husband. It was a realization that − be He Exalted. As such he was the first to attest to (the this is one of the signs of Allah, 10 prophethood of) 'Isa (ª). Yahya ± was born approximately six months prior to 'Isa. − In the Tafsir al-Kashif, Shaikh Mughniyyah notes that Yahya (ª) is known among the ± é ä å), meaning John the Baptist. − (ÏÃAfÀ¨À»A Christians as Yuhanna al-Ma'madani ê ä æ ä BÄYÌÍ ± − (ª) response, seeking clarification of this situation, was: "O my Lord! When Zakariya's shall I have a son, and my wife is barren, and I myself have reached indeed the extreme degree of old age?" − ± Makarem − In Tafsir al-Amthal, Shaikh Nasir explains that in referring to his wife as being ç {Aj³B§} ê it means that her ability to bear children has come to an end and she is cut-off from

ç

é ê ä meaning that his body childbirth. Then, he describes himself as being elderly and {BÎN§} has become emaciated and his frame has become weakened. Therefore, in amazement, he essentially asks how can this be possible for such a man in this state?

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− the Mighty and Majestic replies: "So shall it be; your Lord says: It is easy to Me, and Allah, indeed I created you before, when you were nothing." As it should not be an amazing matter for God, the Mighty and Majestic, when He had originally created man from nothing. Nor should it be amazing that He could grant a man the ability to create a child at − (ª) advanced age, even though his wife was barren. It is only a matter of Zakariya's saying: It shall be, and it is as He intends. _______________

çé ä ä ä ä ä ì ä ð ä å é ä ä åä ä ¢ ç ä æ ä æ ð ä {BÍÌm ë TÝQ pBÄ»A Á¼¸M ÜC ¹NÍE ¾B³ ÒÍE Ï»ê ½¨UA Li ¾B³} ê ¾Bλ "He said: My Lord! Give me a sign. He said: Your sign is that you will not be able to speak to the people three nights while in sound health." [Maryam 19:10]

ç é ä ä ç ä æ å å ä æ ä æ æ ä Ð ä æä ä æ ä ä ä äää ð ÆC ÁÈλG ê Ë Ñj¸I AÌZJm ê æ ÐÓ¼§ä äXjb¯} {BÎr§ ê ê ÓYËD¯ LAjZÀ»A ê ê Å¿ê êɿ̳

"So he went forth to his people from his place of worship, then he made known to them − morning and evening." [Maryam 19:11] that they should glorify (Allah) − (ª) response, meaning: 'O my Lord! When Commentators have noted that Zakariya's shall I have a son, and my wife is barren, and I myself have reached indeed the extreme degree of old age?' was a reaction of amazement rather than doubt. As a result this amazement, he requests a sign from his Lord affirming this miraculous pregnancy. God Almighty informs him that the sign would be that he would be unable to speak to people, − says that his tongue would be seized for although healthy, for three days. Ibn 'Abbas − three days without illness. Qutadah and as-Sadi say that his tongue would be seized − and pray to without impairment or becoming mute. He would be able to recite the Zabur 11 − and glorify Him but it would not be possible for him to speak to man. Allah −Ali 'Imran − 'Allamah − − − In al-Mizan, Tabatabai ± − ± − says: "It has preceded in the narrative of Surah − was by means of angels: 'Then the angels that the conveyance of good news to Zakariya − gives you the good news of called to him as he stood praying in the sanctuary: That Allah Yahya ...' , he, peace be upon him, only asked for a sign to distinguish by (that sign) ± − ± between truth (Haqq) and falsehood (Batil)."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"Then, to indicate upon that which he heard of was the call of angelical revelation, not a satanic encounter. Due to that, he was replied to with an divine sign, not a means of Shaitan ±− approaching him. The (sign) was that his tongue would not speak for three days − Glorified is He." except for the remembrance of Allah, Surely prophets are infallible with divine protection. It is not allowed that Shaitan ±− can act upon their souls. He said: 'My Lord! Give me a sign...' requesting a distinguishing sign. His saying was: 'Your sign is that you will not be able to speak to the people three nights while in sound health.' as a response to that which he had requested. It was that his − while he was tongue would be seized for three days aside from the remembrance of Allah ç ä {BÍÌm} ê , in other words, being health, sound without illness and calamity. The intent in the lack of ability to speak to people is lack of the capability to speak to them by means of dispatching the intrinsic (meaning) and desiring the intended (meaning) as an allusion. The intent of three nights are the nights of its three days. It is common in usage. − in the art of Incumbent upon him, peace be upon him, was the remembrance of Allah remembrance while not being capable of speaking to man, except by signs and − indications. The proof of that, all of it, is His saying, the Exalted, in the narrative of Surah −Ali 'Imran: − 'He said: My Lord! Appoint a sign for me. Said He: Your sign is that you should not speak to men for three days except by signs; and remember your Lord much and glorify Him in the evening and the morning.' (3:41)." 'So he went forth to his people from his place of worship...' meaning he left his place of − devotion, the Mihrab. ± − 'Then he made known to them that they should glorify (Allah) − morning and evening.' Mujahid says that he made it known by writing it upon the ground. − al-Hasan and Qutadah say that it he made it known that they should pray morning and ± èäæå ä evening. Prayer is also known as Subhah (ÒZJm ) and Tasbeeh± (è\ÎJnM ê æ ) whenever there is ± Tasbeeh± (glorification of God) in it. It is (also) said the intent of it Tasbeeh± itself, in other words, not prayer. Ibn Juraij said that Zakariya− (ª) appeared before them in a elevated room he prayed in. He could climb up to it only with a ladder. They would pray in the morning and evening prayers with him. Then, he would leave from them and give permission for them (to enter) with his tongue. However, when his tongue was seized, he gave them permission without speaking. They recognized by that the time of pregnancy of his wife with Yahya (ª) had ± come. He remained three days without being capable of speaking with them, although he − 12 was capable of Tasbeeh± and Du'a. _________________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ç é ä ä æ å å æ ä ä ëì å ä åÐ äæä ê ê {BÎJu Á¸Z»A ÊBÄÎME Ë ÑÌ´I LBN¸»A ha ÓÎZÍ BÍ} ê ê ¢

"O Yahya! Take hold of the Book with strength, and We granted him wisdom while yet a ± child." [Maryam 19:12]

ç é ä ä ä ç ä ä ì åä æ ç ä ä ê ÆB· Ë ÑB·k Ë BÃf» Å¿ê BÃBÄY Ë} {BδM ¢

"And tenderness from Us and purity, and he was one who guarded (against evil)." [Maryam 19:13]

ç é ä ç ì ä æ å ä æ ä ä æ ä çé ä ä ê AiBJU Å¸Í Á» Ë ÉÍf»AÌI ê ê ê AjI Ë} {BÎv§

"And dutiful to his parents, and he was not insolent, disobedient."

[Maryam 19:14]

ç é å ä æå ä æ ä ä å å ä ä æ ä ä ä å ä æ ä æ ä ä è ä ä ê S¨JÍ ÂÌÍ Ë PÌÀÍ ÂÌÍ Ë f»Ëê ÂÌÍ Éμ§ ê ÂÝm Ë} {BÎY

"And peace on him on the day he was born, and on the day he dies, and on the day he is raised to life." [Maryam 19:15] These verse were revealed in praise of Yahya Ibn Zakariya− (ª) who is acknowledged to ± have been blessed with prophethood at the age of three.13 This phrase: 'Take hold of the Book with strength...' is repeated in three other places with regard to the prophet Musa (ª):

æ å ä X æ ä ð åð ç æ ä ì ç ä æ ì æ ä ð å æ æä åÉ»ä BÄJN·Ë} æää ä æj¿AåÔ Ëì ÑÌ´I ëì åê BÇhb¯ ëÕ6Ïq ½¸» ÝÎv°M ë ê ê Ë Ò¤§Ì¿Õ ê 6Ïq ½· Å¿ê `AÌ»ÞA ϯ ê ä æ å ä ä å äæ ê ä æ ê AËhaDÍä ¹¿Ì³ {...BÈÄnYDI

− "And We ordained for him Musa in the tablets admonition of every kind and clear explanation of all things; so take hold of them with firmness and enjoin your people to − 7:145] take hold of what is best thereof..." [al-A'raf In another verse, prophet Musa (ª) was addressed with a similar phrase:

å ìä ä å æ ää å å ä åì ä æÁ¸¼¨» åå æ Ëì ÑÌ´I ëì åê æÁ·BÄÎMC ê ê B¿ AËj·gA {ÆÌ´NM Éί F¿AËha}

− We have given you with firmness and bear in mind what "...Take hold of the law (Taurah) is in it, so that you may guard (against evil)." [al-Baqarah 2:63]

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− In the same Surah, prophet Musa (ª) was again addressed with a similar expression:

å å ¢ ä å å äæ ä æ ää ä æ å ä æ ää æ ä Ô ì ë ì å æ å æ ää å ä æ í ê {ĄÀmA Ë ÑÌ´Iê Á·BÄÎMC F¿ AËha iÌñ»A Á¸³Ì¯ BĨ¯i Ë Á¸³BRο BÃhaC gGê Ë}

"And when We made a covenant with you and raised the mountain over you: take hold of what We have given you with firmness and be obedient." [al-Baqarah 2:93] 14 − Shaikh Tusi In Tibyan, ± − explains the meaning of this phrase: "'O Yahya ± take hold of the − which was revealed to Musa, with strength, in other words, Book...', meaning the Taurah with earnestness. 'We granted him wisdom while yet a child...' We granted him − until great benefit was achieved for him." understanding of the Book of Allah − ± Makarem − Shaikh Nasir says in al-Amthal, these are "distinct attributes of Yahya ± (ª). We − had blessed Zakariya − (ª) in his old age with Yahya saw in previous verses how Allah ± (ª). After that, the first of that which we see in these verses is the important divine command in which Allah speaks to Yahya: 'O Yahya! Take hold of the Book with strength...' The best ± ± known (interpretation) among the commentators that the intent of 'The Book' here is the − Taurah, until such as it purports a consensus upon that. Except that some imply it is − (Psalms) of Dawud. − It is natural possible that it could be a specific book, like the Zabur that it is not a book comprised of a new faith and recent school of thought." "Other than that, the first likelihood is strength as evident. In any situation, the intent of take the Book with strength is to execute and implement that which comes in the Book of − and that which is contained in it with resoluteness, power, the heavenly Taurah deep-rooted determination and keen will-power. To act upon all that which is in (the − Taurah). To seek the assistance of every material and mental power in the path of spreading it and increasing its scope. That one of the uncontestable principles is that it is not possible to propagate any book and religion without strength and capability and the determination of its followers and helpers. This is a lesson for every believer, every one − on a spiritual path and every traveler upon the path of Allah." − indicates ten gifts which "Yahya ± and his attributes are ten. Thereafter, the Glorious Quran − had accorded Yahya Allah ± and that by which he had earned the prosperity (Taufeeq) of − Allah:

çé ä ä æ å å æ ä ìåä æ ç ä 1) {BJu ê Á¸Z»A ÊBÄÎME Ë}'We granted him wisdom while yet a child...'; 2) {BÃf» Å¿ê BÃBÄY}'And tenderness from Us...' ; Tenderness originally is in the meaning of mercy, compassion, ç ää fondness and the manifestation of devotion and love; 3) {ÑB·k Ë} 'And Purity...'"

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"Some of the commentators have explained that in various meanings. Some have å explained it as righteous deeds (å\»Bv»A ê ì ½¿B¨»A ê ) while others (have explained it as) obedience

æ åä and sincerity (åxÝaâA ê Ë Ò§Bñ»A). (While some have enumerated the third as being dutiful to

his parents and beneficent towards them, the fourth as having good reputation and − remembrance (of Allah) and the fifth as being a pure helper, except that the apparent ç ä ä (meaning) is that for {ÑB·k Ë} there is a broad meaning, including and comprising each of these pure, righteous attributes."

ç ä çé ä ä " 4) {BδM 'And dutiful to ê æ ä ê ê AjIé ä Ë} ê ÆB· Ë} 'And he was one who guarded (against evil)...; 5) {ÉÍf»AÌI ç é ä æ åä æ ä ä çé ä æ å ä æ ä ä his parents...' ; 6) {AiBJU Å¸Í Á» Ë} 'And he was not insolent...' ; 7) {BÎv§} ê Å¸Í Á» Ë 'And he was

not disobedient.' When each of these distinct attributes and great merits were joined, ä ê å äÂÌÍæ ä êÉμ§ ä 'Peace on æ ä ä èÂÝm} − Glorified is He, sent peace upon him at three points: 8) {f»Ë Allah,

å

ç å

ä æ å äÂÌÍæ ä Ë} ä ä , 'And on the day he dies...; 10) {BÎY å ä äÂÌÍæ ä Ë} é ä S¨JÍ him on the day he was born...; 9) {PÌÀÍ 'And on the day he is raised to life.'" Although young, his youth was no obstacle in his attainment of the greatest heights in asceticism and devotion to worship. Like his father before him, he was deeply devoted to − Ta'ala. − worship and cried constantly out of fear of Allah There is one tradition on the authority of Mu'ammar who says: "Some children said to Yahya: 'Come with us so that we ± − revealed (the verse) about can play.' (Yahya) said: 'We were not created to play' and Allah ± 15 him: 'We granted him wisdom while yet a child...' The following is one brief historical account of Yahya ± (ª) and his father: Yahya ± (ª) had already reached the extreme height in asceticism, worship and excessive − the Exalted, since his youth. In his youth he entered Jerusalem. weeping for fear of Allah, He saw the scholars and Rabbis having coats of (animal) hair and hooded woolen cloaks. He was affected at that time with a far reaching affect. His mother came seeking to sew for him a coat of hair and a hooded woolen cloak in order that he could be like the religious authorities and join with them in their worship. Then, his mother requested him to wait until her husband gave some guidance and she sought his permission in that. − (ª) came and his mother informed him of the saying of Then when his father Zakariya Yahya ± (ª), his father said to him: 'O my son! What has summoned you to this while you are my young child? He said: O my father! Have you not seen one younger than me in age taste death? He said: Yes! Then, he commanded his wife to reply to him that which he had asked, which she did.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

She sewed Yahya ± (ª) a coat of hair and placed a hood upon his head and he went to the place of worship with the Rabbis and scholars. He was the youngest among them in − until his body had wasted years. He spent his nights and days crying out of fear of Allah away, his eyes became sunken and his bones became brittle. He would make the Rabbis and scholar cry along with his parents due to his crying, out of courtesy to him and the affect of his piety. Rather, his father would avoid (people's) admonishment in the presence of his son Yahya ± (ª). (He would avoid) the mention of the paradise and hellfire due to compassion for him and out of caution of his being injured or destroyed. One day, his father referred to his excessive weeping and lamenting while at this age of − (ª) said: youth. He said to his father: Certainly, it is you who drove me to that. Zakariya When was that O my son? He said: Did you not say: O son, between paradise and the − hellfire is a pass. No one will cross it except the ones crying out of fear of Allah!? Then, − (ª) said: Yes, my son. To you, is your affair." Zakariya Yahya ± (ª) was he who often left to the desert in order to commune with his Lord, being remote from people. He had given the news to people of the appearance of al-Maseeh± (the Messiah). That was before the appearance of 'Isa (ª) by more than twenty years. Then, when the Messiah appeared, he summoned him for people and gave them the laws of the Injeel, confirming (these laws) and following them. 'Isa (ª) was dispatched with envoys and apostles to a (particular) group of the Bani Israel to admonish them and teach them the rulings of religion and laws. He (ª) was once dispatched with Yahya ± (ª) to a people (of Bani Israel). At its head was a ruler affirming Yahya (ª), honoring him and obeying his commands. With this king was a woman (his ± wife), elderly and aged. She desired that (the king) marry a daughter of hers from a previous husband. When this marriage was presented to him, Yahya (ª) prohibited the ± king from that. He± (ª) said: It is not permitted for you to marry a daughter of your wife. Then, the mother became angered while she hid (her anger) within herself. When the night descended, she got the old man drunk until he was compromised and the drunkenness made him stammer. Then, she dressed her daughter in the most splendid dress and adorned her in the most perfect adornment. She gave her plentiful, bodily and sexual enticements. Then he became madly infatuated with her and desirous of her. When he came to her, she said to him based on whatever her mother taught her: I certainly will not be pleased until you pay me a dowry pleasing to me.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

When the king asked her what dowry would please her, she said: The head of Yahya ± Ibn − (ª). Then, the cursed king sent (a message) to him seeking his (presence). Then Zakariya he ordered his slaughter in her presence. He was slaughtered and his noble head was placed on a tray of gold before him. The murderer of Yahya ± (ª) was illegitimate, like the (one who) hamstrung the she-camel of Salih; ± − ± the murderer of Ameer al-Mumineen (ª) and his son, al-Husain (ª). ± Iblees was making the rounds in the gatherings spreading among people lies and falsities − (ª). Among them was that he, God forbid, was he who had violated the about Zakariya − (Maryam). He (Iblees) provoked the people toward his murder until he virgin, al-Batul affected some of them and they planned his murder. They sought after him and he fled to a valley filled with trees. A huge tree was split for him, then he entered it and it was comfortable for him. The accursed Iblees took hold of the corner of his cloak, grabbed it and left it (exposed) from the tree that it would be a sign of his (hiding) place. He guided the worst of the Bani Israel to him after he appeared to them in the form of a man. He said: He performed some magic on this tree, it split open and he entered into it. Then, when they did not agree with him, he showed them the corner of his clothing. Then, he informed them that they should cut down the tree and saw it, which they did. They sawed this prophet from his head to his feet, lengthwise along with the tree. − is connected with the latter of the righteous prophets of Allah − and his honored Zakariya − worshippers. Allah, the Exalted, honored him in that He sent a group of His angels to perform his final washing; shrouding, prayer upon him and burial with that which he was worthy of (in terms of) distinction and honor. 16 Some traditions indicate that the woman for whom Yahya was killed was actually the ± − was dispatched with twelve apostles, teaching people king's niece "Yahya ± Ibn Zakariya

äå æ ä

æå å æ

æ ë OÄIê). The king had a niece and prohibiting them from marriage of their nieces (dC ë OÄIê ËC OaC who enamored him and he intended to marry her. Then, the news reached the nieces' mother that Yahya ± had prohibited these kinds of marriages. She sent her daughter to the king with adornments. When the king saw her, he asked her what were her needs? She − He said: Ask me (something) said: My need is that you slaughter Yahya Ibn Zakariya. ± other than this. She said: I do not request anything aside from this. When she refused him, he summoned a (gold) tray. He summoned Yahya, then slaughtered him." 17 ± − as-Sadiq A tradition from Imam (ª) says that the heaven and earth had only cried for two ± ±− persons: al-Husain Ibn 'Ali (ª) and Yahya ± ± Ibn Zakariya− (ª):

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− 'Abdillah (ª) that the heaven and the earth cried due to the "(It is on the) authority of Abu murder of al-Husain (ª) and both (the heaven and earth) were reddened. (The heaven ± − (ª)." 18 and the earth) had never cried for anyone (else) except for Yahya ± Ibn Zakariya The Muslim's account of Yahya ± concurs with the Christian texts in the majority of matters. Refer to this brief passage from the Oxford Dictionary of Saints: "John the Baptist (d. c.30), precursor of Jesus Christ. All that is certainly known about him comes from the Gospels. He was the son of Zachariah, a Temple priest, and his wife Elizabeth, who was a cousin of the Blessed Virgin Mary. He was born when his mother was comparatively advanced in years, after the foretelling of his birth and the choice of his name by an angel. Nothing more is heard of him until he began his mission of preaching and baptizing in the river Jordan c.27. His way of life and style of preaching closely resembled those of some Old Testiment prophets: his diet was locusts and wild honey, his message one of repentance and preparation for the coming of the Messiah and his Kingdom. Among his disciples were the future apostles Peter and Andrew. He himself baptized Christ and recognized him as the Messiah when he saw the Spirit come down upon him. Later Christ praised him, saying that none among the sons of women had arisen who was greater than him." "John also denounced the incestuous union of Herod Antipas with his niece and brother's wife, Herodias, and was imprisoned for doing so. His death was brought about by the hatred of Herodias and the weakness of Herod. When Salome, her daughter, had greatly pleased the king with her dancing at his birthday feast, he promised she could have from him whatever she liked ‘even if it is half my kingdom’. Instigated by her mother, she demanded the head of John the Baptist on a dish. Herod, without a trial of any kind, dispatched an executioner to John's prison (identified as Machaerus by the Dead Sea) and had his head presented to Salome, who passed it on to her mother." "John the Baptist was believed to have been buried at Sebaste (Samaria) where he was honored in the 4th century, but the tomb was desecrated by Julian the Apostate. Various relics of the head of John the Baptist are claimed at Rome and elsewhere, but there seems little likelihood of any of them being authentic. His cult, however, is exceedingly ancient both in East and West: the Martyrology of Jerome, the Calendar of Carthage, and the sermons of Augustine all emphasize that his principal feast of 24 June is that of his earthly birthday, calculated from the Gospels as being six months before the birth of Christ (25 December = octavo kalendas Januarii, while 24 June = octavo kalendas Julii). This led to a belief that he was sanctified in the womb and never committed sin."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"John the Baptist has always been held in high repute in the Monastic Order: by his solitary and austere life in the desert he was considered to have been a monk himself. His intercession was believed to lead to the coming of Christ within the souls of the devout, just as his work in history had been to prepare the Jews for his earthly coming." 19 Finally, regarding the last verse of this section: 'And peace on him on the day he was born, and on the day he dies, and on the day he is raised to life,' Tibirsi mentions this in ± his Tafsir, Majma': "Meaning peace be upon him from Us in these days, according to 'Ata. It is said (it means) peace and safety from Us, according to al-Kalabi. Its meaning is peace and safety for him on the day he was born from the offenses of Shaitan ±− and his illusions. (Peace and safety be upon him) on the day he dies from the calamities of the this world and from the punishment from the grave. (Peace and safety be upon him) on the day he is raised alive − − from the rise of the terror (of Qiyamah) and the punishment of the grave. (Allah) only çé ä å ä æå mentioned 'Alive' {BÎY} as emphasis of His term 'Raised' {S¨JÍ}. It is said that its meaning is that he will be raised with the martyrs because they are described as being alive." _________________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

åæ ä ç é æ ä ç ä æä æ æ ä ä ä æ ä ä æ ä æ ê Å¿ê PhJNÃA gGê ê ÁÍj¿ LBN¸»A ê ê BÃB¸¿ BȼÇC ê {Bγjq ϯ j·gA Ë} ê Â

"And mention Maryam in the Book when she drew aside from her family to an eastern place." [Maryam 19:16]

çé ä ç ä ä ä ä ì ä ä ä ä å æ ä æ ä æä ä ç æ å æ æ ä ä ì ä {BÍÌm ê AjrI BÈ» ½RÀN¯ BÄYËi BÈλGê FļmiD¯ BIBVYê ÁÈÃËe ê ê Å¿ê PhbMB¯} ±³

"So she took a veil (to screen herself) from them; then We sent to her Our spirit, and there appeared to her a well-made man." [Maryam 19:17]

ç é ä ä æ å æ ä æ Ð æ ì å åä ð æ ä {BδMê OÄ· ÆGê ¹Ä¿ê êÅÀYj»BIê ģC ÏÃGê O»B³}

"She said: Surely I fly for refuge from you to the Beneficent God, if you are one guarding (against evil)." [Maryam 19:18] After mentioning the narratives of two of His righteous servants, God Almighty turns his − attention to the narrative of Maryam, the mother of Jesus (ª). She is Maryam Bint 'Imran − During Maryam's lifetime, the Bani Mathan − were the leaders of the Children Ibn Mathan. − Ibn Dawud, − peace of Israel. Maryam herself is from the progeny of the prophet Sulaiman − named Hannah be upon them both. It is said that a wife of prophet Sulaiman, was ± − Ibn Futail. Hannah's prophet 'Isa's grandmother. Her father was named Faqud sister is ± − wife. She is named Elizabeth in Biblical passages, although Muslim said to be Zakariya's sources have not given much attention to her name. Maryam, therefore, was the niece of − wife was actually Maryam's Yahya Ibn Zakariya− (ª). Some reports say that Zakariya's ± sister and, according to this account, Maryam was the aunt of Yahya (ª). Perhaps, it is ± − Yahya due to this familial relationship that the narratives of Zakariya, are mentioned ± 20 along with the narrative of Maryam, peace be upon them all. The narrative begins: 'And mention Maryam in the Book when she drew aside from her − when family to an eastern place.' Meaning bring to mind Maryam's mention in the Quran she withdrew from her people seeking to isolate herself from the confusion and noise of her society. Undoubtedly, her reason for this withdrawal was to have privacy for herself so that nothing would distract her from engaging in worship and communion with her Lord.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

æ ä äæ

è åä

ä ê , derived from (hJÃæ ), means to encounter − According to the linguist Raghib, the term {PhJNÃG} and move away from things which attracts one's attention. Her intention to isolate herself was so that she could perfect for herself a proper place for her seclusion. 21 She withdrew to an eastern place. Commentators have given two primary interpretations of the meaning of an eastern place. One is that it is a reference to an eastern part of the city of Jerusalem. There were known to be large places of worship which could offer such a solemn atmosphere. Another view is that it refers to an eastern corner of her home. In either context, she isolated herself from her people in a place facing east and sat in a − the Nasara (secluded) corner away from them. According to Ibn 'Abbas, ± − (early Christians) took the east as their Qiblah. According to al-'Asim ± and Ibn Muslim, she went away from her people in order that they could not gaze upon her. 'Ata says that she was blessed that she could locate a place of privacy, then examine her head (for lice). He says she emerged on a cold day and sat in the east due to the (warmth of the) sun. 'So she took a veil (to screen herself) from them...' Meaning she set up a veil apart from her people in order that they would not be able see her and it would be a barrier between her and her people. − Shaikh Mughniyyah, in al-Kashif, mentions the following: "The apparent (meaning) of the verse indicates that Maryam withdrew from her people and isolated herself in an eastern place. She made a barrier between them and herself whereas she could not see them and they could not see her. Why did Maryam withdraw? Is is due to her seeing something which displeased her? Or (was it) to perform worship or something other than that?" "Is the intent in an eastern place a place wherein the sun would shine? Or a place located the eastern in the eastern part of Jerusalem? Or an eastern house of her people? Also, what type of veil did she take aside from (her people)? Is it a wall or a hut? There is nothing in the verse pointing to answers to these questions. It is because it is not related − Glorified is He, inspired them to faith or to life with a reason. It is not remote that Allah, − (ª) could inform her of the birth of both to (go to this) secluded place in order that Jibrail 'Isa (ª) while she was withdrawn from people." "'Then We sent to her Our spirit, and there appeared to her a well-made man.' The intent − (ª). He appeared before her in the form of man of perfect stature. In of Our Spirit is Jibrail some of the commentaries, he came to her in the form of man in order to make her feel at ease. In another commentary, she feared him and was frightened by this sudden event, it being unusual to intrude upon her without seeking her permission while she is in (the state of being) withdrawn. Surely, this arouses suspicion."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"Certainly this saying is the most preferred and most correct with an indication that it frightened her. 'She said: Surely I fly for refuge from you to the Beneficent God, if you are − from your evil if you believe one guarding (against evil).' (Meaning) I seek refuge in Allah − in Him, His judgment and His punishment. She became afraid of him due to Allah because she did not possess the means to prevent him from this her place except − Otherwise, she is seeking refuge in Allah − being (totally) dependent making him fear Allah. upon Him, it being the same that she feared him as being righteous or wretched." ________________

ç é ä ç å ä ä ää ð ä å åä ä ì ä ê B¿Ý« ê¹» KÇÞê ê¹Ii ¾Ìmi BÃC FÀÃGê ¾B³} {Bηk ¶

"He said: I am only a messenger of your Lord: That I will give you a pure boy." [Maryam 19:19]

ç é ä å ä æ ä ä è ä ä æ ä æ ä æ ä ä è å å å ä ìä æ ä ê ºC Á» Ë jrI ÏÄnnÀÍ ê {BάI Á» Ë ÂÝ« Ï»ê ÆÌ¸Í ÓÃC O»B³} "She said: When shall I have a boy and no mortal has yet touched me, nor have I been unchaste?" [Maryam 19:20]

çé æ ä ç æ ä ä ä ì ç ä æ ä ä ì ç ä å ä ä æ ä ä è ä ì ä ä ä å ä ä ä Ð ä ä ð ϼ§ ÌÇ ê¹Iií ¾B³ ¹»h· ê Aj¿C ÆB· Ë BÄ¿ê ÒÀYi Ë êpBļ»ê ÒÍE ɼ¨VÄ»ê Ë ÅÎÇ ê ¾B³} {BÎz´¿ X

X

X

"He said: Even so; your Lord says: It is easy to Me; and that We may make him a sign to men and a mercy from Us; and it is a matter which has been decreed." [Maryam 19:21)

çé ä ç ä æ ä ä ä æ ä å æ ä ä ä ä ê BÃB¸¿ ÉIê ê PhJNÃB¯ ÉN¼ÀZ¯} {BÎv³

"So she conceived him; then withdrew herself with him to a remote place." [Maryam 19:22] − ± Makarem − − In al-Amthal, Shaikh Nasir says of Jibrail's words, namely: 'I am only a messenger of your Lord...' : "This was like water which is thrown on a fire. It reassured the pure heart of Maryam, except that this reassurance did not continue for long. He said directly: 'I am only a messenger of your Lord: That I will give you a pure boy.' Hearing these words before her deeply affected the soul and existence of Maryam. It plunged her − Shaikh Tusi − once again into alarm." In at-Tibyan, saying: 'I will give you ±− says that Jibrail's − a pure boy' means: By Allah's permission, I will give you a pure boy."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"She said: 'When shall I have a boy and no mortal has yet touched me, nor have I been unchaste?' In this state she was thinking only of the natural causes (of pregnancy). She assumed that a woman was only possible to have a child by these two methods, not a third: either marriage and selecting a husband or to be stained with (the allegation) of contemptible acts and deviation." − relates that which Jibrail − said to her at the time of hearing her amazement at this "Allah − news, he said: 'Even so; your Lord says: It is easy to Me...' meaning that Allah, the Exalted, said that. He said: 'Your Lord says: It is easy to Me...' In other words, it is simple, that is not troublesome for Me. 'And that We may make him a sign to men...' In other words, We will make his creation without a male a brilliant miracle and an apparent sign for man. 'And a mercy from Us...' In other words, We will make him a blessing from Us." "'And it is a matter which has been decreed.' in other words, the creation of 'Isa without a − and He determined his existence. In other words, it male was a matter decreed by Allah − decrees that it should exist, then its was decided that he would be and that which Allah existence is necessary." 'So she conceived him...' Commentators are not agreed on the manner in which prophet − 'Isa was conceived. In Majma' , 'Allamah Tibirsi relates the following with regard to this ± − verse: "She became pregnant with 'Isa, then she became confused. It is said that Jibrail took the sleeve of her shirt with his finger and blew into it and Maryam conceived within an hour and she found the feeling of pregnancy." − blew into her cloak and she became pregnant, according to Ibn "It is said he (Jibrail) − − took the pocket of her outer Juraij. It is narrated on the authority of al-Baqir that Jibrail garment and blew into it with one blow. Then, the child was perfected in her womb within an hour just as a child is perfected in the womb of women in nine months. She emerged − wife) from the bath while she was heavily laden in pregnancy. Her aunt (Zakariya's observed her and rebuked her. Maryam fell upon her face out of shyness before her aunt − and Zakariya." 'Then withdrew herself with him to a remote place.' "Then, she went pregnant to a remote place. It is said its meaning is that she isolated herself (with the child) in a place remote from her people being shy before her family and fearing that they would accuse her of evil. They (meaning commentators) differ in the duration of her pregnancy."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− said: The (time) between her withdrawal and pregnancy "It is said one hour. Ibn 'Abbas − did not mention any separation between the two was only one hour because Allah − ½ (in (events). Because He mentioned she withdrew, then became pregnant. The (letter) Fa − 'Abdillah the verse) denotes sequence (of events). This is also narrated from Abu (as-Sadiq ª)." ± ±− "It is also said (the pregnancy) was six months and said to be eight months. That was (in itself) a sign due to a child did not live being born in six months, aside from him." − − In al-Kashif, Shaikh Mughniyyah points out that Jibrail's blowing upon her shirt is the cause of her pregnancy and its source is apparent:

æ ä ä ä æ ä æ ä ä æä ä ä ê å æÅ¿ê BÈίê BÄb°Ä¯ä BÈUj¯ ê Ë} {...BÄYËi OÄvYC ÏN»A

"And she (Maryam) guarded her chastity, so We breathed into her of Our inspiration..." −½ 21:91] [al-Anbiya

æ ä ä ä æ ä æ ä ä æä ì ä æ ä ä æ ä ä æ ä ä ê å æÅ¿ê êÉίê BÄb°Ä¯ä BÈUj¯ ê ÆAjÀ§ê ÒÄIA ÁÍj¿ Ë} {BÄYËi OÄvYC ÏN»A − who guarded her chastity, so We breathed into her "And Maryam, the daughter of 'Imran, of Our inspiration..." [at-Tahreem 66:12] ± − some of which explain "We have pointed numerous times to the verses of the Quran, others because its source is one. When we observe all of the verses mentioning 'Isa and Maryam, when we observe it from the perspective of this basis, we understand from it all that the intent of 'breathing' is creation and delivering and that the intent of 'inspiration' is none other than 'Isa himself." − ½ as you are aware of that, Allah, − the Exalted says: − "Verse 171 of Surah an-Nisa,

Ðé å å ä ê ä Ëä ɼ»A ì å æ ê `Ëi è å Ëä äÁÍj¿ ä æ ä åÅIAæ ÐÓnΧ ä æ ä ÐÓ»Gä BÇB´»Cæä X åÉNÀ¼· ä ê å\ÎnÀ»A ê ä BÀÃG} {...ÉÄ¿ ¾Ìmiåä äÁÍj¿ ê ê − and His Word which He '...The Messiah, 'Isa son of Maryam is only an apostle of Allah ½ − communicated to Maryam and a spirit from Him...' [an-Nisa 4:171]

å

"His 'Word' (means): 'Be' (æÅ·) with which He creates things. The meaning of 'communicating' with Maryam is that Maryam or her stomach is the place of the created. Maryam, when she sensed pregnancy, she went away from her family out of shyness and being distressed." _______________ Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ä æ ä ä æ ì æ ä å ä ä ää çé æ ä ç æ ä å æ å ä Ð å æ ä ä æ ê BÎnà OÄ· Ë AhÇ ½J³ íO¿ê ÏÄNλ ê ê BÍ O»B³ Ò¼bÄ»A {BÎnÄ¿ êªhUê ÐÓ»Gê ~BbÀ»A BÇÕFUD¯} X

"And the throes (of childbirth) compelled her to betake herself to the trunk of a palm tree. She said: O, would that I had died before this, and had been a thing quite forgotten!" [Maryam 19:23]

çé ä ä æ ä ä ä ä ä æ ä ä æ ä ì ä æ ä æ ä ê Å¿ê BÇAeBį} ê ÜC FÈNZM {BÍjm ê ê¹NZM ê¹Iií ½¨U f³ ÏÃlZM

"Then (the child) called out to her from beneath her: Grieve not, surely your Lord has made a stream to flow beneath you;" [Maryam 19:24)

ç é ä ç äå æ ä ä æ å ä æ ì æ Ø ð å Ë} ä æ äê ÐlÇ ê BJi ê¹Î¼§ ¡³BnM ê êÒ¼bÄ»A êªhVIê ê ê¹Î»G {BÎÄU

"And shake towards you the trunk of the palm tree, it will drop on you fresh ripe dates." [Maryam 19:25)

ç æ ä Ð æì å æ ä ä ð åä ç ää ä ä ä ì ä ä ì ä ç æ ä ä ä ä æ ä æ å ä Ø ê AfYC jrJ»A ð Ë ÏIjqAË ê B¿Ìu êÅÀYj¼»ê Pihà ÏÃGê ϻ̴¯ ê Å¿ê ÅÍjM ê B¿H¯ê BÄΧ Ðj³ ê ϼ¸¯} å çé æ ä æ ä ä ð ä æ ä ä ê ê ÂÌλA Á¼·C ż¯ {BÎnÃG X

"So eat and drink and refresh the eye. Then if you see any mortal, say: Surely, I have vowed to fast to the Beneficent God, so I shall not speak to any man today." [Maryam 19:26) − In Tafseer al-Qummi, 'Ali Ibn Ibrahim says: "That day (a tree-trunk) was called a Sauq èæ ä (¶Ìm). Some weavers encountered her. In that time, a weaver was the most noble profession. They approached on gray-colored mules. She said to them: Where is the − make dried out date-tree? They mocked and rebuked her. She said to them: May Allah your livelihood unprofitable and make you naked among people! A group of merchants encountered her and they showed her the dried-out date tree. Maryam said to them: May − give blessings in your livelihood and may people have need for you. Then, when Allah she reached the date tree, she took hold of it during labor-pains and she gave birth to 'Isa, peace be upon him. She looked at him and she said: 'O, would that I had died before this, and had been a thing quite forgotten!' What will I say to my uncle; what will I say to the children of Israel?" "Then, 'Isa called out to her: 'Grieve not, surely your Lord has made a stream to flow beneath you...' in other words, a river. (He also said: 'And shake towards you the trunk of the palm tree, it will drop on you fresh ripe dates,' in other words, wholesome dates."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"The date tree had been dried-out for ages. She extended her hands to date tree and it grew leaves and bore fruit. It dropped fresh dates before her and she enjoyed them. Then, 'Isa said to her: Wrap me (in cloth) and even-out the (cloths), do such and such. She wrapped him and even his cloths out. Then, 'Isa said to her: 'So eat and drink and refresh the eye. Then if you see any mortal, say: Surely, I have vowed to fast to the Beneficent God, so I shall not speak to any man today.' They (both fasted) and it was revealed: 'So I shall not speak to any man today.'" − "(People) failed to find her in the Mihrab ± − and they left seeking her and her uncle Zakariya left (also) and she drew near while he was in her heart. Some women of the Bani Israel drew near (to her) and they spit in her direction but she did not speak to them until she − came to her." entered into her Mihrab. ± − Then, the Bani Israel and Zakariya In Majma', Tibirsi says: "She took refuge at the trunk of the tree, in other words, the pain ± of labor 'Compelled her to betake herself to the trunk of a palm tree.' Then, she took − Mujahid, − refuge at (the tree) in order to take support upon it, according to Ibn 'Abbas, − − says Maryam looked to the hill and she ascended it Qutadah and as-Sadi. Ibn 'Abbas hurriedly. Then, when she was at the decaying trunk of the date tree, it had no palm leaves. The trunk conveys (the meaning) of the date-tree and the Definite Article æ åæ ä − {ªhV»A} (meaning Alif-Lam) ê ê is entered for (the meaning of) familiarity (fȨ»A), not the genus

æ

(åoÄV»A ê ). In other words, the well-known date tree." "When she gave birth, (she said): O, would that I had died before this, and had been a thing quite forgotten!' In other words: something insignificant and abandoned, according − to Ibn 'Abbas." − "It is said (it means) something not remembered and not known, according to Qutadah. − heard her speaking and understood her anxiety, (He) called out to her from When Jibrail beneath her,' while he was lower than her beneath the hill, (saying): 'Grieve not.' It is the − − that the one calling out (to her) was Jibrail − calling saying of as-Sadi, Qutadah and Dahhak ± − her from the base of the mountain. It is (also) said 'Isa called her, according to Mujahid, − al-Hasan, Wahab, Sa'eed Ibn Jubair, Ibn Zaid, Ibn Jurair and al-Jabai." ± − involved in it. It is "She only wished for death because there was disobedience to Allah said it was shame before people that they thought evil of her, according to as-Sadi. It is narrated from as-Sadiq (AS) because she did not see in her people a rightly guided ± ±− person possessing discernment to declare her to be above evil."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− or "'Surely your Lord has made a stream to flow beneath you...' In other words, Jibrail 'Isa called out to her in order to remove from her that which was with her from sadness and anxiety. Do not be grieved! Your Lord has put beneath your feet a river you may drink − (after-birth bleeding), according to Ibn 'Abbas, − Mujahid − from and purify yourself of Nifas and Sa'eed Ibn Jubair. " − sent water in it to "They said that it was a river wherein the water had ceased. Allah − Maryam and it revived that tree until it bore fruit and grew leaves. It is said that Jibrail struck (the trunk) with his foot and sweet-tasting water appeared. It is (also) said that 'Isa − 'Abdillah struck it with his foot and a spring of water appeared. (This) is narrated by Abu (as-Sadiq ª)." ± ±− "'And shake towards you the trunk of the palm tree, it will drop on you fresh ripe dates...' Its meaning is to draw the trunk of the date tree towards you. Its meaning has passed. − al-Baqir (ª) said: 'Her state of being in (the throes of) childbirth was not cured by the likes − fed her while in the aftermath of childbirth. They said the trunk was of the dates. Allah dried-out not bearing any fruit, then if there was fruit upon it, it (could have fallen) due to her drawing upon it without her being commanded to do it." "It was in the winter, therefore, it became a miracle to take dates in other than its season − or 'Isa) even a single time. It is narrated that there was no head for the trunk, then (Jibrail struck it with his foot and it grew leaves and bore fruit and the tree scattered ripe dates upon her, (the tree) which had no head nor produced fruit." "'So eat and drink...' In other words, eat O Maryam! these dates and drink and drink this water. 'And refresh the eye.' It comes in the commentaries: Please yourself. It is said its meaning is refresh your eye in enjoyment of this child you see because the tears of happiness are cold while the tears of sadness are hot. It is said its meaning is to rest your eye with the tranquility of happiness with your seeing that which you have been given." − Shaikh Tusi "'Then if you see any mortal...' In at-Tibyan, ±− says: 'Say I have vowed to the − says: Allah, − the Exalted, commanded her that she vow to Beneficent...' a fast. al-Jabai − be silent for Allah's sake. Then, when someone would speak to her, she should make a gesture that she had vowed a fast of silence because it would not be permissible that He command her to give information that she had vowed to fast while she had not vowed − − and Dahhak − said: she intended because that would be false. Anis Ibn Malik, Ibn 'Abbas ± − by fast, silence. Qutadah says: meaning, (she was) silent with regard to food, drink and speaking, in other words refraining (from these things). A fast in that time was not to speak to people, then He gave her permission in this amount (of speech), in the saying of as-Sadi.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"It is said: how can she vow silence that she not speak to anyone with her saying and giving information from herself that she had vowed and is that breaking (the vow)? It is said of he who says: He gave permission for her in this amount, then figure He is saying that she vowed not to speak in that which exceeded upon (informing someone). He who said: she vowed a general vow, He said: make a gesture of that but do not utter it. It is − commanded her to indicate to them in this meaning." said: Allah − In Kanz ad-Daqaiq, it is mentioned: 'So I shall not speak to any man today.' after informing you of my vow. I will only speak to angels and whisper to my Lord. It is said she − commanded her to do that due to informed them of her vow by gestures and He (Allah) the dislike of arguing. The contentment is in the speech of 'Isa." − 'She gave birth in a section of Bait al-Muqaddas, in a Shaikh Tusi ±− mentions in at-Tibyan: place known as Bait Lahm ± (Bethleham). _______________

çé ä ç æ ä æ æ ä ä å ä æ ä å åå æ ä ä æ ä æ ää ä {BÍj¯ê B×Îq êO×Uê f´» ÁÍj¿ BÍ AÌ»B³ ɼÀZM ê Bȿ̳ êÉIê OMD¯} ¢

"And she came to her people with him, carrying him (with her). They said: O Maryam! Surely you have done a strange thing." [Maryam 19:27)

ä æ åä ä çé ä å æ ä ä å Ð äOaCæå BÍ} ä êºÌIC ÆB· B¿ ÆËjÇ ë æ ä Cj¿A ê 깿Cí OÃB· B¿ Ëä ÕÌm {BάI

− − Your father was not a bad man, nor was your mother an unchaste "O sister of Harun! woman." [Maryam 19:28)

äå ä æ ä å æä æ ä ä ä çé ä æ ä ð ä æ ä å ê ϯê ÆB· Å¿ Á¼¸Ã ±Î· AÌ»B³ ÉλG ê ê PiBqD¯} {BÎJu ê fÈÀ»A ¢

"But she pointed to him. They said: How should we speak to one who was a child in the cradle?" [Maryam 19:29)

Ðé å ä ð ä çé ä ä ä ä ä ä æ ÏÃGê ¾B³} ä ê ê ê {BÎJÃê Ïļ¨U Ë LBN¸»A ÏÃBME ɼ»A fJ§ ±³

− He has given me the Book and made me a "He said: Surely I am a servant of Allah; prophet." [Maryam 19:30]

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

In Majma', with regard to the first verse, Tibirsi says: "In other words, Maryam came ± carrying 'Isa and that is that she wrapped him in cloth and carried him to her people. 'They said: O Maryam! Surely you have done a strange thing.' In other words, an unprecedented, grave matter since a woman has not given birth without a man before − − you, according to Mujahid, Qutadah and as-Sadi. It is said (that they said): a shameful, − detestable matter of fabrication and it is a lie, according to al-Jabai." − − − − was a "'O sister of Harun!' It is said (in this are a number) of sayings: first, this Harun righteous man of the Bani Israel having attributed to him all of that which is recognized as − Qutadah, − righteousness, according to Ibn 'Abbas, Ka'b, Ibn Zaid and al-Mughirah Ibn − − died, Shu'bah referring (the tradition) back to the Messenger (x). It is said when Harun − − his funeral bier was followed by four-thousand persons, each called Harun." − − (has a few meanings): First: O one resembling Harun − − "Then, their saying sister of Harun − − was her brother from her in righteousness! This is unknown of you! Second, that Harun father, not from her mother. He was known by goodly means, according to al-Kalabi. − − is the brother of Musa − Third, that Harun (ª). Then, it is attributed to him because she is one of his descendents, just as you would say: O brother of Tameem, according to − − was an irreligious man, well-known for adultery and as-Sadi. Fourth, that one Harun corruption. It is said to her: O one resembling him in shameful (behavior), according to Sa'eed Ibn Jubair." − ± Makarem − In al-Amthal, Shaikh Nasir says of the first verse: "When they saw a newly born child before her, their mouths were agape in amazement. They were familiar with the past of Maryam, the pure, the heard of the renown of her piety and honor. Then, they became intensely apprehensive due to that until doubt and uncertainty occurred upon some of them. Others, hastened to make a determination and decree. It gave free reign to their tongues in her rebuke and censure." "They said: This decline from that luminous past to this decadence is distressing and a hundred sighs for the fall of this reputation while she is from this pure family. They said: 'O Maryam! Surely you have done a strange thing.' While some others spoke frankly to − − Your father was not a bad man, nor was your her, then they said: 'O sister of Harun! mother an unchaste woman.' Then with the existence of the likes of this pure father and mother, what is this child we see you bearing? Then, which evil do you see in the behavior of the father and the custom of the mother so that you have deviated onto this − − Your father was not a bad man, nor was your path? They said to her: 'O sister of Harun! mother an unchaste woman.'"

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"It has caused differences among commentators, however, it is apparent that the most − − was a pure, righteous man to the degree which analogies correct (opinion) is that Harun were struck regarding him among the Bani Israel. When they desired to describe a person with purity and integrity, the would say that they were the brother or sister of − − Harun." − and the incomparable "In this time, Maryam remained quiet by the command of Allah deed which she established with 'Isa. She made a gesture toward her child. 'But she pointed to him...' Except that this action made them even more amazed. Perhaps some of them considered it to be ridicule, then they became angry and said: with your establishing this behavior, you are ridiculing your people also! They said: How should we speak to one who was a child in the cradle? "'

ä 'Was,' "Here, the commentators discuss a lot and debate the situation of the word {ÆB·} indicating upon the past-tense, except that the apparent (meaning) is that this word indicates here the establishment and requirement of an existing attribute. In clearer terms, they said to Maryam: How can we speak to a child who is still in the cradle. The − like: witness upon this meaning is another verse of the Quran,

å ä æ åæ å ì æ ä æå Ò¿C ä æ ÁNÄ·} {pBļ» ê ë ì jÎa ê ê OUjaC

− 'Imran − 3:110] "You are the best of nations raised up (for the benefit) of men..." [Ali

åæ å

æ "Of the Muslims is that {ÁNÄ·} 'you were' does not mean the past-tense here. Rather, it is an explanation of the establishment and continuation of these attributes for the Islamic society. Likewise, is the discussion around the cradle. Certainly, 'Isa had not been born in the cradle, rather the apparent (meaning) of the verse is that Maryam alone was present among people and in the time which 'Isa was before her. This dialog transpired between her and them. Except observe the meaning of the word cradle {fÈÀ»A} ê æ ä in the 'Arab language. It will explain the answer to these questions."

å æ ä ) means, as ar-Raghib − − "The word (fÈÀ»A says in his (book al-Mufradat): 'The place they set up for a child, it being the same whether it be a cradle or the lap of the mother or a bed. å æ ä and eBÈÀ»A å ê ) both come in the language in the meaning: The well-arranged (The words fÈÀ»A soft place, in other words, for rest and sleep. In any situation, the people became apprehensive and disturbed by hearing these words of Maryam and perhaps angered."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"Some of them said, in consideration of some of the narrations, it is her mocking and ridiculing us. It commands her departure from the path of modesty, except that this situation does not continue for long because that child who was born recently opened his − He has given me the Book and made me mouth and said: 'Surely I am a servant of Allah; a prophet.'" − said to Imam − Muhammad It has been narrated that a man named Bareed Ibn al-Kanasa ± − (ª): "Was 'Isa Ibn Maryam divine proof (Hujjah) al-Baqir upon the people of his time at the ± time he spoke from the cradle? He (ª) said: That day he was the non-delegated, divine çìå ä æ å jΫ ä æ ä êɼ»ìê ÒVY − (ê½mjÀ»A − proof of Allah ). Have you not heard Allah's saying at the time when he − He has given me the Book and made me a prophet? said: 'Surely I am a servant of Allah; − in this state while he was in the Then I said: That day was he divine proof upon Zakariya − and a mercy of Allah − for Maryam cradle? He (ª) said: In this state, 'Isa was a sign of Allah when he spoke and he expressed (what he said) for her." "He was a prophet and a divine proof upon whomever heard his speech in this state. − was the divine Then he was silent and did not speak until two years had passed. Zakariya − the Mighty and Majestic after 'Isa was silent for two years. Then, Zakariya − proof of Allah, died and his son inherited the Book and wisdom while he was a young child. Have you − not heard Allah's saying: 'O Yahya! Take hold of the Book with strength, and We granted ± him wisdom while yet a child.' Then when he, peace be upon him, attained the age of − had sent seven, he talked of prophethood and the message at the time when Allah − − Khalid! revelation to him. Then, 'Isa was divine proof upon Yahya ± and all mankind. O Abu − The world has not remained a single day without Allah's divine proof of upon people ever − created Adam, peace be upon him, and settled him on earth." 22 since Allah

å æ

The book referred to here which 'Isa (ª) received is known as the Injeel (½ÎVÃâA ê ê ). Regarding − the Exalted, revealed to 'Isa the Injeel as a Book from Allah, − this book, it is written: "Allah, the Exalted, to man. In it is admonitions and similes. There are no narratives (of previous people) nor legal rulings nor punishments nor obligations nor inheritance. Its law is the − the establishment of prayer, call to the unity of God and sincerity for the sake of Allah; − enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, forbidding the forbidden and making Zakah, − had taken a covenant upon him which He took upon other lawful the lawful. Allah prophets, peace be upon them. In that regard, is His saying:

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

æ ää ç å æ ê BÃhaC ê Ë B³BRοê æÁÈÄ¿

x

æ ää ä æ ê Ëä æÁȳBRο å ä ê äÅÎÎJÄ»A ì äÅ¿ê BÃhaC å Ëä äÁÎÇAjIG æ Ëä `ÌÃå æÅ¿ê Ëä ä¹Ä¿ ä æ ä ÅIAæ ÐÓnΧ ä ä ä äÁÍj¿ Ð ð ê ê Ë ÓmÌ¿ Ë} ê ê ê ë ç ä ê {B¤Î¼«

− ± and "And when We made a covenant with the prophets and with you, and with Nuh − − Ibrahim and Musa and 'Isa, son of Maryam, and We made with them a strong covenant." [al-Ahzab ± − 33:7]"

23

________________

ä ä å æ å ä æä ç ä å ä ä ä ä çé ä å æ å ì ä ì ê Ë ÑÝv»BI ê ê ê Ë} {BÎY O¿e B¿ ÑB·l»A Ë OÄ· B¿ ÅÍC B·iBJ¿ Ïļ¨U ê ÏÃBuËC x

"And He has made me blessed wherever I may be, and He has enjoined on me prayer and poor-rate so long as I live;" [Maryam 19:31]

ç é ä ç ì ä æ ä æ ä æ ä ä ä çé ä ä ê AiBJU Ïļ¨VÍ ê ê ê AjI Ë} ê Á» Ë ÏMf»AÌI {Bδq k

"And dutiful to my mother, and He has not made me insolent, unblessed." [Maryam 19:32]

ç é ä å ä æå ä æ ä ä å åä ä æ ä ä æ å ä æ ä ì ä ä å ì ä {BÎY S¨IC ÂÌÍ Ë PÌ¿C ÂÌÍ Ë Pf»Ë í ê ÂÌÍ Ï¼§ ÂÝn»A Ë} "And peace on me on the day I was born, and on the day I die, and on the day I am raised to life." [Maryam 19:33)

ç

ä å or blessed as mentioned in the − {B·iBJ¿} In Majma', Tibirsi explains the term Mubarak ± − made me the master speech of prophet 'Isa, peace be upon him: "In other words, (Allah) − − made me) beneficial of goodness, according to Mujahid. It is said (it means Allah èä å è ä ää − wherever I may turn. Barakah (Ò·jI) is the increase of goodness and Mubarak (ºiBJ¿ ) is that (thing) due to which goodness descends. It is (also) said it is always established è åä), (based on) faith and obedience. The original (meaning) of Barakah is permanence (PÌJQ − according to al-Jabai."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− 'Allamah − In al-Mizan, Tabatabai him, is ± − ± − says of this term: "His essence, peace be upon è ä ää blessed wherever he may be; he is a cause of every blessing. A blessing (Ò·jI) is the increase of goodness. He was beneficial to man teaching them useful knowledge and summoning them to righteous deeds and instructing them with a pure teaching, curing (the afflicted) of blindness and leprosy. Reforming the powerful and focusing on the weak." "His saying: 'He has enjoined on me prayer and poor-rate so long as I live.' gives − in his law. Salah indication of the (divine) legislation of Salah ± − and Zakah ± − being to turn in − − is the (charitable) disbursement of particular worship to Allah, Glorified is He. Zakah − in properties. This is that which is established in the common understanding of the Quran − and the connection between them. That figures in every mention of Salah ± − and Zakah excess of twenty places. It does not take into account the view of he who says that the − is the chastening of the soul and its purification aside from (charitable) intent in Zakah disbursement of properties." − − 'Allamah Tabatabai Ibn Wahab who ± − ± − also mentions a tradition narrated from Mu'awiyah − 'Abdillah (as-Sadiqsaid: "I asked Abu ª) about the most virtuous of that which can bring ± ±− − the Mighty and Majestic? Then, one closer to his Lord and what is most beloved to Allah, he (ª) said: "I don't know of anything after God-conscienceness (Ma'rifah) more virtuous than Salah. Do you not see the righteous servant 'Isa, son of Maryam, said: 'He has ± − enjoined on me prayer and poor-rate so long as I live.'" 24 Continuing with the words of 'Isa (ª): "And dutiful to my mother, and He has not made me ç ìä − ± Makarem − − {AiBJU} insolent, unblessed,' Shaikh Nasir says in al-Amthal: "The term Jabbar is applied to the individual who believes he has every right upon man while he does not believe that anyone has any right upon him. Likewise, they apply it upon he whom strikes a man and fights them when he becomes angry while he does not follow what his reasoning commands him. Or he intends to remedy his shortcomings and cover them by claiming greatness or pride. All of these attributes are prominent in the arrogant tyrants of every time."

ç ä

"(The term) Shaqqi {Bδq} ê is said of the person who makes ready the causes of affliction and punishment upon himself. Some of them explain that as he who does not accept advice. It is known that these two meanings do not clarify each other. We will recite a narration that 'Isa, peace be upon him, said: 'My heart is delicate and I am insignificant in myself.' It indicates these two attributes occurring as the opposite of being insolent and unblessed."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"In the end, this infant, in other words, al-Maseeh± (the Messiah), says: 'And peace on me on the day I was born, and on the day I die, and on the day I am raised to life.' Just as we have said in explaining the verse related to Yahya, peace be upon him, surely these three ± days in life of man are days of developing importance. Peace is not facilitated except in − that which there is seeking of Allah." "Due to that, this verse comes in the right of Yahya ± just as it is mentioned in the affair of − had already said it in the al-Maseeh, ± peace be upon him, with the difference that Allah first instance. In the second instance, surely al-Maseeh± had already sought that." − In Majma', 'Allamah Tibirsi writes regarding this last verse: "Its explanation has already ± passed before in the narrative of Yahya. In these verses, there is a guidance that it is ± permissible that man describes himself with attributes of praise when the intent is to define that guidance to another, (when not done) in the manner of pride. It is said when 'Isa (ª) spoke this, they knew of the innocence of Maryam. Then, 'Isa (ª) was silent. He did not speak again until (she) reached a period in which the child spoke (again)." ________________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ì ä ä æ ä ä äæ ä å æ Ð ä ä Ð ä å ä æ ä êÉίê Ðh»A ê ðμZ»A ê {ÆËjNÀÍ ¾Ì³ ÁÍj¿ ÅIA ÓnÎ§ê ¹»g} X

"Such is 'Isa, son of Maryam; (this is) the saying of truth about which they dispute." [Maryam 19:34]

å åä ì ä ç æ ä Ð ä å ä æ å ëä ä æ ä ì ä æ ä ì ä å å ä ä æÅ·å åÉ»ä ¾Ì´Í ê ÆC ɼ» ê ê ÆB· B¿} {Æ̸ί BÀÃH¯ê Aj¿C Óz³ AgGê ÉÃBZJm f»Ë Å¿ê hbNÍ Ü

¢

− that He should take to Himself a son, glory be to Him; when He has "It beseems not Allah decreed a matter He only says to it 'Be,' and it is." [Maryam 19:35]

è ä æ å ä ä ð ä ä Ðé ì ä ä å æ å Ð å è æ å ê ¢Ajuê AhÇ ÊËfJ§B¯ Á¸Iií Ë ÏIi ɼ»A ÆGê Ë} {ÁδNn¿ ¢

− is my Lord and your Lord, therefore serve Him; this is the right path." "And surely Allah [Maryam 19:36]

ä ä ä ì è æ ä ä æ æ ä æ å æä ä ä ä æ ä ä æ ä æÅ¿ê AËj°· ä ÂÌÍæ ä fÈr¿ å ê ê ½Í̯ ÁÈÄÎI ê ê {ÁΤ§ ÅÍh¼» ê ê Å¿ê LAlYÞA ±¼NaB¯} ë ë X

"But parties from among them disagreed with each other, so woe to those who disbelieve, because of presence on a great day." [Maryam 19:37] − 'Allamah − In al-Mizan, Tabatabai ± − ± − says of the verse: 'Such is 'Isa, son of Maryam; (this is) the saying of truth about which they dispute' "The apparent (meaning) is that this verse and that which follows it are both counter-arguments (as well as) the third verse: 'And − is my Lord and your Lord...' from the total of sayings of 'Isa, peace be upon surely Allah − him. (Allah's) saying: 'Such is 'Isa, son of Maryam' indicates in it the sum of that which is − narrated of his affair. (Allah) explained his attributes, in other words, that which we − described him: he is from mentioned of the manner of his birth and that by which (Allah) mankind among those in His servitude; his being given the Book and making him a prophet. He is 'Isa, son of Maryam." − (Allah's) saying: '(This is) the saying of truth...' is in the accusative state in estimation, in − other words, (in estimation of Allah's saying) 'I say it is the saying of truth.' (As well as His saying:) 'About which they dispute...' in other words, (that which) they are in doubt or dispute about, is a description of 'Isa, and the meaning of that is 'Isa, son of Maryam about whom they doubted or disputed. It is said the intent of: (This is) the saying of ä åÒÀ¼· ä ê ä ) and it is 'Isa, peace be upon him, because Allah, − truth...' is the word of truth (ðµZ»A Glorified is He, named him 'His Word' in (other) sayings:

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− and His word which He communicated to 'Isa, son of Maryam is only an Apostle of Allah ½ − 4:171]; and His saying: 'When the angels said: Maryam and a spirit from Him...' [an-Nisa − gives you good news with a Word from Him (of one) whose name O Maryam, surely Allah − 'Imran − 3:45]. Allah − strengthened the first is the Messiah, 'Isa son of Maryam...' [Ali meaning with his saying, Exalted is He, in this meaning at the end of the narrative in −Ali 'Imran: − 'Imran − '(This is) the truth from your Lord, so be not of the disputers.' [Ali − − Surah 3:60]." − In Majma', 'Allamah Tibirsi says of these same verses: "('Isa) is he who said: I am a ± − 'Isa the son of Maryam. Not that which the Christians say of him: that he servant of Allah, is the son of God and that he is God. (This is) the saying of truth...' Its meaning is in regards to divine proof (Hujjah). 'About which they dispute...' In other words, about that ± which they are in doubt, meaning the Jews and the Christians. The Jews claimed he was a deceitful magician. The Christians claimed that he was the son of God and the third of three (meaning the father, the son and the Holy Spirit)." − is my Lord and your Lord, therefore serve Him' It is "('Then, 'Isa) said: 'And surely Allah − the Exalted, or that (Allah) − commanded permissible that the speech initiated from Allah, − His messenger that he would say that. (Allah's) saying: 'This is the right path.' Its meaning is that this is the clear path, then stay with it. It is said the meaning of this which I have − has commanded me: It is the straight-forward faith in informed you is that to which Allah which there is no crookedness." "'But parties from among them disagreed with each other...' The differences being in the sects that each people believed in variance with that which others believed. (The word: å æä ) is the plural of (LlZ»A å æ ê ). It is a group separated in its view from others and they LAlYÞA become a (distinct) group, in other words, they become sects. Then, the meaning is that the sects of the people of the book differed in regards to 'Isa (ª). A people from among − they are the Ya'qubiyyah − them said he is Allah, (Jacobites). Others said he is the son of God, they are the Nasturiyyah (Nestorians). Others say he is the third of three, they are ±− − − the Israeliyyah (Israelities among Christians). The Muslims say he is the servant of Allah, æ ä æ ê ê æ Å¿} − − − only said: 'From among them...' {ÁÈÄÎI according to Qutadah and Mujahid. (Allah ê because he one from among them who is established upon the truth. It is (also) said it is extraneous and its meaning is that they differed among themselves." 'So woe...' In other words, severe punishment. It is a word (invoking a) promise. 'To those who disbelieve...' (meaning) in their sayings with regard to the Messiah. 'Because of æ è å å) and presence on a great day.' (The word) {fÈr¿} ê ä ä is in the meaning of witness (eÌÈq

å

è å) on that day and it is the Day of Judgment. It is called great due to the presence (iÌzY greatness of His horrors." Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

æ ä ä æ ä æä ä æ æ æ ä é ä å ä ä å å æ ä ä æ ê Ë ÁÈIê ê ©ÀmC} ê êŸ_» ê Ð BÄÃÌMDÍ ÂÌÍ jvIC {ÅÎJ¿ ê ë ϯê ÂÌλA ÆÌÀ»B¤»A ë ê ¾Ýy Ü

"How clearly shall they hear and how clearly shall they see on the day when they come to Us; but the unjust this day are in manifest error." [Maryam 19:38]

ä æ ä æ å ä å æä ä å æ ä æ ä ä æ ä æ å æ æ ä ä å æ ä å å ä æ ë ê Ü ÁÇ Ë Ò¼°« ϯê ÁÇ Ë j¿ÞA Ïz³ ê gGê ÑjnZ»A ê ê Ë} {ÆÌÄ¿ÛÍ ÂÌÍ ÁÇihÃC Â

"And warn them of the day of intense regret; when the matter shall have been decided; and they are (now) in negligence and they do not believe." [Maryam 19:39]

å äå æä ì ä å ä æ å BÄλG æä Tjà æ äê Ëä BÈμ§ æ ä ä æÅ¿ä Ëä ä~iÞA {Æ̨UjÍ ê ÅZà BÃG} ê

"Surely We inherit the earth and all those who are on it, and to Us they shall be returned." [Maryam 19:40] − Shaikh Tusi In at-Tibyan, ± − says of the verse: 'How clearly shall they hear and how clearly shall they see ...' "What! I will make them hear and see, in the manner of astonishment (Ta'ajjub). The meaning being that they will descend in that place of he who is astonished by it. In (this saying) is a threat and a promise that they will soon hear that which breaks their hearts and he will be sent back to that which he was piled up (in bad deeds). − al-Hasan and Qutadah say the meaning is because they were deaf and dumb in this ± world regarding the truth, then what (things) they will hear and what (things) they will see on the Day of Judgment! The day they will be returned to Us, in other words, the day they will be returned to a station which no one owns the command and prohibition except − Allah." − will say: 'But the unjust this day are in manifest error.' The unjust themselves, "Then, Allah with committing His disobedience and refusing His signs and disbelieving in His prophets. The day, meaning in the abode of this world, they are in manifest error regarding the truth, renunciating it (being) far from the correct path." − − regarding the same verse: "What they will hear and 'Allamah Tabatabai ± − ± − says in al-Mizan see of truth the day they come to Us and are returned to Us! It is the Day of Judgment. − will explain the perspective of truth regarding that which they differed as it is Then, (Allah) narrated of them in His saying: 'Our Lord! We have seen and we have heard, therefore send us back, we will do good; surely (now) we are certain.' [as-Sajdah 32:12]"

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"As for the anticipation which is in His saying: 'But the unjust this day are in manifest error' it is due to repulsing the imagination of that which they hear and see on the Day of Judgment while the truth is uncovered for them, they will be guided and will be contented in the presence of God-consciousness and certainty." "The anticipation is that they will not benefit from that nor will they be (rightly) guided. Rather, the unjust that day will be in manifest error due to their being unjust. That day is the day of requital, not the day of acting. The day they will only face that which has preceded them of deeds and their effects and that which they have earned in their past for their Day (of Judgment). As for their scorning the Day of Judgment in deeds, they can anticipate its requital tomorrow. Then, there is no tomorrow for the Day (of Jugment). "In another interpretation, these (people) are deeply permeated with the character of being in error in this world. They are cut-off from the point of choice with the advent of death. Then, it is only for them that they live compelled to that which they have prepared for themselves (due to their) error and there is no deflection from it. Then, the uncovering of the truth and manifestation of reality will not benefit them." Regarding the verse: 'And warn them of the day of intense regret ...' Shaikh Mughniyyah says: "The one being spoken to in warning them is the prophet (x). The day of intense regret is the Day of Judgment. It is called this because the guilty soul will say tomorrow: − and most surely I was of those who 'O woe to me! for what I fell short of my duty to Allah, laughed to scorn.' [az-Zumar 39:56]" 'When the matter shall have been decided; and they are (now) in negligence...' The matter has been decided whereas there is no cancellation nor any return. Now they are negligence whereas there is a possibility of their returning from their disbelief and their error and seeking forgiveness and pardon, but they will be unable to do it. They will persist in their self-oppression wandering aimlessly. His, the Exalted's saying: 'And they do not believe.' Its meaning is that they did not affirm Our word: Surely, you will soon be raised. Rather, they turned their heads away and they were scoffing." "'Surely We inherit the earth and all those who are on it, and to Us they shall be returned.' − No one owns anything along with Him. The earth and whomever is on it belongs to Allah. People are only passing (through) the world, not remaining in it. All of that which is in his hand is borrowed (he being) responsible for it. He will taken to account for it. In summary, − and to Him we shall return.' this verse is in succession with: 'Surely we belong to Allah [al-Baqarah 2:156] The intent in it is to make fear of disobedience and to rebuke them from one point of view. (Also) to lessen the sadness of the prophet and his pain due to the non-believers rejecting his call, from another point of view." _______________ Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

å ä ç é ä ç ð ä åì ¢ ä æ æ ê ê ê ê {BÎJà B´Ífu ÆB· ÉÃG ÁÎÇAjIG LBN¸»A ϯ j·gA Ë} ê ê ê ê − "And mention Ibrahim in the Book; surely he was a truthful man, a prophet." [Maryam 19:41]

ä ä æ ç æ ä ä æ ä æ å ä å æå ä å ä æ ä åå æ ä äÁ»ê êOID_Í ää Ð ÉÎIÞ ê Ü Ë jvJÍ ê Ü Ë ©ÀnÍ Ü B¿ fJ¨M ê êê ¾B³ gG} {B×Îq ¹Ä§ ÏÄ¬Í ê "When he said to his father; O my father! why do you worship what neither hears nor sees, nor does it avail you in the least:" [Maryam 19:42]

ä ä æä æ ì ä ä æ ä æ ä æ ä çé ä ç æ ð ä ä Ð Ø ê Á» B¿ êÁ¼¨»A ê ÏĨJMB¯ ê ê ¹MDÍ ê Å¿ê ÏÃÕFU ê f³ ÏÃGê êOID_Í} {BÍÌm ê BAjuê ºfÇC

"O my father! truly knowledge has come to me which has not come to you, therefore follow me, I will guide you on a right path:" [Maryam 19:43] − Shaikh Tusi − − In at-Tibyan, in the Book...' "Allah ± − says of the verse: 'And mention Ibrahim − commanded his prophet (Muhammad x) that he mention Ibrahim in the Book which is the ç± − Quran. It is called a book (BIBN·ê ) because it is in that which is written. The meaning is: Narrate to them or recite to them, and likewise is that which is after it. Then, He says: ç ð − 'Surely he (meaning Ibrahim) was a truthful man, a prophet.' (The word) truthful {B´Ífu} ê man the one affirming the truth abundantly until it became a name for him. Every prophet is truthful due to the abundant truth which he affirms of that which he knows of and believes in regarding the unity of God and His justice."

ä

− ½ is "'When he said to his father; O my father! ' The origin is: (ÏNIC ê ä ) then, the annexed Ya

ä

− ½ It is said that the Ta − ½ is elided and the Kasrah remains (êOICä ) indicating upon (the elided Ya).

åä

entered to exaggerate the realization of the annexation (Ò¯ByâA ê ), just as it is entered in the

è é

è ä

ä ä) and (ÒIBnà ä ì ) to exaggerate the adjective (meaning a profoundly learned person words (ҿݧ ìå) 'my mother' and a stop is made on the Ta −½ and genealogy, respectively). Likewise, is (êO¿C å

− permits halting with Ha − ½ (æÉN¿C − ½ is in exchange for this reason. az-Zajaj ê ì ). It is said that the Ta − ½ of the annexation." for the Ya

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

Before continuing with the commentaries on these verses, it is appropriate to mention − some biographical information on the life of prophet Ibrahim (ª). However, we will focus on the information relevant to the time line reflected in these verses. For biographical information, we refer to the book, Histories of Prophets: − − − − the "Ibrahim (ª) was a son of Tarikh. His father Tarikh was a monotheist believer in Allah, − Exalted who never prostrated before an idol. (Allah's), the Exalted, saying bears witness to that:

ä ê ê é ϯê ä¹J¼´M ä åíä ä Ë} {ÅÍfUBn»A

"And your turning over and over among those who prostrate themselves before Allah." −½ 26:219] [ash-Shur'ara It is explained that his spirit and his seed were both turning over in the loins of one prostrating to the loins of (another) prostrating one. All of his forefathers (going back) to − the Exalted, alone aside from others. From Adam were monotheist prostrating to Allah,

Ðé å ä

− − (ɼ»A ½Î¼a them is Ibrahim, the friend of Allah ê ). It has been narrated on the authority of the prophet Muhammad (x) that he said: ±

#PAjÇBñ»A ÁYiC Ó»G ÅÍjÇBñ»A LÝuC Å¿ ½´ÃC ¾kC Á»$ 'I continued to be transferred from pure loins to pure wombs.' In the meaning that none of his ancestors were impure idol-worshippers. '...The idolaters are nothing but unclean...' [at-Taubah 9:28]. − the Exalted, mentioned in the Glorious Quran, − he is called Regarding Azhar who Allah, − − father for (Ibrahim) in His, the Exalted's saying: 'And when Ibrahim said to his sire, Azhar: − 6:74] Do you take idols for gods? I see you and your people in manifest error.' [al-An'am − Then, he was an uncle of his and Ibrahim was in his guardianship and that it is common for the father to release (a child) to the uncle, particularly when the uncle establishes − guardianship of his nephew and his upbringing. (Allah's) saying alludes to this regarding − (ª), when they said to him: 'We will worship your God and the God the children of Ya'qub − − and Ishaq, of your fathers, Ibrahim and Isma'il ±− one God only, and to Him do we submit.' − was an uncle of Ya'qub − (ª) and he is counted [al-Baqarah 2:133] It is known that Isma'il − among his forefathers. It is said that Azhar was the grandfather of Ibrahim's mother.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− − called − al-Khaleel (the friend of Allah) was born in one of the villages of al-Kufah in 'Iraq − − − (BIiBQÌ·) and his father was one of its people. His mother and the mother of Lut −± Kutharba − were sisters. They both were the daughters of a prophet his name was Lakhij (WaÜ ê ). He was a warner, not a messenger. His birth was in the era of the insolent tyrannical king − (Nimrud, − Ibn Kan'an − Nimrud son of Canaan). The king, along with his people were − worshippers of idols. Azhar, the uncle of Ibrahim (ª), was an astrologer for him, a companion of his affairs and his advisor. (Azhar) used to make idols for him and for other people. He would hand them over to his son, then he would sell them." − the tyrant, saw in his dream that it was like stars had risen, then It happened that Nimrud, disappeared with the light of the sun and the moon. When he asked his astrologers about his vision, they informed him regarding the path of astronomers and predictions that a − by his hand. child will be born removing the kingship of Nimrud − said: In He withdrew from his religion was summoned to another religion. Then Nimrud − said: Has he emerged into which land will he be (born)? They said: In this land. Nimrud the world? They said: No. He made it necessary to separate the men from the women. He commanded that as well as the killing of every child born in that year. He commanded that the situation of every women be investigated, then whomever was found to be pregnant would be held until giving birth. Then, if the infant was a boy, he was killed and if it was a girl, it was left alone. − The mother of Ibrahim (ª) became pregnant but she did not manifest the affects of pregnancy. When she came close to (the time of childbirth, she fled to a cave and gave birth in the cave. She wrapped him in cloths and swaddled him. She returned to her home after she blocked the entrance to the cave with a stone. She frequented him at times finding him sucking his finger. He took milk from his finger. He grew in a day like others would grow in a week. He grew in a week like others would grow in a month and he grew in a month like others would grow in a year." "His birth was in the first day of Zhil-Hijjah. He resided in the cave for thirteen years. His ± first emergence from the cave was in the last days of the month after the setting of the sun. Upon gazing upon a bright star in the sky, he said: This is my Lord. When the sun set, he said: If this was my Lord, why would he go down? He said: I love not those who set. When he saw the moon, he said: This is my Lord, except that the moon was that which remained and set in its cycle.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− Then, Ibrahim was at a loss in his affair. When the sun rose, he said: This is my Lord. This − is the greatest! Then, when this also set, Ibrahim faced the Creator of these things, all of − them saying as Allah, the Exalted, narrates about him in His saying, the Mighty and Majestic, of one saying: 'So when the night overshadowed him, he saw a star; said he: Is this my Lord? So when it set, he said: I do not love the setting ones. Then when he saw the moon rising, he said: Is this my Lord? So when it set, he said: If my Lord had not guided me I should certainly be of the erring people. Then he saw the sun rising, he said: Is this my Lord? Is this the greatest? So when it set, he said: O my people, surely I am clear of what you set up (with − Allah). Surely I have turned myself, being upright, wholly to Him Who originated the − 6:76-79]" heavens and the earth, and I am not of the polytheist.' [al-An'am When he emerged to his people and saw them worshipping idols, he opposed them in that making defects in their worship and their gods until he spread his affair. His mother had transferred him to her house with her children under the guardianship of Azhar. − Perhaps that day, she was the wife of Azhar after the death of his father Tarikh, father of − Ibrahim (ª). When he saw his uncle raise an objection to his mother saying: Who is this who had remained alive in the reign of the king while he kills the children of people? She said: This is your son (in other words, like your son whereas he is from your brother and your wife). Then, she said: I gave birth to him in the time of such and such. He said: Woe to you! If the king knew of him, our position would end with him. She said: It is not obligatory upon you, if the king does not know of him, he will remain for us and with us. If he does know of it, what is your manner of reasoning regarding him? − − Then, Azhar looked at Ibrahim (ª) while he loved him. He gave over some idols to Ibrahim − (ª) in order to sell, like his brothers. Then Ibrahim hung around her neck some strings and pulled her to the ground while he was calling out: Who sells that which holds no injury for him nor any benefit? He went with them to the water and threw them in it and they sunk while he was saying to them: Drink and speak!" The news reached Azhar and he took to prohibiting him from that, but he did not desist until (Azhar) retrained him in his house but he did not stop him from leaving. The news spread among people. Then, they gathered and they disputed with him; debated with him in religion and they made him fear abandoning the worship of idols, as the Exalted has said:

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− 'And his people disputed with him. He said: Do you dispute with me respecting Allah? And He has guided me indeed; and I do not fear in any way those that you set up with Him, unless my Lord please; my Lord comprehends all things in His knowledge; will you − 6:80]" not then mind?' [al-An'am − "Ibrahim did not desist in going out to groups of his people, making light of their dreams and finding fault with their gods. He refuted them regarding worshipping idols. Particularly, he admonished his uncle profusely. He spoke to him paternally hoping to attract him, but there was no affect in him nor any affect from his admonition. They only − − has increased their disbelief, insolence and animosity toward Ibrahim (ª), just as Allah − narrated about him in Surah Maryam with His, the Exalted's, saying: − And mention Ibrahim in the Book; surely he was a truthful man, a prophet. When he said to his father; O my father! why do you worship what neither hears nor sees, nor does it avail you in the least: O my father! truly knowledge has come to me which has not come to you, therefore follow me, I will guide you on a right path: O my father! serve not Shaitan, ±− surely the Shaitan ±− is disobedient to the Beneficent God: O my father! surely I fear that a punishment from the Beneficent God should afflict you so that you should be a friend of Shaitan. [Maryam 19:41-45]" ±− − ½ 'And certainly We have to Ibrahim − − "And in Surah Anbiya: his rectitude before, and We knew him fully well. When he said to this father and his people: What are these images to whose worship you cleave? They said: We found our fathers worshipping them. He said: Certainly you have been, (both) you and your fathers, in manifest error. They said: Have you brought to us the truth, or are you one of the triflers? He said: Nay! your Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, Who brought them into existence, and I am of those −½ 21:51-56] who bear witness to this." [al-Anbiya − ½ 'And recite to them the story of Ibrahim. − − "And In Surah ash-Shu'ara: When he said to his father and his people: What do you worship? They said: We worship idols, so we shall be their votaries. He said: Do they hear you when you call? Or do they profit you or cause you harm? They said: Nay, we found our fathers doing so. He said: Have you then considered what you have been worshipping: You and your ancient sires. Surely they are −½ 26:69-77]" enemies to me but not (so) the Lord of the worlds.' [ash-Shu'ara

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− − − 'And (We sent) Ibrahim, And in Surah al-'Ankabut: when he said to his people: Serve − and be careful of (your duty to) Him; this is best for you, if you did but know: You Allah − and you create a lie surely they who you serve besides only worship idols besides Allah − do not control for you any sustenance, therefore seek the sustenance from Allah − Allah and serve Him and be grateful to Him; to Him you shall be brought back. And if you reject (the truth), nations before you did indeed reject (the truth); and nothing is incumbent on − 29:16-18]. the apostle but a plain delivering (of the message)' [al-'Ankabut − − And in Surah as-Saffat followed his way. When he came to his ± ± − 'And most surely Ibrahim Lord with free heart, when he said to his father and his people: What is that you worship? − A lie - gods besides Allah-do you desire? What is then your idea about the Lord of the worlds?' [as-Saffat ± ± − 23:83-87]. − − And in Surah az-Zukhruf: 'And when Ibrahim said to his father and his people: Surely I am clear of what you worship, save Him Who created me, for surely He will guide me.' − [Az-Zukhruf 43:26-27]" In Surah al-Muntahanah: 'Indeed there is for you a good example ± ± − in Ibrahim and those with him when they said to their people; Surely we are clear of you − we declare ourselves to be clear of you, and enmity and of what you serve besides Allah' − alone...' and hatred have appeared between us and you forever until you believe in Allah [al-Muntahanah 60:4]. ± ± He continued his affair between him and them as such until his affair spread and its news − Then, he became angry. He commanded them and they brought him to reached Nimrud. − Nimrud. When the tyrant saw him, he took to scolding Azhar saying: You betrayed me and secreted this child from me. He said: O king! This is the deed of my wife. She mentioned − − brought the mother of Ibrahim that she will establish its proof. Then, Nimrud in his presence. When she came, he said to her: What prompted you that you hid the affair of this child? She said: O king! A view from me for your subjects. He said: How is that? She said: I see you killing the children of your subjects and that causes the progeny to disappear. She said: This is what was sought of him: I should turn him over to him in order that (the king) could kill him. He will give up the children of people and kill them, while he did not do that, he remained for us and among us. Now, you have uncovered − him. Then it is your affair and his: desist from the children of people. Then, Nimrud approved of her speech and thought her view to be correct and he left her alone. Azhar − was made to supervise Ibrahim (ª).

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− gathered the people of his Then, the 'Eid (holiday) of the people came and Nimrud − kingdom together for their 'Eid, except Ibrahim (ª). Perhaps he is sick (Azhar thought) and in that is His, the Exalted's saying: 'Then he looked at the stars, looking up once. Then he said: surely I am sick (of your worshipping these).' [as-Saffat ± ± − 37:88-89] He had not lied in his saying: 'Surely I am sick.' When his intent was in his faith, as had been narrated by as-Sadiq (ª). They left him and they went to their celebration gathering. ± ±− − Ibrahim (ª) got up after their leaving and prepared a meal and took it to the house of the idols. We took the meal near to each of the idols saying: Eat and speak. When they did not reply to him, he struck them with an axe which was with him and broke its hands and feet until he did that to each of the idols. Then, he hung the axe around the neck of the biggest of them while he was in the center of them all. − and he whom was with him returned from the celebration, they saw the When Nimrud broken idols. He rose and said, raising his voice screaming: '...Who has done this to our −½ 21:59] Regarding that is His, the gods? Most surely he is one of the unjust.' [al-Anbiya − Exalted's, saying in Surah as-Saffat ± ± − 'So they went away from him, turning back. Then he turned aside to their gods secretly and said: What! Do you not eat? What is the matter with you that you do not speak? Then, he turned against them secretly smiting them with the right hand. So they (people) advanced towards him, hastening. Said he: What! do you worship what you hew out? − has created you and what you make' [as-Saffat And Allah ± ± − 37:90-95] . −½ 'And, by Allah! − I will certainly do something against your idols after − In Surah al-Anbiya: you away, turning back. So he broke them into pieces, except the chief of them, that haply they may return to it. They said: Who has done this to our gods? Most surely he is − −½ one of the unjust. They said: We heard a youth called Ibrahim speak of them' [al-Anbiya 21:57-60]. − gathered his priests. His people gathered and they were saying: No one Then, Nimrud has done this to our gods except the youth who was finding fault in them and he was saying they do not harm nor benefit nor see nor hear. With that, their words agreed in − making Ibrahim (ª) present (before them) and interrogating him until he confessed his deeds to the heads present and deserved punishment by the agreement of all.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

Said they: Then bring him before the eyes of the people, perhaps they may bear witness.' −½ 21:61] When he was present, they approached him: 'They said: Have you [al-Anbiya − done this to our gods, O Ibrahim? He said: Surely (some doer) has done it; the chief of −½ 62-63] When Ibrahim − them is this... [al-Anbiya (ª) denied that in his saying, then he associated the issuance of the deed to the larger of them based on the speaking of the idol. The meaning of his speech was certainly that action was from the larger of them, if − he can speak and if he cannot speak, then the larger of them did not do it. Just as Allah, the Exalted has narrated regarding his speech: '...Therefore ask them, if they can speak.' −½ 21:63] [al-Anbiya "With that they were dumbfounded and he presented to them the proof that these idols could neither harm them nor benefit them nor were they in a position to defend themselves. 'They turned to themselves...' some of them taking to blaming others 'They said: Surely you yourselves are unjust. Then they were made to hang down their heads...' − in bewilderment and confusion in answering him. They said to him: O Ibrahim! 'Certainly −½ 21:64-65] Then, how can we ask them?" you know that they do not speak.' [al-Anbiya − "Then, Ibrahim (ª) replied to them after their affirming the proof and 'He said: What! do − what brings you not any benefit at all, nor does it harm you? you then serve besides Allah − What! do you not understand them?' Fie on you and on what you serve besides Allah; −½ 21:66-67] [al-Anbiya − became more resolved in his disbelief and tyranny and he sought the Then, Nimrud − counsel of his people in the matter of Ibrahim. They advised him that he should be burned alive because there was no punishment worst than that. All of the people shared in that (conviction). 'They said: Burn him and help your gods if you are going to do −½ 21:68] (anything).' [al-Anbiya − arrested him and his people, all of them, gathered firewood in earnest With that, Nimrud and speed in a month or more. The men and women became engaged in that, the adult among them and the children. Rather, even when any of them became ill, the would bequeath such and such from his property in order to purchase with that which he would attain from the reward until they attained from that which they desired. They constructed a wall of stone raising it to the sky thirty arm-lengths and its width being twenty arm-lengths, just as the Exalted has narrated:

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

'They said: Build for him a furnace, then cast him into the burning fire' [as-Saffat ± ± − 37:97]. Then, they filled (the furnace) with firewood and ignited a fire in it. The fired blazed and raised to the clouds in the sky until no one was able to come near it in the distant of an arrow's shot. Even birds when the passed above it by a Farsakh, they were burned and − died. They became confused in (how to throw) Ibrahim (ª) into it, until Iblees came to them − in human form and informed them that they should take a catapult. They raised Ibrahim (ª) in the catapult and with it, dropped him in center of the fire. Once they had done that, they became happy at that. Then, he was raised above the − − and glorifying Him peacefully, not panicking nor catapult. Ibrahim (ª) was praising Allah − afraid nor scared nor apprehensive nor troubled with all of what they had done. Nimrud − built for himself a structure raised above the fire of Ibrahim (ª). He ascended his structure − and looked to Ibrahim (ª): How could he take the fire?" − It has been related in traditions that at the time when they raised Ibrahim (ª) above the catapult, the sky clamored and the earth along with what was in it of the angels beseeched their Lord. The earth, animals, vermin, wild beasts and angels responsible from the seas, the mountains, the sun, the moon, the winds and others-and preceding − (ª) saying: O my Lord! Your friend Ibrahim − them was Jibrail (ª) is being burned by fire. Your enemies has gained mastery over him and there is no one on the earth to worship − revealed to Jibrail − (ª): Silence! You only say this servant, like You besides him! Until Allah you, fears passing away while he is My servant. I perceive that you desire (his salvation) and if he calls upon Me, I will answer him. "It is said that all types of angels of the heavens and earth all together, sought permission − of their Lord in the support of Ibrahim (ª). Then, angels descended to him in groups upon groups seeking permission in extinguishing the fire with the waters of the seas and drown the people and burn them with fire or with the sun. Or destroy them by the eclipse or wind − did not give any one of them permission for anything of or some other punishment. Allah − (ª) came to Ibrahim − − that. Jibrail (ª) and said: O Ibrahim! Have you any need (from me). − Ibrahim (ª) said: Regarding you (my need from you) then, no. Regarding the Lord of the − (ª) said: Then, seek it from him. He (ª) said: I will inform Him of worlds, then, yes. Jibrail − Exalted is He, sent down my situation. My words will be sufficient for me. With that, Allah, to him a ring stamped with six phrases:

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

Ðé ä æ ä å æ ä Ðé ì ç å ä ä ä Ðé å è ä å åÐé ì ä æ Ü ,ɼ»A ì ,ɼ»A ÜGê É_»GÜ$ ì ,ɼ»BI ì Ü Ë ¾ÌY Ðê ê ÐÓ»Gê Ðj¿C ê ê ÜGê Ñ̳ ê ¾Ìmiåä fÀZ¿ ,ɼ»A ê Oy̯ Ðé Ðé ä æ ä å æ ä ä ä ,ɼ»A æ ÐÓ»Gê ÐjÈ£ ê íÏJnY ê #ɼ»A ê PfÄmCæ ê − − "There is no god except Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; There is no ± − I entrust my affairs to Allah; − I seek support of my back strength nor power except in Allah; − and Allah − is sufficient for me." with Allah − commanded him to wear the ring. When they flung him above the catapult through Allah the air into the center of the fire, he was saying:

ç åå å ä æ å ä æ ä ä æ ä å æ ä ä æ ä æ ä æ ä è ä ä è ä ä åÐé ä ä æä ì ä ä ,fYC è ä ä AÌ°· ð ê ê iBÄ»A ê ê ¹NÀYjI Å¿ ÏÄVà ɻ Å¸Í Á» Ë f»ÌÍ Á» Ë f¼Íê Á» Å¿ BÍ ,fÀu BÍ ,fYC BÍ ,ɼ»A BÍ ê − O One (God)! O Everlasting (God)! O He Who was not begotten nor begets and O Allah! no one is comparable to Him: Save me from the fire by Your Mercy!" − (ª) met him in the air and he was lowered into the fire landing in the center of it "Jibrail gently with ease. Awe-inspiring speech issued from the Great Lord to the fire: 'O fire! be a − −½ 21:69] Then, the elements of this great fire comfort and a peace to Ibrahim.' [al-Anbiya became disturbed due to this awe-inspiring speech and it trembled and convulsed. In − less than the twinkling of a eye, it was converted to very cold until the teeth of Ibrahim (ª)

ç

ä 'peace' come after the Exalted's chattered from the intense cold. Had not the word {B¿Ým} ç

æ ä 'comfort' certainly Ibrahim − − the Exalted saying {AejI} (ª) would have died of coldness. Allah, made it feasible for him in the belly of the fire to have a bed and covering. Green trees flourished around him having various fruits. Light was copious around him. The worldly fire was extinguished in its entirety by the awe-inspiring speech of the Most-High. The day − − was Ibrahim (ª) was thrown into the fire was Wednesday and it was the day Nimrud destroyed."

25

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Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ç é ä Ð æ ì ä ä æ ì ì ¢ ä æ ì åå æ ä ää Ð ê êÅÀYj¼»ê ÆB· ÆBñÎr»A ÆGê ÆBñÎr»A fJ¨M Ü êOID_Í} {BÎv§ "O my father! serve not Shaitan, ±− surely the Shaitan ±− is disobedient to the Beneficent God." [Maryam 19:44]

ç é ä æ ì ä å ä ä Ð æ ì ä è ä ä ì ä ä æ ä å ä ð ää Ð ê ÆBñÎr¼» ê Æ̸N¯ êÅÀYj»A Å¿ê LAh§ ¹nÀÍ ÆC ²BaC ÏÃGê êOID_Í} {BÎ»Ë ê "O my father! surely I fear that a punishment from the Beneficent God should afflict you so that you should be a friend of Shaitan." [Maryam 19:45] ±−

ç é ä æ å æ ä ä ì ä å æ ää ä æ ä æ ä æ ä X å æ Ð ä æ ä ä æ ä è ä ä ê ÏÃjVÇAË ê ê ÏNÈ»E ê ê ŧ OÃC K«AiC ê ¾B³} ê ê Á» Å×»ê ÁÎÇAjIH_Í {Bμ¿ ¹ÄÀUiÞ ÉNÄM

− "He said: Do you dislike my gods, O Ibrahim? If you do not desist I will certainly revile you, and leave me for a time." [Maryam 19:46]

ç é ä ä å ì ¢ ð ä ä ä å æ ä æä ä X ä æ ä ä è ä ä ê ÏIê ÆB· ÉÃGê ÏIi ¹» j°¬NmDm ê {BΰY ¹Î¼§ ÂÝm ¾B³}

"He said: Peace be on you, I will pray to my Lord to forgive you; surely He is ever Affectionate to me:" [Maryam 19:47]

ç é ä ð ä å ä åä é ä Ð ä ä ð ä å æ ä ä Ðé å æ ä å æ ä ä æ åå ä æ ä ê ÏIi ÕF§fI ê ÆËe {Bδq ê ê ÆÌ·C àC Ón§ óÏIi A̧eC Ë É¼»A ê Å¿ê Æ̧fM B¿ Ë Á¸»lN§A ê Ë}

− and I will call upon my "And I will withdraw from you and what you call on besides Allah, Lord; may be I shall not remain unblessed in calling upon my Lord." [Maryam 19:48] − 'O my father! serve not Shaitan...' In al-Kashif, Shaikh Mughniyyah indicates that ±− åå æ ä Ü} it does ä æ ì fJ¨M although the word commonly denoting worship is used in this verse, {ÆBñÎr»A not denote worship of Shaitan, ± − rather it denotes obedience to him: "The intent of worship å ì ä (ÆBñÎr»A ê æ ÑeBJ§ê) here is his obedience because whomever obeys something he has served it. Based upon this, all of whomever disobeys Allah in something, then he has served Shaitan." ±− − − "Rather, the intent of worship (here) is obedience, 'Allamah Tabatabai ± − ± − says in al-Mizan: as in His, the Exalted's saying: "Did I not charge you, O children of Adam! that you should not serve the Shaitan? Surely he is your open enemy." [Ya− Sin 36:60]" ±−

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

'Surely the Shaitan ±− is disobedient to the Beneficent God.' Actually, it goes without saying that Shaitan's greatest and living legacy is his disobedience to the Beneficent God. ±− 'O my father! surely I fear that a punishment from the Beneficent God...' Shaikh Tusi ±− − "al-Farai − says: I fear is in the meaning here of 'I know.' Similar to it is: says in at-Tibyan: 'We feared lest he should make disobedience and ingratitude to come upon them (his parents).' [al-Kahf 18:80] In other words 'we knew.' '...that a punishment from the Beneficent God should afflict you so that you should be a friend of Shaitan.' In other ±− words, the punishment of Allah will overtake you due to your association in His worship other than He. When you do that, you are a friend of Shaitan, ±− his helper and assistant. It is (also) said that its meaning is you have enjoined the guardianship of Shaitan ±− over you being blameworthy and (and deserving of) rebuke due to your serving him. Then, the punishment of Allah and His displeasure with you will become manifest for you. It is (also) said its meaning is you have become answerable to Shaitan ±− while his is free of need for anything from you ." − 'He said: Do you dislike my gods, O Ibrahim? If you do not desist I will certainly revile you, − 'Allamah − and leave me for a time.' In al-Mizan, ± − ± − provides insightå inæ the meaning ä è Tabatabai æ ä æ å ä ä ì ) (to want or of the words in this verse, he says: { Éħ OÃC K«Ai ê } means the opposite of (ÒJ«j»A

ä ì ä å æä ä äæä like). (êÉNÄM from: åÕBÈNÃâA from: ê æê ) means to desist from an action after the injunction. ( ¹ÄÀUiÞ

æì ) is throwing stones. What is known of its meaning is killing by throwing stones. (ÏÃjVYG åÁUj»A ê æ å æê çé ä æ ä ) means to abandon and separate. (Bμ¿ from: åjVÈ»A ê from: ϼÀ»A ê ä ) means a long time." − Like the previously mentioned biographical information, 'Allamah Tibirsi emphasizes, in ± − Majma', the fact that the speaker in this verse was not Ibrahim's actual father: "Our − companions say that this speech from Ibrahim (ª) is only directed to he whom Allah calls − his father because he was the grandfather of Ibrahim (ª) from his mother and that his − father who gave birth to him, his name was Tarikh based on the consensus of the group (of commentators) that his forefathers were our prophets going back to Adam (ª), all of them being believers and monotheists. To that end, it has been narrated on (Muhammad's) authority (x), he said: 'Allah, the Exalted, continued to transfer me from ± the loins of the pure to the wombs of the purified until He caused me to emerge in this, your world.'" 26

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"Non-believers are not described with purity due to His, the Exalted's saying: 'The è ê ä ...' [at-Taubah 9:28]. (His uncle) Azhar replied idolaters are nothing but unclean {oVÃ} − (with this) to Ibrahim (ª) when he summoned (his uncle) to faith." − − Ibrahim's (ª) reply to his uncle's rebuke was: 'Peace be on you...' 'Allamah Tibirsi says of ± this reply: "(It is the reply) of farewell and separation. It is the 'peace' of a truce and − and Ibn Muslim. It is said it is the 'peace' of estrangement from him, according to al-Jubai respect and righteousness. Then, he confronted the disagreement with his father with righteousness in realization of the right of fatherhood. In other words, you depart from a courteous perspective without disobedience." 'I will pray to my Lord to forgive you...' A number of sayings are said in this: one, it is only his promise of seeking forgiveness based on the requirement of reasoning and it had not been afterward established the ignominy of seeking forgiveness for idol-worshippers. Second, is that he said I will seek the forgiveness of my Lord for you based on what is proper and permissible for your abandoning the worship of idols for pure worship of Allah, − Third, is that its meaning is that I will pray to Allah that the Exalted, according to al-Jabai. He not punish you in this world regarding the idol. 'Surely He is ever Affectionate to me.' In other words, He is righteous, graceful and − and Ibn Muqatil. − merciful, according to Ibn 'Abbas It is said that Allah will return to me His beneficence and for me is the excellence (of character). It is (also) said (Allah) is knowledgeable of me and of that which I seek from Him in disputing with you, perhaps He will guide you." ________________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ç é ä æ ä ä ç éå ä ¢ ä å æ ä ä ä æ å ä æ ä ä Ðé å æ ä åå æ ä ä æ åää ä æ ì ä ä ê ÆËe {BÎJÃê Bļ¨U Ý· Ë LÌ´¨Í Ë ¶BZmGê É» BÄJÇË É¼»A ê Å¿ê ÆËfJ¨Í B¿ Ë ÁÈ»lN§A BÀ¼¯} "So when he withdrew from them and what they worshipped besides Allah, We gave to − and each one of them We made a prophet." [Maryam 19:49] Ishaq ±− and Ya'qub,

ç é ä æ ä æ åä æ ä ä ä ä æ ä æ æ åä æ ä ä ä ê ¶fu ê Å¿ê ÁÈ» BÄJÇË Ë} {Bμ§ ë ê ÆBn»ê ÁÈ» Bļ¨U Ë BÄNÀYi

"And We granted to them of Our mercy, and We left (behind them) a truthful mention of eminence for them." [Maryam 19:50] 'So when he withdrew from them and what they worshipped besides Allah, We gave to − ± Makarem − − and each one of them We made a prophet.' Shaikh Nasir Ishaq ±− and Ya'qub, − mentions in al-Amthal: "Then, despite that this period in which Allah gave Ibrahim Ishaq ±− − the son of Ishaq, then Ya'qub, ±− had occupied a lengthy period of time, although this was a − great gift given whereas (Allah) gave him a son like Ishaq ±− and a grandchild like Ya'qub. Each one of them being a prophet, lofty in position, it being the result of the patience of − Ibrahim (ª) and his being upright which manifested itself in the path of struggling against idols and withdrawing from the false course and remaining away from it. In addition to that: 'We granted to them of Our mercy...' This particular mercy is for the sincere and purified and men striving in the path of Allah. In the end: 'And We left (behind them) a truthful mention of eminence for them.' In reality, this is the reply of the seeking and − − ½ 'And ordain for me a goodly mention − prayer of Ibrahim which came in Surah ash-Shu'ara: −½ 26:84]." among posterity.' [ash-Shu'ara − "Certainly, those desiring expulsion and removal of Ibrahim and his family from human society, then there does not remain of them any trace or information. They are forgotten forever, except that which happened was the reverse. Surely Allah, Glorified is He, elevated their mention (it being) resultant from their love, sacrifices and righteousness in performance of the mission which was placed upon their necks. He made their names flow upon the tongues of peoples of the world. They are known as an example and model of God-consciousness, struggle, purity and adversity to falsehood. The tongues, in the likeness of this instance, means the notice which people mention among (other) people."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

æ æ ä ê , it means a mention of "When we add to it, the word {¶fu} ë ê and we say: {¶fu ë ê ÆBn»} ç

é ê ä , it excellence and a goodly mention among people. When that which we adjoin to it {Bμ§} is that which means lofty and prominent. Certainly, it will mean the very beautiful remembrance which will remain among people from whatever individuals (it may be)." − "It is known that Ibrahim did not intend in this seeking the manifestation of peace of his soul. Rather, its aim was that the enemies would not be able to put the history of his life, which was the life of an extraordinary teacher, in a forgotten melting pot. That they could erase his memory from minds forever. He is a permanent model and example for man."

æ å "We will narrate the tradition of Ameer al-Mumineen (ª): 'Good mention (¶fv»A ê ð ÆBn»ê) of a person is Allah making him among mankind better than property which you devour and bequeath.' 27 By overlooking the import of (its various) aspects, certainly good reputation and goodly mention among people is possible, at times, to be the chief greatness for people and for his children. We certainly have before us witnesses upon that. Here, it is possible to raise a question. It is: how is it not mentioned here the granting of the life of − or another child of Ibrahim − − (is being mentioned), the Isma'il while the name of Ya'qub − grandchild of Ibrahim being mentioned distinctly." − − as being "In another place in the Quran, there is mention of the existence of Isma'il − implied in the gifts of Ibrahim. Whereas there, the verse mentions in the tongue of − − and Ishaq; Ibrahim: 'Praise be to Allah, Who has given me in old age Isma'il ±− most surely − the Lord is the Hearer of prayer.' [Ibrahim 14:39]. The answer is that the addition of the − comes independently after two or three verses. In (these verses) some of name of Isma'il his attributes are mentioned prominently. Except that the intent in this verse is to explain − the continuity of prophethood in the family of Ibrahim and explains how his good reputation, goodly mention and his celebrated history has been realized indirectly by prophets from his family." "Those who came singly, they mentioned the others. We know that many prophets are − through the ages and centuries and that a son from from the family of Ishaq ±− and Ya'qub − was the greatest of prophets, in other words, the prophet of Islam, − the progeny of Isma'il the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him and his family, although the continuity was − For that, we recite in verse 27 of Surah − − (29): 'And We in the children of Ya'qub. 'Ankabut − − and caused the prophethood and the book to granted him (Ibrahim) Ishaq ±− and Ya'qub, 28 remain in his seed...'" ________________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

åæ ä ç é ä ç å ä ä ä ç ä æ å ä åì k Ð ä å æ ê ê {BÎJà ÜÌmi ÆB· Ë Bv¼b¿ ÆB· ÉÃG ÓmÌ¿ LBN¸»A ϯ j·gA Ë} ê ê ê − "And mention Musa in the Book; surely he was one purified, and he was an apostle, a prophet." [Maryam 19:51]

ç é ä å æì ä ä ä æä í æ ä Ë} ä ê æÅ¿ê åÊBÄÍeBà {BÎVà ê êKÃBU ê ÊBÄIj³ Ë êÅÀÍÞA iÌñ»A

"And We called to him from the blessed side of the mountain, and We made him draw nigh, holding communication (with Us)." [Maryam 19:52]

çé ä ä å Ð å ä ä æ ä æ å ä æ ä ä ä ê Å¿ê É» BÄJÇË Ë} {BÎJÃ ê ÆËjÇ ÊBaC FÄNÀYi

− − a prophet." [Maryam 19:53] "And We gave to him out of Our mercy his brother Harun − The narrative of prophet Musa (ª), is the most extensively mentioned narrative in the − Various aspects of his narrative are dispersed throughout more than 25 chapters Quran. − 29 His name is mentioned more than one-hundred thirty times therein. of the Quran. Therefore, the realization of the scope of this narrative is a matter requiring extensive study and research. Here, it would be useful to briefly mention a few historical points regarding the life of this great messenger and prophet. For this purpose, we again refer to the book: Histories of Prophets for biographical information: − "The word Musa is a compound of two words in the Coptic language. Then, the word (Ì¿å − , its meaning is water and the word (ÐÓmä /Sa) means a tree. He is named with that /Mu)

− − in which he because of the collection of water and (parts of) a tree in the box (or Tabut was floated downstream by his mother in order to escape the persecution of the Pharaoh). − Ibn Yashar − − − the prophet (ª). His His father was 'Imran Ibn Qahith Ibn Lawi Ibn Ya'qub, ± − ± − − − or Afahiyah − one of the sons of Ibrahim mother is Bukhaid or Nakheeb Bint Ashmuil, (ª). − Musa (ª) was born while the age of his father on that day was seventy (70) years old. The length of the life of his father was one hundred seventy-three (173) years old. His − − was elder than Musa − − brother Harun (ª) and he died before the death of Musa.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− − Musa lived for two-hundred and forty (240) years. Between he and Ibrahim (ª) was five-hundred (500) years. He was a tall man with curly hair. He was the first Messenger sent to the children of Israel while the final (Messenger) was 'Isa (ª) and between the two were six-hundred (600) prophets. He was very humble before his Lord, the Exalted. He covered his cheeks with soil and used to press (his cheeks) to the ground after every prayer. Due to that, Allah, the Exalted, selected him and made him to speak (directly) with Him. There was a difficulty in his speech and a heaviness. On the side of his tongue was a − − was more articulate than he in language, black mole. He had no child. His brother Harun of stockier build and more beloved to his tribe. He had two sons name Shabeer and − Shabbar. The Bani Israel was suspicious of Musa in that they did not believe he had that − − 'O you who believe! Be not like which (other) men had. They killed his brother Harun. − those who spoke evil of Musa, but Allah cleared of him what they said, and he was worthy − of regard with Allah.' [al-Ahzab 33:69]. ± − When Allah sent (Musa) to summon Pharaoh (to faith), he asked (Allah) to send his − − with him due to his excellent logic and eloquence of his speech, he said: brother Harun − − he is more eloquent of tongue than I, therefore send him with me 'And my brother Harun, as an aider, verifying me: surely I fear that they would reject me.' [al-Qasas ± ± 28:34]. − Revelation descended to Musa (ª) due to his being more virtuous than his brother while − − When he was absent he revealed (whatever was revealed to him) to his brother Harun. − − He was his brother from (both) his from his people, his surrogate among them was Harun. father and mother.

− Allah dispatched Musa (ª) to three kings from the most insolent of creation and the most despotic toward Allah, the Exalted, as He, the Mighty and Majestic has said: 'And − − (Pharoah) certainly We sent Musa with Our communications and clear authority to Fir'un − and Qarun, − − but they said: A lying magician.' [al-Mumin 40:23-24]. 30 and Haman − Then, the prophet Muhammad (x) is instructed by Allah, the Exalted: 'And mention Musa ± in the Book; surely he was one purified, and he was an apostle, a prophet.' − Commentators are agreed that here the Book refers to the Quran. Regarding the − − remainder of the verse, Shaikh Nasir ± Makarem writes in al-Amthal:

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"Who are the purified? We read in previous verses that Allah, Glorified is He, made ç äæ å − − Musa one of the purified servants, with (the letter Lam vowelled) with Fathah {Bv¼b¿} . ± This is a very great rank as we have already given indication of that. A rank associated with divine guarantees against slippage and deviations. A re-enforced rank incapable of being disrupted by Shaitan. ±− (A rank which) is not possible to attain except with continuous struggle with oneself and continual, uninterrupted obedience to the commands of Allah, be He Glorified." − regard this rank as an extremely lofty rank.The verses of "The greatest scholars of Akhlaq − convey that for the purified there are particular distinctions and characteristics. the Quran We will touch upon that, God willing." "The difference between an Apostle (messenger) and prophet is that the apostle is an − individual whom an important matter or mission (Risalah) has been placed upon his shoulders for (the purpose of) its conveyance. The prophet, based on one of the interpretations, he is an individual whom is the point of ascension of divine revelation which he informs (people) of that which was revealed to him. Based on another interpretation, he is an individual of exalted rank and lofty degree." − "From the perspective of the Quranic expression and the language of traditions, some believe that the apostle (messenger) is the companion of religion and is commanded with (the responsibility) conveyance. In other words, he receives divine revelation and then conveys it to people." "As for the prophet, he receives revelation except that he is not responsible for conveying it. Rather, he is responsible for the performance of its obligatory (matters) only. Or the reply for he who asks, in another expression: the prophet, his similarity is like the attending doctor who sits in his place being prepared to accept patients. Then, he does not go to the patient. Regarding when the sick consults him, then he is not prevented from treating him and giving advice to him." "Regarding the apostle (messenger) he is like the traveling doctor. In the expression of − Imam 'Ali (ª) in Nahj al-Balaghah, on the authority of the prophet (x): 'The doctor is constant with his medicine. Then, he visits every place going to cities, villages, the mountain, the desert in order to find the sick and prescribe their treatment. He, then, is a spring of sweet water and it flows toward the thirsty. He is not the spring which the thirsty search for."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− "The import of narrations which have reached us from this chapter, (in addition) 'Allamah − in the chapter: Levels of Prophet and al-Kulaini brings its support in the book al-Kafi, Messengers and the chapter: The Difference Between a Prophet and Messenger, (he says) a prophet is an individual who sees the realities of revelation in the state of sleep − only, like the vision of Ibrahim. Or in addition to sleep, he hears the sound of the angel of revelation in wakefulness." "As for the messenger, it is in addition to receiving revelation in his sleep and hearing the voice of the angel, he sees (the angel) also. If that which was mentioned in the narrations does not contradict that which we have said, (it is because) of the possibility of important matters and the different responsibilities of the prophet and the messenger in the manner of receiving revelation. In another form of expression, then every phase of important matters comply with a particular phase of revelation." − "'And We called to him from the blessed side of the mountain...' 'Allamah Tibirsi writes in ± å í is a mountain in Syria. Allah called to him from the mountain's right side Majma': " {iÌñ»A} − and it is the right side of Musa. It is said it is the right side of the mountain intending where − you are facing Madyan. He saw the fire in the tree and it was (Allah) saying: 'O Musa! Surely I am Allah, the Lord of the worlds.'" [al-Qasas ± ± 28:30]. "'And We made him draw nigh, holding communication (with Us).' In other words, − says: 'Allah made him draw close and spoke with speaking in a low voice. Ibn 'Abbas ç é ä å æì ä him.' The meaning of this drawing near {BÎVà ê ÊBÄIj³} is that he listened to Allah speak to him. It is said: He drew near to Him until he heard the squeaking of the pen which the − was written with. It is (also) said: We raised his position and We elevated him in Taurah his place until his place was honorable with Us and the position of his place was near to (Allah Who) associated with him in a sitting in his honor. Then, it was a drawing near of great respect. He was selected. It was not a drawing near (related to) distance and closeness since He, Glorified is he does not confer by descending to a place then becoming near from afar or become remote from near or being the one closest to him than others."

å í is the mountain upon which Regarding the same verse, Shaikh Mughniyyah says: " {iÌñ»A} − − Allah spoke to Musa. The intent of the right-side is the right-side of Musa because there is ç é ä å æì ä no right-side for the mountain nor left-side. The intent in {BÎVà ê ÊBÄIj³} is drawing near to a situation, not near to a location. The meaning is that Allah honored him with prophethood åä å ä åì ð Ëä ÑÌJÄ»A and apostleship (Ò»Bmj»A ) and spoke to him without any intermediary of the − messenger (Jibrail). Rather, the speech came to him from his right-side, just as you would say: I hear a voice behind me or to my right."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− − a prophet.' (Allah), Glorified is "'And We gave to him out of Our mercy his brother Harun He, this alludes to a previous matter. It is that Allah, Glorified is He, at the time of − − commanding Musa to go to Pharaoh, Musa said to him: 'Give me an aider from my family: − − my brother...' [Ta Harun, ± Ha 20:29:30]." "Then, the Master answered him in that He said: 'You are indeed granted your petition, O − Musa!' [Ta ± Ha 20:36]." _______________

åæ ä ç é ä ç åä ä ä æ ä ä ä åÉÃGì k ä½Î§BÀmG æ æ ê ê ¶eBu ê ê {BÎJà LBN¸»A ϯ j·gA Ë} ê ÆB· ê ÜÌmi ÆB· Ë f§Ì»A ê ê ê − in the Book; surely he was truthful in (his) promise, and he was an "And mention Isma'il apostle, a prophet." [Maryam 19:54]

ç é æ ä ð ä ä æ ä ä x ì ä ì å ä æä å åæ ä ä ä ê fħê ÆB· Ë ÑB·l»A ê Ë ÑÝv»BI ê ê ÉIi {BÎyj¿ ê ɼÇC j¿DÍ ÆB· Ë}

"And he enjoined on his family prayer and almsgiving, and was one in whom his Lord was well pleased." [Maryam 19:55] − commentators are divided as to whether it refers to Regarding the reference to Isma'il, − Ibn Ibrahim − − Ibn Hazeeqil Isma'il al-Khaleel or Isma'il (Ezekial). Due to these divergent ± opinions, I will briefly mention some biographic information about both. First, I'll mention − Ibn Ibrahim − Isma'il (ª). − − Ibrahim After leaving the land of the tyrant Nimrud, (ª) migrated to Egypt. However, fearing its ruler, he fled to Syria for a time until he was commanded by Allah to migrate to − and seven followers, the sacred land of Palestine. There he settled with his wife Sara − − ± (ª). including Sara's brother, the prophet Lut − had a servant named Hajir − whom she gave to Ibrahim − Sara (ª) in the hope that he could − (ª) was born from have a successor through her since she had reached old age. Isma'il − − this divine union. Ibrahim (ª) was 86 years old at that time. Due to a conflict between Sara − Ibrahim − − and his infant son where he settled the two in the area and Hajir, (ª) left with Hajir of Makkah.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− − With Hajir's supply of water depleted and her infant son suffering from severe thirst, Hajir went out seeking water in the surrounding area. She climbed the mountain Safa− to look for water, where she saw a bird standing nearby her. Then, when she went to the place where she had seen the bird, she scratched the ground with her foot and water emerged. This was the famous well of Zamzam. There are also other accounts of this story.31 It is − died before Sara. − reported that Hajir − − Ibrahim (ª) was eventually blessed with his second son, Ishaq This ± − (ª) by his wife Sara. − had become quite advanced in age. Some birth is considered miraculous since Sara − accounts put her age at 70 while others say she was 90 while Ibrahim (ª) was reported to be 120 years old.32 − (ª) was a prophet sent the ancient 'Arab tribe of Jurhum which is said As an adult, Isma'il − to have originated in Yemen. The tribe consisted of two main branches: the Baidah and åä åä 33 − − − the 'Aribah (ÒIiB¨»A ê ). It was the 'Aribah who settled in the region of Makkah. Isma'il ê Ë ÑfÖBJ»A

(ª) married a woman of this tribe.

− (ª) to be the son of Ibrahim − Muslims regard Ismail (ª) whom Allah commanded that he sacrifice upon an alter of worship [as-Saffat ± ± − 100-108]. The Jews contend that it was his other son, Ishaq ± − (ª) [Genesis:22].

ä

å

− Ibn Hizqeel Regarding Isma'il (½Î³lY (Ezekial), the ê æ ê åÅIæ ½Î§BÀmG ê æê), he was the son of Hizqeel ± ± − third successor to Prophet Musa (ª) to the Bani Israel. The first of his successors was − Ibn Yaufuna. − This Isma'il − lived for a long time − and the second was Kalib Yausha' Ibn Nun after the death of his father. He was sent as a prophet to his people. He established the affair of Allah with excellent leadership summoning his people to worship of Allah, the Exalted, and admonished them. Despite his efforts, his people only increase in disbelief and insolence until they gathered together to punish him with a peculiar punishment. They peeled the skin of his head and peeled away his face. Allah became angry with them and sent down to them the angel of punishment Satatail. ±− ±− − and sought his permission in descending punishment upon The angel spoke with Isma'il − I am Satatail, them, saying: O Isma'il! ± − ± − the angel of punishment. The Lord of Power has directed me to you in order to punish your people with a type of punishment, if you desire.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− did not grant him permission saying to him: I have no need of that. Allah sent Isma'il another angel who said to him: The Lord of the worlds recites peace upon you. He says I have seen what your people have done to you, therefore ask me whatever you desire. However, he refused to allow the descent of punishment by reason of their injuring him and Allah, Glorified is He, abandoned punishing them for reason of their disbelief. 34 − − "They differ in this Isma'il. − 'Allamah Tabatabai The people say it is ± − ± − says in al-Mizan: − Ibn Ibrahim, − Isma'il the friend of the Merciful. He is only mentioned alone and is not − with interest being paid to his affair. It is said that it is mentioned with Ishaq ±− and Ya'qub − Ibn Ibrahim). − − Ibn Hizqeel other than he (Isma'il He is Isma'il of the prophets of Bani Israel. ± − Ibn Ibrahim, − − The saying If he was Isma'il he would be mentioned with Ishaq ±− and Ya'qub. of people weakens that point of view in that it was an independent mention with attention being paid to his (particular) affair. If it were like that, surely it would be more appropriate − − − to mention him after Ibrahim and before Musa, peace be upon them, not after Musa." − as-Sadiq To that effect, there is a tradition related on the authority of Imam which ± ±− − (about which) Allah said in His book: 'And mention confirms this view: "Surely Isma'il − in the Book; surely he was truthful in (his) promise, and he was an apostle, a Isma'il − Ibn Ibrahim, − prophet,' he was not Isma'il rather one of the prophets Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, sent to his people. They seized him (killing him) then peeled of the skin of his head and face. Then, an angel came to him and said: Surely Allah, Majestic is His Majesty, has sent me to you. Therefore, command me to do whatever you please. He said: For me is an example like that which will be done to al-Husain, the blessings of ± 35 Allah be upon him." Regarding the phrase: 'Surely he was truthful in (his) promise...' there is a tradition on the − ar-Rida − says to Sulaiman − − ath-Thaqalain, in which the Imam authority of Imam ± − (ª), in Nur − is called truthful in his promise? (al-Ja'fari) said: I do al-Ja'fari: "Do you know why Isma'il not know. He said: He made a promise to a man, then sat waiting for him for a year." 36 'And he enjoined on his family prayer and almsgiving, and was one in whom his Lord was − Shaikh Tusi well pleased.' In at-Tibyan, said: 'The intent of his family is ± − says: "al-Hasan ± his nation (Ummah), however, the understanding of family in the apparent meaning is the closer of his close relations. With these attributes, he was with his Lord, well pleased. (Allah) was pleased with his deeds because all of it was (done in) obedience and none it was abominable. The intent in that was only the obligatory matters and the recommended − ±− are not pleasing nor displeasing to matters because the permissible matters (Mubahat) Allah." ________________ Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

åæ ä ç é ä ç ð ä åì k ä æ æ ê ê ê {BÎJà B´Ífu ÆB· ÉÃG oÍieG LBN¸»A ϯ j·gA Ë} êê ê ê ê "And mention Idris in the Book; surely he was a truthful man, a prophet." [Maryam 19:56]

çé ä ç ä å æ ä ä ä ê BÃB¸¿ ÊBĨ¯i Ë} {Bμ§ "And We raised him high in Heaven." [Maryam 19:57]

æ ä ä æ ì ä ¶ ä ä ì å æ ä ì ä æ æ ä ä åÐé ä ä æä ä ì ä å æÅ¿ê Ëä k `ÌÃå ä©¿ä BļÀY ð ê Å¿ê ÁÈμ§ ê ð Å¿ê ÅÎJÄ»A ê ¹×_»ËC} êÐ ÅÀ¿ê Ë ÂeE ÒÍig ê ɼ»A Á¨ÃC ÅÍh»A ë ç ì å ä Ð æì å æ æ ä ä ä æå ¢ æ ä ä æ ä æ ä ä æ ì ä k ä æ ä ä æ ì å ð ê ê êÒÍig ê ê Ë ÁÎÇAjIG AfVm ja PBÍE ÁÈμ§ ê ÐÓ¼NM AgGê BÄÎJNUA Ë BÄÍfÇ ÅÀ¿ê Ë ½ÎÖEjmG ê í ÅÀYj»A çé å ä ÑfVn»A {BθI ê Ë "These are they on whom Allah bestowed favors, from among the prophets of the seed of − − ± and the seed of Ibrahim Adam, and of those who We carried with Nuh, and Israel, and of those whom We guided and chose; when the communications of the Beneficent were recited to them, they fell down making obeisance and weeping." [Maryam 19:58] 'And mention Idris in the Book; surely he was a truthful man, a prophet.' In a similar manner to verse 51, the prophet Muhammad again was commanded to mention a ± previous prophet, in this case the prophet Idris (ª). Idris (ª) is the earliest descendant of − In the Taurah, − he is known as Akhnukh. His full name Adam (ª) mentioned in the Quran. − Ibn Qeenan − Ibn Anush − Ibn Yarad Ibn Mahlail − Ibn Seeth Ibn Adam, peace be is Akhnukh − upon them all. Idris was the father of Matushalah (Methusala) at the age of 65. − Matushalah is mostly cited for his long life as he was reported to have lived 960 years. − − ± (ª). Matushalah was the father of was Lamak, the father of the prophet Nuh It is narrated that Idris gathered the descendants of Seeth, after their descent from the − − ± and warned sacred mountain, along with his own children, Matushalah, Lamak and Nuh them: 'I know that Allah will be the punisher of this Ummah with a great punishment without any mercy in it.'

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

It is narrated that Idris was named as such because of his constant study of previous è æ ä which means study). He is said to scriptures (his name being derived from the word pie be the first to write with a pen and the first to sew with thread. He established worship of Allah and advised his sons to purify their worship solely for Allah and they were known to act with truthfulness and certainty. Allah raised him to heaven after attaining the age of 300. 37 'And We raised him high in Heaven.' The meaning of this verse has different interpretations among commentators. As a summary of those views, we look to the − ± Makarem − statement of Shaikh Nasir in his Tafsir, al-Amthal: "Here there is a discussion among the commentators in that is the intent the great position of Idris in meaning or his rise to a perceptible place? Then, some consider that, as we have (alluded) to, indicates åì ä æ ä å å abstract stations (ÒÍÌĨÀ»A PB¿B´À»A) and spiritual level of this great prophet. Others believe ê that Allah, Glorified is He, raised Idris, like the Messiah, to sky and they consider the çé ä ç ä phrase {Bμ§ ê BÃB¸¿} as an indication of that."

ç

ä upon abstract stations is a common and "Except that the application of the word {BÃB¸¿} − − − natural matter. We can see in äSurah Yusuf, in verse 77, that Yusuf had said to his ç ä ï ä æ åæ disobedient brothers: {BÃB¸¿ jq ÁNÃC} 'You are in an evil condition...' In any case, Idris is one of the lofty prophets of Allah." − 'Allamah − In al-Mizan, Tabatabai ± − ± − says of this verse: "It is possible that the inference is from − successive narratives rendered in the Surah and they enumerate the gifts of prophethood è ì ä æ ä åì Ð å å and guardianship. They are divine abstract stations (ÒÍÌĨ¿ ê ÒÎÈ_»âA ê ê PB¿B´À»A) in that the intent

çé ä ç ä {Bμ§ ê BÃB¸¿} which he was raised to one of the levels of nearness (to Allah) when there is no

merit in material ascension and rising to the furthest extremes of the sky, wherever it may be. It is said that the intent of that, just as has been narrated in the tradition, that Allah raised him to some of the heavens and made him die there. In (the tradition) are unordinary signs and far-reaching divine capabilities and it suffices as a merit." The tradition referenced in this comment will be mentioned only in the footnotes for the sake of brevity. 38 − Regarding the last verse in this section, 'Allamah Tibirsi writes in Majma': '"These...' ± (meaning prophets whom) their mention has preceded; 'Are they on whom Allah bestowed favors...' (Favors) of prophethood. It is said (favors) of rewards and the remaining religious and worldly blessings."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− ± "'From among the prophets of the seed of Adam, and of those who We carried with Nuh, − and the seed of Ibrahim and Israel...' (Allah), Glorified is He, made a distinction in mentioning their relationship with all of them being the descendants of Adam (ª) in order to explain their degree in the eminence of the relationship. Then, for Idris was the − − ± Ibrahim eminence of closeness to Adam because he was the grandfather of Nuh. was − Ibn − ± because was one of the children of Sam among the descendants carried with Nuh − − − ± Isma'il, − are from the descendants of Ibrahim. Nuh. Ishaq While they were ±− and Ya'qub − − distant from Adam, they had attained for themselves the eminence of Ibrahim. Musa, − − Zakariya, − Yahya − Harun, ± and 'Isa are from the descendants of Israel (Ya'qub). It is said that the sentence was completed with (Allah's) saying Israel. Then He initiated (a new sentence), then said: 'And of those whom We guided and chose...' It is said that the intent in it are prophets whom their mention has preceded from the children of Adam of those whom We guided and selected. In other words, We guided them to the truth and then they became (rightly) guided and We selected them among people. Then, (Allah) described them: 'When the communications of the Beneficent were recited to them, they − according fell down making obeisance and weeping. The communications is the Quran, − They fell down prostrating to Allah and crying due to humility before Allah, to Ibn 'Abbas. Glorified is He, because they were humbled due to the majesty of their power." It should be noted that this verse is one of the verses wherein the Sajdah or prostration is recommended for anyone who reads or hears this verse.39 _______________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

çé ä ä æ ä æ ä ä æ ä ä ì å ä è æ ä æ æä æ ä ä ä ä ì ì ä å ä ä ê ê Å¿ê ±¼b¯} ê {BΫ ÆÌ´¼Í ²Ìn¯ PAÌÈr»A ĄJN»A Ë ÑÝv»A A̧ByC ±¼a ÁÇf¨I "But there came after them an evil generation, who neglected prayers and followed the sensual desires, so they will meet perdition." [Maryam 19:59]

ä ä ää ä ä ä æ ä ì ç æ ä ä åä æ å ä ä ì ä ä å å æ ä ä Ð å ä ç ê BZ»Bu ê ½À§ {B×Îq ÆÌÀ¼¤Í Ü Ë ÒÄV»A Æ̼afÍ ¹×_»ËD¯ ê Ë Å¿E Ë LBM Å¿ ÜG} ê

"Except such as repent and believe and do good, these shall enter the garden, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly in any way:" [Maryam 19:60]

ç é æ åå æ ä ä åì ¢ æ ä å ä å Ð æ ì ä ä ä ì æ ä ì ä ê Êf§Ë ÆB· ÉÃGê êKά»BIê ÊeBJ§ê ÅÀYj»A f§Ë ÏN»A ê Æf§ ê {BÎMD¿ ë PBÄU}

"The gardens of perpetuity which the Beneficent God has promised to His servants while unseen; surely His promise shall come to pass." [Maryam 19:61]

ç é ä ä ç ä æ å æ åå æ æ åä ä ¢ ç ä ì ç æ ä ä å ä æ ä Ü} ê Ë Ñj¸I BÈίê Áȳkiê ÁÈ» Ë B¿Ým ÜGê A̬» BÈίê Æ̨ÀnÍ {BÎr§

"They shall not hear therein any vain discourse, but only: Peace, and they shall have their sustenance therein morning and evening." [Maryam 19:62] Regarding the verse:'But there came after them an evil generation...' many è æä commentators have noted the distinction between the word {±¼a}, as found in the verse

è ää

− is vowelled with Fathah. and the word (±¼a), wherein the letter Lam Regarding this point, ± − "Then, the Exalted, informs that there was (a Shaikh Tusi ± − explains this point in at-Tibyan: è ää − is used generation) following after those mentioned. (±¼a) with Fathah ± on the (letter) Lam – æä è − and az-Zajaj − said − {±¼a} it is used for the evil. al-Fara for the righteous; and with Sukun that each one of them is used for the other. In the verse is an indication that the intent of è æä {±¼a} is the unrighteous." − "'Who neglected prayers...' al-Qarati± said: they abandoned (their prayers). Ibn Mas'ud and 'Umar Ibn 'Abdur-'Azeez said they delayed (their prayers) from their proper times."

ì

å − 'Allamah − In al-Mizan, Tabatabai ± − ± − says: '(Õ6Ïr»A ªBÎy) is to ruin something or to fail to find it for ä

ä ä a reason that was necessary to have control over it. It is said: (¾BÀ»A åªByC - Property was

ruined) when it is ruined by bad management or it is taken from his hand in spending for that which it was not required to spend it in."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

èæ

ä

" (íϬ»A) - to stray from the right way, is the opposite of (fqiå) - to be rightly guided. It is hitting

å

ì ) - straying from the right path, contrary to the reality and near to the meaning of (¾Ýz»A å ) - Guidance. It is riding on the path connecting to the intended point." (ÐÔfÈ»A ä

"In other words, those upon whom Allah bestowed favors and their path was humility and fear of Allah, the Exalted, by turning to Him in worship. An evil people ruined that which they had taken from (those preceding them) in prayer and turning attention toward Allah, Glorified is He, through negligence (in worship) and turning away from it." "'And followed the sensual desires...' They followed desires diverting them with regard to − Allah and turning their attention towards Him, according to Mujahid. From here, it is apparent that the intent of neglecting the prayer is ruining them, neglecting them and making light of them until it ended as a similitude of play. They altered it and abandoned it after taking and accepting (the duty). Then, it is that the intent of neglecting the prayer is abandoning it, not with relevant right when you do not call the abandonment of something from the beginning, neglect of it." The object of the verse is connected in that divine faith was transferred from those righteous forefathers and after them to these evil generations. Then, they did not do well in the succession which was a pillar of the Unity of Faith in worship and they followed their desires diverting them from the truth." "'So they will meet perdition.' In other words, the reward for the deviation from that upon − 25:68]. It is which is said: 'And he who does this shall find a requital of sin.' [al-Furqan çé ä possible that the intent of perdition itself {BΫ},with an assumption of perdition as the object of the path which they have entered upon, it is the path of neglect of prayers and following desires. Then, when they enter upon it as a path, its object is perdition. Then, they shall meet with perdition when they traverse (that path). Regarding raising the veil of other than them, for them is the Day of Judgment whereas the realities will be unveiled for them or the deeply rooted deviation in their hearts and their outcome (unveiled) from the friends of Shaitan, ±− as He has said: 'Surely, as regards My servants, you have no authority over them except those who follow you of the deviators.' [al-Hijr ± 15:42] How it was so? Then, it is a metaphor with a subtle allusion."

ä

40 − 'Ata It is also said that (íϬ»A) is a valley in Jahannam, according to Ibn Mas'ud, ± and Ka'b.

− In Majma', 'Allamah Tibirsi says of the next verse: 'Except such as repent...' In other ± words, they are regretful about what has past. 'And believe and do good...' (Believe) in the future of their lives and do good from the obligatory and recommended (deeds)."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

'These shall enter the garden, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly in any way.' He ä å ä æ å with Fathah on the Kha ä åä æ å with Dammah on the Ya − ½ and {Æ̼afÍ} −½ who recites {ÆÌÀ¼¤Í} ± ± (indicating the passive voice) intend (the meaning) that Allah, Glorified is He, will enter them into the paradise in that He will command them to enter into it. This corresponds to ä åê æ ä) 'Treated wrongly.' He who recites {Æ̼afÍ} ä å å æ ä intends that they will be His saying (ÆÌÀ¼¤Í entered into paradise by the command of Allah. The two meanings are one. Nothing will be diminished from their reward, rather, Allah will fulfill the reward for them in full and complete. In this, is an indication that Allah does not prevent anyone from the reward of his deeds nor invalidates it because He, Glorified is He, would be called unjust for that ." − ± Makarem − Regarding the next verse, Shaikh Nasir writes in al-Amthal: "Paradise and its blessings are described in these verses along with that which came in its mention in the preceding verses. Then, it describes the promised paradise in that it is: 'The gardens of perpetuity which the Beneficent God has promised to His servants while unseen; surely His promise shall come to pass.' From that which is deserving of concern and attracts attention is that the preceding verses speak of repentance, faith and good deeds and äìä afterward comes the promise of paradise {ÒÄV»A} in the singular form. As for here, it is mentioned in the plural form {PBÄV»A} ê ì ä because, in reality, paradise is created from numerous gardens and greatly enriched with blessings. It will be at the disposal of the righteous believers." "The paradise is described as: 'Gardens of perpetuity...' which means permanent and everlasting. An indication that the paradise is not like gardens and orchards of this world (whose) blessings are fleeting because something which makes people anxious in that which is associated with the blessings of this world are numerous, it is fleeting in the end. Except that the likeness of this anxiety in relation to the blessings of the paradise does not exist."

å ä ê means the believing servants of Allah, not all servants. The expression "The word {ÊeBJ§} ä {Kά»BI} ê æ ê which comes after it means in (the servant's) absence and being hidden from his − view, except that he believes in it. In verse 30 of Surah al-Fajr, we also read: 'So enter among My servants, and enter into My garden.' It is also likely in the meaning of the unseen that the blessings of paradise is in a form that is not seen by the eye and one does not hear in it then, while It does not occur in the thinking or in the heart of man. With one word, it is absent from our senses and our perception, a more sublime world and broader world than this. We are not seeing in it except as an apparition. We see it from afar with the eye of the spirit and heart."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"Then, an indication is given after that to another blessing from the greatest of the blessings of paradise, then it is said: 'They shall not hear therein any vain discourse, but only: Peace...' Then there is no lie; no enmity; no suspicion; no injury by the tongue; no ridicule; not even non-beneficial speech in it. Rather, the single thing they will hear in it is only: Peace. Peace in the widest meaning of the word which indicates upon the peace of the spirit, thinking, the tongue, attitude and behavior. The peace which will make that atmosphere and that environment a (true) paradise. It will root out all types of annoyance from it. The peace which there is the sign of an atmosphere of safety; an atmosphere filled with serenity; intimate relationships; purity; piety; righteousness; tranquility and contentment." "Then, it is said: 'And they shall have their sustenance therein morning and evening.' This sentence raises two questions. One of them is: Can morning and night be found in this paradise? The answer to this question comes in narrations as such: That paradise, although it is constantly luminous and bright, except that its people will distinguish the night and the day from the lessening of light and its increase and its duration. The other − with clarity that all of question is: Can it be understood from these verses of the Quran that which the people of paradise desire of gifts, sustenance always exists at their disposal and at any time? Then, what sustenance is this which comes to them in the morning and evenings only?" "We can extract the answer to this question with a beautiful tradition narrated from the prophet (x) wherein he says: 'A portion of guidance will be given to them from Allah for the timings of prayer which they will pray with in this world.' 41 It can be deduced from this tradition that this is a special guidance which it is not possible to explain the essence of it except with conjecture and guessing. Yes, it is very valuable whereas it is adjoined to the usual blessings of paradise being guided to these (people) morning and evenings. Except that the phrase of the verse and the tradition which was mentioned indicates that the life of the people of paradise is not one mode. Rather, is it for them in every morning and evening a new gift and a new kindness encompassing them and prevailing over them? Is it not the meaning of this sentence that the perfecting journey will continue there without performing any action, other than it may make permanent his journey of perfection by means of his belief and action in this world?" _______________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

çé ä ä æ ä å å ì åì ä ä æ ê ÆB· Å¿ BÃeBJ§ ê ÒÄV»A ¹¼M} ê {BδM ê ê æÅ¿ê TiÌà ê ÏN»A "This is the garden which We cause those of Our servants to inherit who guard (against evil)." [Maryam 19:63] X

ä Ð ä æ ä ä ä æ ä ä ä ä æ ä å ä ä ð ä æä ì åì ä ää ä ¹»gê ÅÎI B¿ Ë BÄ°¼a B¿ Ë BÄÍeCê ÅÎI B¿ É» ó¹Ii j¿DI ê ê ÜGê ¾lÄNÃ B¿ Ë} çé ä ä ä ä ê ¹Iií ÆB· B¿ Ëä {BÎnÃ

"And we do not descend but by the command of your Lord; to Him belongs whatever is before us and whatever is behind us and whatever is between these, and your Lord is not forgetful." [Maryam 19:64]

ç é ä å ä å ä æ ä æ ä ¢ ä æ ä æ ä å æ å æ ä å ä æ ä ä æä ä ê ê ê jJñuA ê ì Li} {BÎÀm ê É» Á¼¨M ½Ç êÉMeBJ¨» ê Ë ÊfJ§B¯ BÀÈÄÎI B¿ Ë ê~iÞA Ë PAËBÀn»A íä

"The Lord of the heavens and the earth and what is between them, so serve Him and be patient in His service. Do you know any one equal to Him?" [Maryam 19:65] − Shaikh Tusi In at-Tibyan, ± − explains the verse: 'This is the garden which We cause those of Our servants to inherit who guard (against evil).' "Its meaning is only he who is God-fearing in the abode of this world by abandoning disobedience and performing å å obedience will possess this paradise. (Allah) only said: {TiÌÃ} ê 'We cause to inherit' with that it is not taking possession as in being transferred to them from other than themselves because it is resembling inheritance from the perspective that possession is taken in a state renewed from a state ended in the affairs of this world. Just as the state of the deceased has ended the affair of this world. It is said that they inherit from the paradise the abodes which were for the people of the hell-fire, had they been obedient." There is evidence in the commentaries that this verse and that which follows were − revealed separately from the preceding verses. In Majma', 'Allamah Tibirsi says: It is said ± that revelation had ceased for some days when the prophet (x) was asked about the − ± That was narrative of the people of the cave, Zhul-Qarnain and the soul (Ruh). − came to him, he having waited for a while, (the troublesome for him. Then, when Jibrail verse) descended: 'And we do not descend but by the command of your Lord...' − − according to 'Akramah, Qutadah, al-Kalabi and Muqatil." For the sake of brevity, the narrative of this event will only be mentioned in the footnotes. 42

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− − ar-Rabee', In at-Tibyan, Shaikh Tusi ± − says of the remainder of the verse: "Ibn 'Abbas, − − − and Abu − al-Aliyah said: 'To Him belongs whatever is before us...' It Qutadah, ad-Dahhak ± ± is this world; 'And whatever is behind us...' It is the hereafter; 'And whatever is between these...' It is the two blowings (of the trumpet on the Day of Judgment). His saying: 'And your Lord is not forgetful.' In other words, Allah, the Exalted, is not He Whom forgets and emerges from His (attribute of) being All-knowing because He is All-Knowing Himself. What is estimated here is: We did not forget you and that the revelation was delayed to you." − Shaikh Mughniyyah explains the next verse in al-Kashif: 'The Lord of the heavens and the earth and what is between them...' He Who is Lord due to existence, forgetfulness is impossible in His reality. 'So serve Him and be patient in His service...' This is a command from Allah, the Exalted, to the His noble prophet that it accomplishes the importance of conveyance because it is the greatest of service and obedience. That he must be patient with that which he encounters from injury in the path of that (service). 'Do you know any − ± 112:4] in all one equal to Him?' Then, Allah, Glorified is He, 'None is like Him' [al-Ikhlas of His attributes of loftiness and perfection. He who is like that, it is obligatory to serve Him and obey Him." − ± Makarem − Regarding this verse, Shaikh Nasir says: "When the matter is like that and all lines end with Him: 'So serve Him...' (with a servitude) associated with Tauheed and ± sincerity. When this path, the path of servitude, obedience and sincere worship of Allah, is filled with difficulties and hardships, then it is added: 'And be patient in His service...' "It is said, in the end of the sentence: 'Do you know any one equal to Him?' This sentence, in reality, is an indication upon that which came in the preceding sentence. Meaning, is there a partner for this sacred essence and a likeness that you can extend your hand ç ä toward Him and worship Him? The word {BÎÀm} ê it means a partner in name, except that it is clear that the intent here is not the name only. Rather the contents of the name. In other words, do you know of anyone other than Allah as a Creator, Sustainer, giver of life and death, possessor of power over all things and is Master over all things?" _______________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ç é ä å ä æå ä æ ä ä å åä ä å æ ¾Ì´Í {BÎY XjaC ²Ìn» íO¿ê B¿ AgGÕêä ÆBnÃâA Ë} ê "And says man: what! When I am dead shall I truly be brought forth alive?" [Maryam 19:66]

ç æ ä å ä æ ä ä å æ ä æ å æ ä ä ìä å æ åå æ ä ä ä {B×Îq ¹Í Á» Ë ½J³ Å¿ê ÊBÄ´¼a BÃC ÆBnÃâA ê j·hÍ Ü Ë C} "Does not man remember that We created him before, when he was nothing?" [Maryam 19:67] − Regarding the first verse, 'Allamah Tibirsi writes in Majma': "(Allah's) saying descended: ± − Khalaf al-Jamhi 'And says man...' in relation to Abu ± and that was (because) he took a bare bone and made it crumble in his hand and scattered it in the wind saying: Muhammad claims that Allah will raise us after we die while we will be bones like this. ± This thing will never be, according to al-Kalabi. It is (also) said that it descended in regards to al-Waleed Ibn al-Mughirah in the narration of 'Ata ± on the authority of Ibn − 'Abbas." "When (Allah) had already advanced mention of the promise, the threat, the raising (of the dead) and the resurrection, (Allah) Glorified is He, gives an account of (man's) outcome regarding the saying of the deniers of resurrection and (He) replies to them in the clearest of explanations and the most distinct proof, Then, He says: 'And says man: what! When I am dead shall I truly be brought forth alive?' This question, the intent in it is the denial and mockery. In other words, Will it be when I have died, Allah will return me alive." "Then, (Allah) Glorified is He, says as a reply to this non-believer: 'Does not man remember that We created him before...' Will man bear in mind this denial in the state of the beginning of his creation? He draws conclusions from the beginning upon the return. Here, it is said that man is in the singular in the word being plural in meaning intending all of the deniers of the raising (of the dead): 'When he was nothing?' Its meaning is he was nothing as a creation or (nothing) mentioned. A question, it is said: How does the first genesis indicate upon the second (re-birth)? The One among us capable of its performance, like movement, rest, sounds and other than that, He is incapable of (man's) return?"

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

Regarding the next verse, 'Does not man remember that We created him before, when he − − "The question is for the purpose was nothing?' 'Allamah Tabatabai ± − ± − explains in al-Mizan: arousing astonishment and (the sense of) improbability. The meaning of the verse is apparent. It has already inferred by raising the remoteness of it with the mention of the occurrence of the example in order to establish its possibility. The verse, then, is comparable to (Allah), the Exalted's saying in other places: 'And he strikes out a likeness for Us and forgets his own creation. Says he: Who will give life to the bones when they are rotten? Say: He will give life to them Who brought them into existence at first...' (until the verse:) 'Is not He Who created the heavens and the earth able to create the like of them? Yea! and He is the Creator (of all), the Knower.' [Ya− Seen 78-81]" "If it is said that the pretext in the occurrence of the example only results in the possibility å ê ). It is of the example while that which is sought is in the establishment of the return (eB¨À»A the return of man in his person and his essence, not in his likeness. Surely the example of something is other than it. Certainly this verse is for the purpose of establishing the return of the bodies and the creation of them a second time like the creation the first time. (And the creation) of the individuality of the human person himself, not (simply the recreation) of his body. " "Then, when the body is recreated a second time, the soul and worldly personality of the man will be connected to (the body) itself. The body is a part of man in comparison to the worldly body, as an example, not in essence. This is just like the personality of man and his uniqueness is preserved in this world for the extent of his life with the change of the body and its compensation for the change of its parts and its exchange of one state for another state. The body in the second state is other than it in the first state but man remains with his individual uniqueness in the two states due to the remaining of his soul with its individual." "This is indicated in His, the Exalted's saying: 'And they say: What! when we have become lost in the earth, shall we then certainly be in a new creation...? (until the verse:) 'Say: The angel of death who is given charge of you shall cause you to die, then to your Lord you shall be brought back.' [as-Sajdah 32:10-11], in other words, you will be taken from your bodies being preserved, neither being lost nor missed." __________________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ç é ä ì ä ä ä æ ä æ åìä æ åä ì å ä åìä å æ ä ä ä¹Iið ä ̯} ää ê ê ÁÄÈU ¾ÌY ÁÈÃjzZÄ» ê ÁQ ÅÎBÎr»A ê ì Ëä æÁÈÃjrZÄ» {BÎRU − ± "So by your Lord! We will most certainly gather them together and the Shayateen, then shall We certainly cause them to be present round hell on their knees." [Maryam 19:68]

ç é Ð æ ì Ð ä ä å ää æ å å ë ä ð å æ ì ä æ ä ä ì å ê ê êÅÀYj»A Ó¼§ fqC ÁÈÍCí Ò¨Îqê ½· Å¿ê ŧlÄÄ» {BÎN§ ê ÁQ}

"Then We will most certainly draw forth from every sect of them him who is most exorbitantly rebellious against the Beneficent God." [Maryam 19:69]

ää çé ì ä ä æ ää ì å ê ê BÈIê ÐÓ»ËCæ æÁÇå äÅÍh»BI ê ê åÁ¼§Cæ åÅZÄ» {Bμu ÁQ}

"Again We do certainly know best those who deserve most to be burned therein." [Maryam 19:70] − In Majma', 'Allamah Tibirsi writes regarding the first verse in this section: 'So by your ± − ± Lord!' O Muhammad! 'We will most certainly gather them together and the Shayateen ...' In other words, We will gather them and raise them from their graves being associated − ± with their leaders among the Shayateen. It is (also) said: We will gather them and gather − ± the Shayateen also. 'Then shall We certainly cause them to be present round hell on their − knees.' In other words, in suspense on their knees, according to Qutadah. The meaning is they will be kneeling around the hellfire quarreling, some disavowing others because the Reckoning is near to the hellfire. It is (also) said: kneeling, in other words, in groups, çé èä æ − {BÎRU} according to Ibn 'Abbas. ê ê is the plural of (ÑÌRU ê). It is a collection of dirt and stones. It is said its meaning is standing on the knees and that is due to the limitation of the place for them not being possible for them to sit, according to as-Sadi." 'Then We will most certainly draw forth from every sect ...' In other words: We will most certainly remove them from every group. 'Of them him who is most exorbitantly rebellious − against the Beneficent God.' In other words, the most rebellious of them. Qutadah said: We will withdraw from every people of religion their leaders and their chiefs of evil. (The ç åå word), here, {BÎN§} like (ÌN¨»A ê ê is a Masdar ± í ) and it is being rebellious in disobedience. It is − (also) said it begins with the greater offense, then (even) greater, according to Mujahid − al-Ahwas." and Abu ± ± 'Again We do certainly know best those who deserve most to be burned therein.' In other words, certainly We know who is more entitled to the most severe of punishment and more deserving of the greatest punishment and more appropriate in commitment to the hellfire." _________________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

çé æ ä ç æ ä ä ð ä Ð ä ä ä X å ì æ å æ æ ä ê BÀNY ¹Ii Ó¼§ ÆB· BÇeiAË {BÎz´¿ ê ÜGê Á¸Ä¿ê ÆGê Ë} "And there is not one of you but shall come to it; this is an unavoidable decree of your Lord." [Maryam 19:71]

çé ì å ä ä ä æ ä ì ä ì ð äå ì å ê ê BÈίê äÅÎÀ»B¤»A ê ÏVÄà ÁQ} {BÎRU Ë AÌ´MA ÅÍh»A ê ê ihÃ

"And We will deliver those who guarded (against evil), and We will leave the unjust therein on their knees." [Maryam 19:72] − Shaikh Tusi In at-Tibyan, ± − says regarding the verse: 'And there is not one of you but shall come to it...' "Allah, the Exalted, says to those held responsible (for their faith): There is not one of you except he will come to the hellfire. It is alluded to in his His saying: 'But − shall come to it...' Referring to Jahannam, without dispute, except the saying of Mujahid. Then, he says: It is an allusion to fever and illnesses. He narrated that as a report from − Hurairah. People say it is an allusion to the Day of the prophet (x) on the authority of Abu Judgment. The stronger saying is the first (i.e. that it refers to Jahannam), due to His, the Exalted's saying: 'And We will deliver those who guarded (against evil), and We will leave the unjust therein on their knees,' meaning in Jahannam." "There are differences in the manner of their coming to the Jahannam. Then, people say, and it is correct, that their coming to it is their arrival at Jahannam and their presence å åå ), in language, is arrival at a place. Its without entering them into it. It is because (eËiÌ»A origin is the arrival of water and it is contrary to beginning from it. It is said: information came as such, as a comparison to that. It indicates that coming is the arrival at something − without entering into it. His, the Exalted's saying is: 'When he (Musa) came to the water − of Madyan...' [al-Qasas and 'Abdullah ± ± 28:23], the intent is arrival at (the water). Qutadah − said: Their coming to it, is their passing by it. 'Akramah said: The non-believer Ibn Mas'ud will arrive at it, not the believer, then the verse is particular to the non-believers." "His saying: 'This is an unavoidable decree of your Lord.' Its meaning is that their coming to Jahannam, based on that which we explained, is enjoined by Allah and a decree is a ç æä decree, its being (as such) is necessary. {BÀNY} is the certainty of a matter. That is made

æ

required by Allah definitely. (Ïz´À»A ê ä ) is that which is decreed that it will be." _______________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ç ä è æ ä æ ä ä ä ä å ä ä ì åä ä ä ì ä ë ä å æ æ ä ä Ð ä æ å ä äË B¿B´¿ ê ê AËj°· ÅÍh»A ê ¾B³ PBÄÎIð BÄMBÍE ÁÈμ§ jÎa êÅÎN´Íj°»A ê Ó¼NM AgGê Ë} ê íÐC AÌÄ¿E ÅÍh¼» ä çé ä å ä æ ê ÅnYC {BÍfà "And when Our clear communications are recited to them, those who disbelieve say to those who believe: Which of the two parties is best in abiding and best in assembly?" [Maryam 19:73]

çé æ ä ç ä å ä æ ä æ å æ ä æ æ å ä æ ä æ ä æ ä æ ä ä {BÍÕiê Ë BQBQC ÅnYC ÁÇ Æj³ ë Å¿ê ÁȼJ³ Bĸ¼ÇC Á· Ë}

"And how many of the generations have We destroyed before them who were better in respect of good and outward appearance!" [Maryam 19:74] − there is a tradition related to the first two verses here: "On the authority of Abu − In al-Kafi, 'Abdillah (as-Sadiq ª) in the saying of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic: 'And when Our clear ± ±− communications are recited to them, those who disbelieve say to those who believe: Which of the two parties is best in abiding and best in assembly?' He said: the Messenger of Allah had summoned the Quraish to our guardianship, then they fled and refused. Those who disbelieved from the Quraish said to those who believed who attested to Ameer al-Mumineen and us, the Ahl al-Bait, in other words, 'Which of the two parties is best in abiding and best in assembly?' as an insult to them. Then, rebuking them, Allah said: 'And how many of the generations have We destroyed before them who were better in respect of good and outward appearance!'" 43 − − " (ÐfÄ»A Regarding the first verse, 'Allamah Tabatabai ê ì ) is an assembly, it is ± − ± − says in al-Mizan: said an assembly of consultation, in particular. 'Those who disbelieve say to those who − believe...' They spoke to them and the (letter) Lam is in the meaning of conveyance (Tableegh) just as it was said. It is said it conveys the meaning of (their motivation in the saying)." "They said for the sake of those who believed, in other words, in order to delude them and change them away from faith. His saying: 'Which of the two parties is best in abiding and best in assembly?' In other words, for the sake of asking a question. The two parties, they are the non-believers and the believers. Their aim was that the non-believers were better in abiding and assembly than the believers who the majority of them were slaves and the poor but they presented it in the form of a question they (asked) about the two parties while they alleged that the believers were knowing that and they would reply to that if they asked without hesitation and suspicion."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"The meaning is when Our communications are recited to people - and they are two groups, the non-believers and the believers - and it is apparent in its proof and clear in its evidence not leaving any doubt for the doubter. A party of them, and they are those who disbelieve, said to the other party, and they are those who believe: which of these two groups are better from the perspective of abodes and more excellent in assemblies. There is no doubt they are the non-believers. They intended to make it unavoidable that they were happy upon their paths and their faith although there is no happiness behind the enjoyment in the possession of the life of this world. Then, they were attached to that (path) which they were upon." Regarding the verse: 'And how many of the generations have We destroyed before them − − who were better in respect of good and outward appearance!' 'Allamah Tabatabai ± − − mentions in al-Mizan: "When the non-believers advanced an argument against the believers regarding the reality of their faith and the futility of the prophetic call which the believers believed in. (The believers believed they) were the best in abiding and − there was an eternal assembly in this world. It escaped (the non-believers) that for Islam life having no end. (The believer's) enjoyment is only in (the eternal life's) enjoyment and the small number of days he lives in happiness in this world does not make him capable of facing that in which there is no end nor that in which he is not free of need of anything. "Based on (the fact that) this worldly enjoyment does not decree happiness for him nor protect him, for even a day, from the wrath of Allah that will befall him. That he is one of the unjust is not improbable. Then, the non-believers are not safe from the displeasure of Allah and there is no goodness in life with destruction threatening him. Nor is any blessing in the display of resentment or defeat." "It indicates upon the reply to them in His saying: 'And how many of the generations have We destroyed before them...' The apparent (meaning) is that the sentence is ä circumstantial and (æÁ·) is informative not interrogative. The meaning is that they utter this feeble doubt: we are better than you in abiding and assembly - disdaining the believers. The situation is that surely We have destroyed numerous generations before them that were better in regards to merchandise and appearance. Allah, Glorified is He, had already conveyed a parallel to this doubt regarding Pharaoh and his punishment with the discussion about his drowning and destruction, He said: 'And Pharaoh proclaimed amongst his people: O my people! is not the kingdom of Egypt mine? And these rivers − flow beneath me; do you not then see? Nay! I am better that this fellow (Musa), who is contemptible, and who can hardly speak distinctly. But why have not bracelets of gold been put upon him (until Allah's saying:) 'Then when they displeased Us, We inflicted retribution on them, so We drowned them all together.' [az-Zukhruf 43:51-55]." ________________ Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ää ç é ä å Ð æì åä æ å æ ä æ ä ä ì å ä å ä å B¿ AËCi ä æÅ¿ä æ½³} ì ä X Af¿ ä ä B¿Gì ÆËf§ÌÍ äË LAh¨»A æ Ð ê ê AgG ÓNY ÅÀYj»A É» efÀμ¯ Ò»Ýz»A ϯ ÆB· ê ç ê æ å å ä æä ä ç ä ï ä ä å æ ä ä åä æ ä ä ä ¢ ä ä ì ì {AfÄU ±¨yC Ë BÃB¸¿ jq ÌÇ Å¿ ÆÌÀ¼¨În¯ Ò§Bn»A B¿Gê "Say: As for him who remains in error, the Beneficent God will surely prolong his length in days, until they see what they were threatened with, either the punishment or the hour; then they shall know who is in more evil plight and weaker in forces." [Maryam 19:75]

çéä ä è æ ä ä ç ä ä ð ä ä æ è æ ä å ì å ì åÐé å ä ä ä ä ç å æ ä ä æ ¢ ê PBγBJ»A ê ɼ»A fÍlÍê Ë} ê Ë ÔfÇ AËfNÇA ÅÍh»A {Aej¿ jÎa Ë BIAÌQ ¹Ii fħê jÎa PBZ»Bv»A "And Allah increases in guidance those who go aright; and ever-abiding good works are with your Lord in recompense and best in yielding fruit." [Maryam 19:76] − In the Tafsir, at-Tibyan, Shaikh Tusi ± − gives the meaning of the verse as:"'Say: (O Muhammad!) 'As for him who remains in error...' from the truth and refrains from following ± it: 'The Beneficent God will surely prolong his length in days...' In other words, extend them being gentle with them, then He will not rush them into punishment, as He says: 'And He leaves them alone in their inordinacy, blindly wandering on.' [al-Baqarah 2:15]. æ å æ ä æ ä is mentioned with the word form of a command in order that it be emphatic like he {efÀμ¯} made it required for himself. It is permissible that the intent in: 'The Beneficent God will surely prolong his length in days...' in their punishment in the hellfire, as He says: 'And We will lengthen to him the length of the chastisement.' [Maryam 19:79]" "His saying: 'Until they see what they were threatened with...' In other words, (until they ) witness that which Allah had promised them. 'Either the punishment...' Punishment for disobedience. 'Or the hour...' The Day of Judgment and punishment for everyone based on that which he deserves. 'Then they shall know ...' at that time and realize: 'Who is in more evil plight and weaker in forces.' The non-believers or the believers. In this point, there is the threat in their being upon (the path) which they are upon. It is said that the punishment, here, the intent in it is that which the believers were promised in regards to their assistance against the non-believers. Then, (Allah) will punish them in death and captivity. Then, they will know the assistance and in death that they are weaker than the forces of the prophet and the Muslims. They will know their place is in Jahannam and the place of the believers is in paradise and who is in a more evil plight."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− ± Makarem − Regarding the same verse, Shaikh Nasir writes in al-Amthal: "In reality, the likes of these individuals are those for whom their guidance is not possible. Make note − says: 'As for him who remains in error...' It indicates a persistence in error that the Quran so that they will see the severe divine punishment. Certainly Allah, Glorified is He, rushes them at times plunging and drowning them in comfort in order that it will become a cause of their deception just as it was a cause for the descent of punishment upon them. The spoliation of comfort is the greatest torment of punishment. This itself is what was − under the heading of the punishment of respite mentioned in some verses of Quran æ 44 å æ (XAifNmâA ê ê ) ." "The sentence: 'The Beneficent God will surely prolong his length in days...' It is in the form of the command except that it is in the meaning of the predicate. Then, its meaning is: that Allah will take time with these and make their comfort last. Some commentators have explained it in the same meaning of a command also and its meaning here is a curse or the obligation of the same of this behavior and treatment from Allah. Except that the explanation of the first makes it obvious it is the closest (to the truth). The word punishment in association with comparison to the hour (of judgment), then certainly it − ± earth indicates divine punishment in the this world, punishments like the flood of Nuh, − ± Or the quakes and heavenly stones which descended upon the people of Lut. punishment by the hands of the believers and warriors in the battlefields of truth. Just as − we read in Surah at-Taubah [9:14]: 'Fight them; Allah will punish them by your hands...' åäì The hour {Ò§Bn»A} here is either in the meaning of the end of this world or the divine − punishment in Qiyamah. It is clear for us that the second meaning is more appropriate. This is the outcome and destiny of the unjust deceived by the embellishments of this world." "Regarding those who believe and are rightly guided, then surely Allah will increase those who believe in faith: 'And Allah increases in guidance those who go aright...' It is self-evident that for guidance there are levels. Then, when man envelops the initial levels, Allah takes him by his hand and raises him to the higher levels. Just like the fruit bearing tree is cut every day in a new phase towards perfection. Likewise, the rightly-guided rise every day to a higher ascent in the shade of faith, righteous deeds which they perform." "In the end, the reply to those who depend upon the embellishments of this world is (that they) are quick to end and that which they make a means of pride over others, then, it is said: 'And ever-abiding good works are with your Lord in recompense and best in yielding fruit.'" ________________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ç ä ä ä ç ì ä ä åä ä ä ä ä ì ä æä ä ää ä ê ê j°· Ðh»A ê OÍCj¯C} {Af»Ë Ë ÜB¿ ÅÎMËÞ ¾B³ Ë BÄMBÍFI "Have you, then, seen him who disbelieves in Our communications and says I shall certainly be given wealth and children?" [Maryam 19:77]

ç æ ä Ð æ ì ä æ ä ä ð ä ä æ ä ä ä ää {Afȧ êÅÀYj»A fħê hbN»A êÂC Kά»A ©¼C}

"Has he gained knowledge of the unseen, or made a covenant with the Beneficent God?" [Maryam 19:78]

ç é ä ä ä å ä åä ä å å ä å å æ ä ä ì ä {Af¿ LAh¨»A Å¿ê É» fÀà í Ë ¾Ì´Í B¿ KN¸Äm Ý·} ê "By no means! We write down what he says, and We will lengthen to him the length of the chastisement." [Maryam 19:79]

ç ä æ ä ä å åä å å ä ä ê Ë ¾Ì´Í B¿ ÉQjÃê Ë } {Aej¯æ BÄÎMDÍ

"And We will inherit of him what he says, and he shall come to Us alone." [Maryam 19:80]

çé æ åä å å ä ç ä Ðé å æ å ä ì ä {Al§ê ÁÈ» AÌÃ̸λê ÒÈ»Eê êɼ»A ÆËe ê Å¿ê AËhbMA Ë} "And they have taken gods besides Allah, that they should be to them a source of strength." [Maryam 19:81]

ç é æ æ ä ä ä å å ä ä æ ä ä åå æ ä ä ì ä ê ÁÈμ§ {Afy ê ÆÌÃÌ¸Í Ë ÁÈMeBJ¨I ê ê ê ê ÆËj°¸Îm Ý·}

"By no means! They shall soon deny their worshipping them and they shall be adversaries to them." [Maryam 19:82] − ath-Thaqalain regarding the first verse: "In a narration of Abu − It is written in Tafsir Nur − − on the authority of Abu − − Ja'far (al-Baqir-AS) al-Jarud regarding His (Allah's) saying: 'Have you, then, seen him who disbelieves in Our communications and says: I shall certainly be − Ibn Wail − said:) 'That (descended) in that al-'As − given wealth and children?' (The Imam ± − as-Sahmi was one of those mocking (Islam)."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− Ibn Wail. − Then, he came to him to seek "Khabab Ibn al-Arat had a right due from al-'As ± − his due (loan) from him. al-'As± said to him: Are you not of those who claim that in paradise − there is gold and silver and silk. (Khabab) said: Yes. Then, (al-'As) ± said: Then, the promise between me and you is the paradise. Then, by Allah, I shall certainly be given in paradise better than that which I have been given in this world. Allah, the Mighty and Majestic says: 'Has he gained knowledge of the unseen, or made a covenant with the Beneficent God?; By no means! We write down what he says, and We will lengthen to him the length of the chastisement; And We will inherit of him what he says, and he shall come to Us alone. And they have taken gods besides Allah, that they should be to them a source of strength. By no means! They shall soon deny their worshipping them and they shall be adversaries to them.' (Meaning) adversaries of the associates they had been affiliated with." 45 − In Majma', a slightly differing account is narrated by 'Allamah Tibirsi who says: "It is ± − Ibn al-Arat. He said: I was a narrated in the authentic (books) on the authority of Khabab − − Then, I came to him to well-to-do man and there was a loan from me on al-'As± Ibn Wail. collect (the loan and he said to me: I will not give it to you until you curse Muhammad (x). ± I said: I will never curse him until you are dead and raised (from the dead). He said: Certainly I will be raised after death, then I will pay you your loan when I return to (my) − said: The verse descended: 'Have you, then, seen wealth and children. Then, (Khabab) him who disbelieves in Our communications...' (until the end of verse 82)." 46 − In al-Kashif, Shaikh Mughniyyah mentions the following about these verses: "It came in − Ibn Wail, − the father of 'Amr Ibn the books of traditions and commentaries that al-'As ± − al-'As, ± said, mockingly when he heard mention of the raising (of the dead): I shall certainly be given wealth and children. From the expression of the verse, it is apparent that an atheist had said this. Regarding the mention of names and specification of − personalities, then that is not the method of the Quran." "Similar to this verse is the saying of the owner of the garden: 'And I do not think the hour will come, and even if I am returned to my Lord I will most certainly find a returning place better than this.' [al-Kahf 18:36]. (Allah), Glorified is He, had rejected this claim with His saying: 'Has he gained knowledge of the unseen, or made a covenant with the Beneficent God? From where did this knowledge come to him. Are the keys to the unseen with him or has he taken a covenant with Allah for that (knowledge)? 'By no means!' Not this nor that. Certainly he is a shameless disbeliever. 'We write down what he says, and We will lengthen to him the length of the chastisement.' We have certainly preserved his words and due to it, We will increase punishment on top of punishment as a recompense for his disbelief and his slander."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"'And We will inherit of him what he says, and he shall come to Us alone.' Also, We will strip that which is before him of wealth and children and that is with his death and destruction. We will raise him on the Day of Judgment solitary and completely alone just as We created him the first time. 'And they have taken gods besides Allah, that they should be to them a source of strength. By no means!' Because he who boasts of power in other than Allah, he will be clothed in the garment of humiliation. 'They shall soon deny ä åå æ ä ä their worshipping them and they shall be adversaries to them.' The pronoun of ({ÆËj°¸Îm}

åå

ä

ä ä returns to the object of worship. The pronoun of {ÁÈμ§} æ ê æ ä returns to the and {ÆÌÃ̸Í} worshipper." − "The explanation of this verse is made clear by that which has come in Nahj al-Balaghah: 'Shortly the follower will denounce his connection to the leader, and the leader (his connection) with the follower. They will disunite on account of mutual hatred and curse one another when they meet.' 47 The Exalted has said (regarding those who disbelieve): '...To Thee we declare ourselves to be clear (of them); they never served Us.' [al-Qasas ± ± 28:63]." _______________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

äää æ ä æä ìä ä ä æ ää ç é ä æ å åå ä ì Ð ê {AkC ÁÇkÛM BļmiC FÃC jM Á»C} í ÅÍj¯B¸»A ê ê Ó¼§ ÅÎBÎr»A − ± "Do you not see that We have sent the Shayateen against the unbelievers, inciting them by incitement?" [Maryam 19:83]

ç é ä æ å ä åä ì ¢ æ æ ä ä æ ä æ ä ä {Af§ ÁÈ» f¨Ã í BÀÃGê ÁÈμ§ ê ½V¨M ݯ}

"Therefore be not in haste against them, We only number out to them a number (of days)." [Maryam 19:84]

ç æ Ð æ ä ä ä ìå å å æ ä ä æ ä ÐÓ»Gê ÅδNÀ»A ê jrZà ÂÌÍ} {Af¯Ëä êÅÀYj»A

"The day on which We will gather those who guard (against evil) to the Beneficent God to receive honors," [Maryam 19:85]

ç ìä ä ä ä æ å å åä ä ÐÓ»Gê ÅοjVÀ»A ê ê ¶Ìnà Ë} {AeiËæ ê äÁÄÈU

"We will drive the guilty to hell thirsty." [Maryam 19:86] − Shaikh Tusi In at-Tibyan, ± − writes about the first verse in this section: "Then, (Allah), the −± Exalted, says to His prophet (x): 'Do you not see that We have sent the Shayateen −± against the unbelievers...' In other words, when the non-believers give the Shayateen authority over themselves and they accept and follow them, We withdraw that which was − ± between them and Us until the Shayateen deludes them and We do allow among them − ± any refuge nor any obstacle (preventing the Shayateen from deluding them)." "Expressing that with (the term) 'sent' is to strike a figurative expression. Similar (to this figurative express) is Allah's saying: '...Then He withholds those on whom He has passed the decree of death and sends the others back till an appointed term...' [az-Zumar:39:42]. −± It is possible that the intent in it is sending the Shayateen upon them in the hellfire after their death, punishing them and cursing them. Just as Allah had said: 'So by Your Lord! −± We will most certainly gather them together and the Shayateen...' [Maryam 19:68]." "Allah's saying: 'Inciting them by incitement.' In other words, rousing them while being ä disturbed. (kÞA í ) is driving (something) to a particular matter."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ä

− ± Makarem − − In al-Amthal, Shaikh Nasir says of this verse: " (kÞA í ) in its origin, as ar-Raghib − "It means the simmering of a pot and it changes its (defines in his dictionary) al-Mufradat: contents with the intensity of its boiling." It is an allusion about the scope of rule over −± those (people) whereas the Shayateen direct them in the manner which they intend and in the journey which they desire and change them how they want." − ± "It is self-evident, as we have said that repeatedly, that the Shayateen gains authority over the children of Adam, not an authority of compulsory folly. Rather, this is man who − ± − ± gives permission to the Shayateen in that (the Shayateen) penetrates into his heart and − ± spirit. It is that by which (the Shayateen) are able to enslave them due to the restriction of − ± their worship and they are converted to the Shayateen's obedience, as it is said in the − Quran: 'His (Shaitan's) authority is only over those who befriend him and those who ±− associate others with Him." [an-Nahl16:100] ." ± − turns to address to the prophet (x) and says: 'Therefore be not in haste "Then, the Quran against them, We only number out to them a number (of days).' (Meaning:) We will record every thing for that day in which We will create equitable divine wisdom. Another possibility is conveyed in the verse. It is that the intent in counting the number (as in) life. Rather, it may be (the number of) breaths that the period of their remaining is short. It enters under the possibility of enumerating and counting because the counting of something and its enumeration is usually an allusion regarding its minimum and smallness." − as-Sadiq "We read in a narration from Imam (ª) in the explanation of: 'We only number ± ±− out to them a number (of days).' He was asked by one of his companions: 'What is with you? He said: The number of days. Surely the forefathers and mothers have counted that. − Rather, it is the number of breaths.' 48 (With) that interpretation of the Imam, this is possible that it points to the first explanation or to the second explanation. In any case, then, the details of the contents of this verse jolts man because it establishes that everything, even our breaths, submits to enumeration and counting." "Then the final journey for the pious and sinful is explained in brief expressions: 'The day on which We will gather those who guard (against evil) to the Beneficent God to receive å æ ä ) in the origin is in the meaning of a group which goes to the eminent people honors.' (f¯Ì»A in order to resolve their difficulties. They are arriving at a place in respect and esteem."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"Based on this, then the word is comprising the meaning of respect and honor. Perhaps that which we read in some of the narrations that the pious will riding vessels of quick transport and will enter the paradise with considerable respect." − as-Sadiq "Due to this reason, Imam (ª) says that 'Ali (ª) asked the Messenger of Allah (x) ± ±− about the explanation of Allah's, the Mighty and Majestic's, saying: 'The day on which We will gather those who guard (against evil) to the Beneficent God to receive honors.' Then, he (x) said: 'O 'Ali! The gathering will only be our escorts: those men fearing Allah, the Mighty and Majestic. Then, He loves them and confers distinctions upon them and is pleased with their deeds and has named them pious (Mutaqeen)." 49 "Attracting attention is that we read in the verse that the pious will be gathered to the Beneficent God at the same time that the subsequent verse speaks of driving the sinners ì ä ) here is a substitute for to hell. Based on this, is it not appropriate that it is said (ÒÄV»A

Ð æì )? Except that this expression, in reality points to a very important point. It is that the (ÅÀYj»A

pious achieve that which is more exalted than paradise. It is understood their proximity to Allah and His particular divine revelation. They perceive His pleasure which is more exalted and more valuable than paradise. The expression of the tradition which we have recited shortly before from the prophet (x) indicates this meaning as well. "Then, you say in return: 'We will drive the guilty to hell thirsty.' just as you drive a thirsty camel to water, except that the water there, rather, (it is) the fire of Jahannam. It is ç æ necessary to turn attention to the word {AeiË} ê . It means a group of people or animals which arrive at water, whereas this group is definitely thirsty. Commentators have explained this expression here as those who have weakened their livers with thirst. How much is the difference between those who go to the Beneficent God with every honor and respect, (with) angels approaching them in order to receive them and greeting them with 'Peace.' (And how much difference between) those who are driven like thirsty animals to the fire of Jahannam their heads are bowed; ashamed; disgraced and there is no importance or value for them?" ________________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ç æ ä Ð æì ä æ ä ä ì ä ì ä ä ì ä å æ ä ê Ü} {Afȧ êÅÀYj»A fħê hbMA êÅ¿ ÜGê Ò§B°r»A Æ̸¼ÀÍ "They shall not control intercession, save he who has made a covenant with the Beneficent God." [Maryam 19:87] In the Tafsir al-Qummi, he narrates a tradition of the prophet (x) from his father on the − as-Sadiq authority of Imam (ª) regarding this covenant mentioned here in this verse: "The ± ±− Messenger of Allah (x) said: He who does not do his will (Wasiyah) well at the time of his ±

death detracts from his manliness. (It was said): O Messenger of Allah! How should the deceased make his Wasiyah at the time of death? He said: When death is present before ± him, he gathers people together before him and says: O Allah! Originator of the heavens and the earth, knower of the unseen and the seen, the Beneficent , the Merciful.' 'Surely I bear witness to You in the realm of this world: I bear witness that there is not god except You alone, there is no partners for You. And I bear witness that Muhammad is ± Your servant and messenger. (I bear witness that) the paradise is reality; the hellfire is reality; the resurrection is reality; the accounting (of deeds) is reality; the decree and the − is scale is reality. (I bear witness) that the religion is just as you described it; that Islam − is just as it just as you legislated it; that the saying is just as you spoke it and the Quran was revealed.' '(I bear witness) that You are the True, Evident Master. Reward Muhammad with the best ± of rewards, give revelation to Muhammad and his famiy in peace. O Allah! O my promise! ± at the time of my troubles; O my companion! at the time of my calamities; O my guardian! in my blessings; O my God! and God of my forefathers. Do not entrust me to myself for the twinkling of an eye for surely if You entrust me to myself, I would be nearer to evil and further from goodness. I will go toward temptation by myself. Then, be company in the grave for my loneliness. Make for me a covenant for the day I will meet You being raised (from my grave).' 'Then, the person makes his Wasiyah according to his needs. This Wasiyah is confirmed ± ± − in the Surah Maryam: 'They shall not control intercession, save he who has made a covenant with the Beneficent God.' This is the convenant of the deceased. The Wasiyah ± is a right upon every Muslim that he preserve this Wasiyah and learn it.' ± "'Ali (ª) said: The Messenger of Allah (x) taught it to me and he (the Messenger) said: − taught it to me." Jibrail

50

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− In Majma', 'Allamah Tibirsi mentions the following regarding this verse: "'They shall not ± control intercession...' In other words, they will not have the ability of intercession, then they will not give intercession and there will be no intercession for them at the time when the people of faith will give intercession to one another because the control of intercession is based on two perspectives. The first of them is intercession for others and the other is to appeal for intercession from another for himself. Then, Allah, Glorified is He, explains that these non-believers will not have the intercession of other than themselves effective for them nor will their intercession (be effective) for others besides themselves." "Then, Allah, Glorified is He, makes an exception: 'Save he who has made a covenant with the Beneficent God.' In other words, they will not control intercession except these. It is said that there is no intercession except for these. The covenant is faith and the affirmation of the Unity of Allah, the Exalted, and belief in His prophet. It is (also) said it is bearing witness that there is no god except Allah; that he is free of blame toward Allah of − power and strength and that there is no hope except in Allah, according to Ibn 'Abbas." "It is also (said) its meaning is there is no intercession except for he whom the Beneficent − ½ and God had promised him a free hand in intercession, like prophets, the martyrs, Ulema believers, based on that which comes in reports." ________________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ç ä Ð æì ä ä ì å ä {Af»Ëä åÅÀYj»A hbMA AÌ»B³ Ë} "And they say: The Beneficent God has taken (to Himself) a son." [Maryam 19:88]

ç ç æ ä æ åæ æ ä ä {AeGé ê B×Îq ÁN×Uê f´»}

"Certainly you have made an abominable assertion:" [Maryam 19:89]

ä ä æ ä ä å æ ä ì ä ää å çé ä å ä Ëä å~iÞA å ä æ ì eB¸M} æ PAËBÀn»A ê {AfÇ ¾BJV»A jbM íμrÄM Ë ÉÄ¿ê Æjñ°NÍ ê í

"The heavens may almost be rent thereat, and the earth cleave asunder, and the mountains fall down in pieces," [Maryam 19:90]

ç ä Ð æì æ ä ä æ ä ê A̧e ÆC} {Af»Ëä êÅÀYj¼»

"That they ascribe a son to the Beneficent God." [Maryam 19:91]

ç ä ä ä ìä æ ä Ð æ ì ä ê ÆC êÅÀYj¼»ê ϬJÄÍ ê ä æ ä B¿ Ë} {Af»Ë hbNÍ

"And it is not worthy of the Beneficent God that He should take (to Himself) a son." [Maryam 19:92]

Regarding the verse: 'And they say: The Beneficent God has taken (to Himself) a son.' − 'Allamah Tibirsi writes in Majma':"This is a reference regarding the Jews, the Christians ± and the idol-worshippers of among the 'Arabs. The Jews say: 'Uzair is the son of Allah; 51 the Christians say: the Messiah is the son of Allah 52 and the idol-worshippers among the 'Arabs say: angels are the daughters of Allah." 53 "'Certainly you have made an abominable assertion.' Here, its estimated (meaning) has been omitted: Say to them, O Muhammad! Surely you have said a great, repulsive, ± detestable, abomination. 'The heavens may almost be rent thereat...' In other words, the intent in the heavens is that they would be divided due to the magnitude, in importance, of their lying to their people."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"Its meaning is that if the sky were to be divided by something great, certainly it would be divided due to this. 'And the earth cleave asunder...' In other words, the earth would nearly be split apart. 'And the mountains fall down in pieces.' In other words, the çé ä mountains would be at the point of falling {AfÇ} meaning being violently broken, according − According to 'Ata, to Ibn 'Abbas. ± it is said (it means) being destroyed." − In al-Kashif, Shaikh Mughniyyah asks an important question regarding these verses, he says: "You ask: Why would there be a cosmic tremor for a word uttered by he who speaks out of ignorance and weak reasoning? The reply is: this tremor or divine anger is not for one person or limited groups. This is only due to this idol-worship which became a religion and belief which hundreds of millions came to believe in generation after generation. Based on this representation of god, there is the child and the divine mother. 'The Messiah, son of Maryam is but an apostle, apostles before him have indeed passed − away; and his mother was a truthful woman; they both used to eat food...' [al-Maidah 5:75]. 'And it is not worthy of the Beneficent God that He should take (to Himself) a son.' Because the child resembles the parent while (it is said of) Allah...'Nothing is like Him.' − ± 112:4] and because the taking of a child is only due to the need of the parent for [al-Ikhlas it. While Allah is free of need of (all) the worlds." − ± Makarem − In al-Amthal, Shaikh Nasir says of the verse:"'Certainly you have made an abominable assertion.' (eâA í ê), its original meaning was a repulsive íê ) on the pattern of (fy unsettling sound which came to the ears as a result of the intense gyration due to sound waves in the throat of the camel. Then, it became applied to repulsive acts and very barbarous acts. When it was an ascription like this, it is not correct being a contradiction to the origin (meaning) of Tauheed (the Unity of God). It is because Allah, be He Glorified, ± has no resemblance (to anything else) nor any equal. There is no need with Him for a child. He is not having a body nor displays accidental corporal (qualities existing in a body). " "He exists for every world (like that of man and Jinn) which builds upon the foundation of Tauheed. (This concept of Tauheed) would disturb and break the effect of this false ± ± ascription. Due to that, the following verse was added:'The heavens may almost be rent thereat, and the earth cleave asunder, and the mountains fall down in pieces.' For the sake of emphasis and explanation of the importance of the topic, you say that all that is due to:'That they ascribe a son to the Beneficent God.' These (non-believers), in reality, have never known Allah. Otherwise, they would certainly know:'And it is not worthy of the Beneficent God that He should take (to Himself) a son.'"

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"Certainly man seeks a child for one of many things: because his age is coming to its end and he needs a son like him to carry forth his attributes for the continuation of his lineage and his remembrance." "Or he seeks a friend and companion because his power is limited. Or because he has an aversion to loneliness, then he searches for some company due to his loneliness. Or because at the time of being elderly and incapable, he needs assistance and a designated youth." "Whichever it may be from these meanings, it is not applicable for Allah, Glorified is He, nor is it appropriate. Then, His capability is not limited nor is His life delimited. Weakness and feebleness does not afflict Him. Nor does He perceive loneliness or any need, in addition (to the fact) that possession of a child indicates upon the (corporal) body and the existence of a mate. All of these meanings are remote from His Sacred Essence." ________________

ç æ ä Ð æì ì æä ä æ æÅ¿ä í½·å ÆG} ì ê ê ê {AfJ§ ÅÀYj»A ÏME ÜG ~iÞA Ë PAËBÀn»A ϯ ê êê ê "There is no one in the heavens and the earth but will come to the Beneficent God as a servant." [Maryam 19:93]

ç é ä æ åì ä ä æ å æ ä æ ä ä {Af§ ÁÇf§ Ë ÁÇBvYC f´»}

"Certainly He has a comprehensive knowledge of them, and he has numbered them a (comprehensive) numbering." [Maryam 19:94]

ç ä ä ä æ ä æ ååå ä ê ÂÌÍ ÉÎME ê ê Áȼ· Ë} {Aej¯æ êÒ¿Bδ»A

"And every one of them will come to Him on the day of resurrection alone." [Maryam 19:95] In Majma', regarding the verse: 'There is no one in the heavens and the earth but will − come to the Beneficent God as a servant.' 'Allamah Tibirsi writes: "In other words, all of ± whomever is the heavens and earth of angels, man and Jinn will only come to Allah as humble, lowly servants and slaves."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"Similar to it is His saying: 'All shall come to Him abased.' [an-Naml 27:87]. The meaning is that creation will be His servants (both in) their creation and their development and His rule will come to pass upon them. 'Isa, 'Uzair and the angels will be among the servants." − − "The intent of the Regarding this same verse, 'Allamah Tabatabai ± − ± − says in his al-Mizan: coming of every one of them as a servant is (to demonstrate) His having the attention of all (creation) turned toward Him and that their appearance before Him will be in the description of pure servitude. They will not have control over any benefit for themselves; nor any harm; nor death; nor life; nor the resurrection. That command to act is obligatory upon them as long as they exist. Due to that, Allah did not qualify their coming in the verse with the resurrection..." "The intent of counting them and numbering them is to establish the (sense) of servitude for them. Only after counting and numbering them does the servant have their subsistence earmarked for them; their duties explained for them (as well as) the affairs in which they are sought to be utilized and it is recorded in the ledger of servants. With it they are registered in servitude." "The intent of (the servant's) coming to Allah alone is his coming to Allah on that day empty-handed, not possessing anything from that which he controlled according to the apparent view in this world. It is said: For him, there is no strength; power; property; children; helper; medium and reason leading to (anything) other than that. Then, when he will be disconnected from the causes, on that day it will become manifest that he is alone without possessing anything. He will be a servant in the reality of the meaning of servitude, not having possessed (anything) and never possessing anything." "Then, the significance of the Day of Judgment will be the appearance of the realities in him and the appearance of that came previously in which the verses contains regarding evidence of the negation of a child as one proof. Its result is that each of whomever is in the heavens and the earth are the servants of Allah being obedient to Him in their servitude without there being for Him (proof of) existence or trace of His existence except that they will come to Allah. Then, He will take them while they are submissive to His command following His volition, without them controlling anything from that. This is not from servitude of volition. Rather, Allah counts and numbers them, then registers them in servitude and determines all regarding his circumstances and the making of him subservient, employing him in whatever He desires of them. Then, he becomes a witness to his servitude."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"This is not the (full) extent. Then, He reckons, rather every one of them will come to him alone not possessing anything, not being accompanied by anything. With that, the reality of their servitude will become manifest as a whole. Then, they will bear witness to that." "When this is the situation of each of whomever is the heavens and the earth, then how is it possible that some of them can be a child of Allah (who is) existing due to the reality of the divine being derived from their essence? How can divine power and being needy be combined together?" _______________

å ä ä åä ä ì ì ç Ð æ ì å åä å ä æ ä ä ê ÆG} ê ê é A̼À§ {AeËé å åÅÀYj»A ÁÈ» ½¨VÎm PBZ»Bv»A ê Ë AÌÄ¿E ÅÍh»A ê "Surely (as for) those who believe and do good deeds for them will Allah bring about love." [Maryam 19:96] − In Majma', 'Allamah Tibirsi says of the verse: 'Surely (as for) those who believe and do ± good deeds for them will Allah bring about love.' "A number of sayings are said in (regard to) this verse. One of the sayings is that it is particular to 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib (ª). Then, there ±−

− In is not a believer except that in his heart there is love for 'Ali (ª), according to Ibn 'Abbas. − (he says:) Abu − − Hamzah − Ja'far al-Baqir the Commentary of Abu ath-Thamali, (ª) has ± related to me: 'The Messenger of Allah, the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him and his family, said: 'O Allah! Make for me with You a covenant. Make for me love in the hearts of believers. Then he said of them both (meaning the covenant and the hearts of the believers): 'Ali.' 54Then this verse descended. (A narration) similar to it is related by − Jabir Ibn 'Abdullah al-Ansari." ±− "The second (saying) is that it is general in (its meaning) of all of the believers. Allah will make love for them, concord and affection in the hearts of the righteous. Haram Ibn − said: 'A servant will not draw near to Allah in his heart except that Allah will draw Habban ± the heart of the believer near to Him until He endows them with (the believer's) love, their mercy and their affection. 55 ' Rabee' Ibn Anis said: 'When Allah loves a believer, He says − Surely I love so-and-so. So He loves him, then Jibrail − loves him. Then, he will to Jibrail: call out to the heavens: Is it not that Allah loves so-and-so? Then, they will love him and he will love the inhabitants of the heavens. Then, (Allah) will place acceptance for him among the people of the earth.' 56 Based on this, the meaning is they will love Allah and Allah will make them beloved to mankind."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"The third (saying) is that its meaning is that Allah will make for (the believers) affection in the hearts of their enemies and adversaries in order that they enter in their religion and become powerful due to them. The fourth (saying is that Allah) will make some of them love others. Then, each one of them will become an aide for his Muslim brother and they will become one hand against their adversaries. The fifth (saying) is that (Allah) will make for them love in the other. Then, some will love others like the parent loves its child and in − that is the greatest happiness and the most complete blessing, according to al-Jabai." "The first saying is strengthened with an authentic narration on the authority of Ameer al-Mumineen (ª) in that which he said: 'If I strike the nose of the believer with this, my sword, so that he may hate me, he will not hate me. If I pour this world in its entirety upon the hypocrite so that he may love me, he will not love me and that certainly was decreed. Then it was passed from the tongue of the unlettered prophet that he said: 'A believer will not hate you and a hypocrite will not love you.'" 57 − − − reports similar traditions from Sunni sources:"In In al-Mizan, 'Allamah Tabatabai ± − − al-Manthur, − ± Dar − Ibn Mardawaih and Dulaimi has extracted (a tradition) on the (Suyuti's) ½ − he said: 'The Messenger of Allah, blessings of Allah and peace be authority of al-Bara, upon him and his family, said to 'Ali: O Allah! Make for me with You a covenant; make for me with You love and make for me with You friendship in the breasts of the believers. Then, Allah descended: 'Surely (as for) those who believe and do good deeds for them will Allah bring about love.' He said: It was reavealed about 'Ali.' 58 Tabrani and Ibn ± − − Mardawaih has extracted (a narration) on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas, he said: '(The verse) was revealed regarding 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib: Surely (as for) those who believe and do ±− good deeds for them will Allah bring about love.' He said: Love in the hearts of the believers.'" 59 − ± Makarem − In al-Amthal, Shaikh Nasir mentions the same traditions as mentioned above, however he provides numerous other sources for these same traditions. 60 − In addition to the additional sources provided in his Tafsir, Shaikh Makarem also mentions the following tradition narrated on the authority of Muhammad Ibn Hanafiyyah form the ± ± 61 book as-Sawa'iq ± ± ± − al-Muhriqah: "A believer will not remain so unless there is in his heart love for 'Ali and his household."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− as-Sadiq In addition, the Shaikh also relates a tradition on the authority of Imam (ª) ± ±− wherein he says: "The Messenger of Allah, blessings and peace be upon him and his family, prayed for 'Ali at the end of his prayer, raising his voice in order that people could hear. (He said:) O Allah! Grant for 'Ali love in breasts of believers and fear and majesty in the breasts of the hypocrites, then the verse descended: 'Surely (as for) those who believe and do good deeds for them will Allah bring about love.'" 62 ________________

ç å ç ä ä æå ä ä ì ìä ä ð äåê ä¹ÃBn¼I æ ì ä BÀÃH¯} ê Ë ÅδNÀ»A ê ÉIê ê jrJN» ê êê åÊBÃjnÍ {Af»é B¿Ì³æ ÉIê ê ihÄM ê "So We have only made it easy in your tongue that you may give good news thereby to those who guard (against evil) and warn thereby a vehemently contentious people." [Maryam 19:97] ¢

ç æ æ åä å ä æ ä æä ë ä ä æ æ å æ æ ä æ ä æ æ åä æ ä æ ä æä æ ä ä å ê ½Ç Æj³ {Al·iê ÁÈ» ©ÀnM ËC fYC Å¿ê ÁÈÄ¿ê íoZM ë Å¿ê ÁȼJ³ Bĸ¼ÇC Á· Ë}

"And how many generations have We destroyed before them! Do you see any one of them or hear a sound of them?" [Maryam 19:98] − In his Tafsir, Majma', 'Allamah Tibirsi relates: "Then, Allah, Glorified is He, said to His ± prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and his family: 'So We have only − easy in that it made it easy in your tongue...' In other words, We have made the Quran descended in your language and it is the language of 'Arabic in order to facilitate for them its comprehension. If it were in another langauge, they would not comprehend it, − easy according to Muslim. It is said its meaning is We made the recitation of the Quran − upon your tongue and We have enabled you to recite it, according to al-Jabai." "'That you may give good news thereby to those who guard (against evil)...' In order that − to those who guarded against idolotry and major you may give good news in the Quran sins. In other words, inform them of that which will delight them regarding that which Allah has prepared for them. 'And warn thereby a vehemently contentious people.' In other − meaning the Quraish. It is words extremely intense opponents, according to Ibn 'Abbas, − said a people possessing the quarrelling of opponents, according to Qutadah."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

"Then, Allah, Glorified is He, warns them and puts fear in them by His saying: 'And how many generations have We destroyed before them!' Meaning generations before these (also) denying Messengers. In it is consolation for the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and his family. The meaning is their disbelief should not distress you nor their troubles. Certainly if you place importance on that, it will return to them while We have already destroyed previously he who is like them. '...Do you see any one of them...' In other words do you perceive any one? '...Or hear a sound of them?' In other words, − and Qutadah. − any voice, according to Ibn 'Abbas It is said to perceive, according to Ibn Zaid." "The meaning is that they have left, then you cannot see any source of them nor hear any sound while they were greater than you in wealth; of greater (bodily) substance and a more intense opponent than these (currently existing). Yet that did not make them free of need when We desired their destruction. Then,the ruling of these as non-believers is the (same) ruling of those in that no source of them remain nor any trace, praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds." − ± Makarem − − Regarding these two final verses of this Surah, Shaikh Nasir begins the ç éå discussion in his Tafsir, al-Amthal, with an explanation of the meaning of the {Af»} as found å − and in the first of these two verses, he says: " (f»ï ) with Dammah (vowelling) the letter Lam ±

ää

− being doubled, is the plural of (f»C the letter Dal í ) in the meaning of an enemy and strong enmity. It is applied to the obstinate bigot in his enmity and there is no logic in it." "The last verse is akin to calming the mind of the prophet, peace and the blessings of Allah be upon him and his family, and the believers and a consolation for them, in particular with consideration that this verse descended in Makkah. The Muslims of that day were under very intense pressure. Thus, it is said with an accent of threat and warning to every unyielding, obstinate enemy: 'And how many generations have We destroyed before them! Do you see any one of them or hear a sound of them?'"

æ

è

ð ) is in the meaning of a peaceful sound. (kB·iê) is said of those things which are hidden "(ål·j»A beneath the earth. In other words, these unjust peoples, the true enemies and actual bigots (who) have already been ruined and annihilated until there is not even a slight sound from them (upon the earth)."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

Finally, a number of commentators indicate that these last two verses are connected to verse 96 and Ameer al-Mumineen (ª) regarding whom the verse was said to have − Tafsir descended. This point has been mentioned in Tafsir al-Qummi; Tafsir al-Burhan; − and others. There is a narration on the authority of Imam − as-Sadiq Kanz ad-Daqaiq (ª) ± ±− − (ª) was asked by his companion, Abu− which re-enforces this point of view. The Imam Baseer, about the verse: 'So We have only made it easy in your tongue that you may give ± good news thereby to those who guard (against evil) and warn thereby a vehemently contentious people.' "He said: It is only that it was made easy for him on his tongue at the time of (Allah's) establishing Ameer al-Mumineen, peace be upon him, with knowledge. Then, the believers were given the good news of it and the non-believers ç éå were warned by it. They are those whom Allah mentioned in His book as being {Af»} , 'vehemently contentious', in other words, the non-believers."

63

− With this, we conclude this commentary on Surah Maryam with prayers for our beloved prophet Muhammad and his righteous successors. It is my prayer that all who read this ± − Allah's miraculous creation. I book may be benefited with greater insight into this Quran, also request that whomever reads this work and benefits from it, please make a prayer for its compiler, Inshallah. ________________

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

FOOTNOTES − 1. Taken from Tafsir Majma' al-Bayan:

¶fu Å¿ ef¨I jUÞA Å¿ Ïñ§C BÇCj³ Å¿$ :¾B³ (x) ÏJÄ»A ŧ K¨· ÅIG ÏIC ŧ Ë ¶BZmG Ë ÁÎÇAjIG Ë ÆËiBÇ Ë ÓmÌ¿ Ë ÓnΧ Ë ÁÍj¿ Ë ÏÎZÍ Ë ÉI Lh· Ë BÍj·lI ç ç #Af»Ë É» ªfÍ Á» Å¿ ef¨I Ë Af»Ë ɼ» Ó§e Å¿ ef¨I PBÄnY jr§ ½Î§BÀmG Ë LÌ´¨Í − 2. Taken from Tafsir al-Burhan:

Ðé :¾B³ (ª) ɼ»A fJ§ ÏIC ŧ ÆBIC ŧ ,ËjÀ§ ŧ ,ÅnZ»A ŧ ÊeBÄmHI ÉÍÌIBI ÅIG ŧ Ë Én°Ã ϯ ÉÎÄ¬Í B¿ BÈÄ¿ KÎvÍ ÓNY BÎÃf»A ϯ OÀÍ Á» ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm ÑÕAj³ Å¿eC Å¿$ ¹¼¿ jUC Å¿ Óñ§C Ë ÁÍj¿ ÅI ÓnΧ LBZuC Å¿ ÑjaàA ϯ ÆB· Ë ,Êf»Ë Ë É»B¿ #BÎÃf»A ϯ eÚAe ÅI ÆBÀμm

− 3. Tafsir Majma' al-Bayan,

BÇ Ë ÁÍj· Å¿ ²B· ÆA$ :¾B³ pBJ§ ÅIG ŧ jÎJU ÅI fΨm ŧ KÖBn»A ÅI ÕBñ§ ŧ #¶eBu Å¿ eBu Ë Áμ§ Å¿ ÅΧ Ë ÁθY Å¿ ÕBÍ Ë eBÇ Å¿ − on the authority of 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib A similar traditions are found in Tafsir at-Tibyan ±− − with the exception that it says: #Á»B§ Å¿ ÅΧ$. (AS) and Ibn 'Abbas 4. lbid. 5. Taken from Tafsir al-Amthal:

ÑiBqG ÕBÈ»A Ë ÕÝIj· Ó»G ÑiBqG ²B· :ÂiB¸¿ juBà cÎr»A ¾B³ ,½R¿ÞA jÎn°M Å¿ ½´Ã$ Ë sñ¨»A Ò»Dn¿ Ó»G ÑiBqG ÅΨ»A Ë fÍlÍ Ó»G ÑiBqG ÕBλA Ë (x) ÏJÄ»A ÑjN§ ºÝÇ Ó»G #ÅÎZzÀ»A ÉIBZuC Ë ÅÎnZ»A PBJQ Ë jJu Ó»G ÑiBqG eBv»A 6. The Histories of Prophets, pg. 347-348.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− 7. Taken from Tafsir Majma' al-Bayan:

Ðé ç ÕFÀn»A ¹JM Á» Ë BÎÀm ½J³ Å¿ Å¸Í Á» (ª) ÅÎnZ»A ¹»h· Ë$:(ª) ɼ»A fJ§ ÌIC ¾B³ ç é KάM Ë ÕAjÀY ©¼ñM OÃB· ¾B³ BÇÚB¸I ÆB· B¿ Ë ,É» ½Î³ BYBJu ÅΨIiC ,BÀÈμ§ ÜG #BÃk f»Ë ÅÎnZ»A ½MB³ Ë BÃk f»Ë ÓÎZÍ ½MB³ ÆB· Ë ,ÕAjÀY

− which mentions the tradition's This tradition is also narrated in the Tafsir Burhan narrators as such:

¾B³ Ë ,j¸I ÅI ÅÎnZ»A ÅI fÀYC ŧ eBÍk ÅI fÎÀY BÄQfY ¾B³ ,pBJ¨»A ÅI fÀZ¿$ Ðé (ª) ɼ»A fJ§ BIC O¨Àm ¾B³ ,μ»Bb»A fJ§ Ó»G ÊeBÄmHI ½z°»A ÅI ϼ§ ÅI ÅnZ»A BÄQfY Ðé çé ä å æ ä æ å ä æ ä æ ä æ ä # ...ÅÎnZ»A ¹»g :¾B³ {BÎÀm ê ½J³ Å¿ê É» ½¨Và Á»} :½U Ë l§ ɼ»A ¾Ì³ ϯ ¾Ì´Í − 8. Taken from Tafsir Majma' al-Bayan:

©¿ BÄUja$ :¾B³ (ª) ÅÎnZ»A ÅI ϼ§ ŧ fÍk ÅI ϼ§ ŧ ÉÄÎΧ ÅI ÆBΰm ÔËi ç ç é Å¿ Ë B¿ÌÍ ¾B³ Ë BÍj·k ÅI ÓÎZÍ j·g ÜG ÉÄ¿ ½ZMiG Ü Ë ÜlÄ¿ ¾là BÀ¯ (ª) ÅÎnZ»A Ðé ÏÄI BÍB¬I Å¿ ϬI Ó»G ÐfÇA BÍj·k ÅI ÓÎZÍ pCi ÆC ½U Ë l§ ɼ»A Ó¼§ BÎÃf»A ÆAÌÇ #½Î§AjmG − 9. Taken from Tafsir al-Burhan:

ÕlV»A ϯ pËej°»A LBN· ϯ ÏÀλf»A ÉÍËjÎq ÅIG Åΰ»BbÀ»A Å¿ ÊAËi B¿ ¹»g Å¿ Ë Ðé Ðé ½U Ë l§ ɼ»A ¾Ì³ ϯ (x) ɼ»A ¾Ìmi ¾B³$ :¾B³ ,pBJ§ ÅIG ŧ ²B´»A LBI ϯ ÏÃBR»A çé ä å æ ä æ åä æ ä æ ä æ ä #ÅÎnZ»A ÏÄΧ Ñj³ Ë ÐÓÎZÍ ¹»g :¾B³ ,{BÎÀm ê ½J³ Å¿ê É» ½¨Và Á»} 10. The Histories of Prophets, pg. 349-350. − 11. Tafsir Majma' al-Bayan. 12. Ibid. Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− 13. Ibid, on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas. − 14. al-Mizan. − In Nur − ath-Thaqalain, it also said to be narrated on the 15. Taken from Majma' al-Bayan. − authority of Abul-Hasan ar-Rida ± ± (ª):

¾lÃB¯ ,BÄ´¼a K¨¼» B¿ :¾B´¯ K¼¨Ä» BÄI KÇgG ÓÎZλ AÌ»B³ ÆBÎJv»A ÆC ¾B³ ,jÀ¨¿ ŧ Ðé çé ä ä æ å å æ ä ä .{BÎJu ê Á¸Z»A ÊBÄÎME Ë} :Éί ɼ»A 16. The Histories of Prophets, pg. 349-353. − 17. Taken from The Narratives of the Prophets by Rawindi, pg. 220:

ϼ§ ÅI fÀZ¿ ŧ ÁmB´»A ÏIC fÀZ¿ BÄQfY ÉÎIC ŧ ÉÍÌIBI ÅIA ŧ) jaE jJa ϯ Ë Ðé Ðé Ðé ŧ ÆBÄm ÅI ɼ»A fJ§ ŧ ÁmB´»A ÅI ɼ»A fJ§ ŧ ¢BÎb»A ɼ»A fJ§ ÏIC ŧ ϯ̸»A Ðé Å¿ jr§ ÏÄQA ϯ BÍj·k ÅI ÓÎZÍ S¨I (ª) ÁÍj¿ ÅIA ÓnΧ ÆC$ :(ª) ɼ»A fJ§ ÏIC OaC OÄI Áȸ¼À» ÆB· Ë ¾B³ OaÞA ÒÄIA `B¸Ã ŧ ÁÇBÈÄÍ Ë pBÄ»A ÆÌÀ¼¨Í ÅÎÍiAÌZ»A AhÇ ½R¿ ŧ ÓÈà BÍiB·k ÅI ÓÎZÍ ÆC BÈ¿C −¼I BÀ¼¯ BÈUËlNÍ ÆC fÍjÍ ÆB· Ë ÉJV¨M \IhM ÆC ÏNUBY O»B³ BÈNUBY ŧ BÈ»Dm BÇEi BÀ¼¯ ÒÄÍlI ¹¼À»A Ó¼§ BÈNÄI ½aeC `B¸Ä»A Ë OrñI Éμ§ OIC BÀ¼¯ AhÇ jΫ ¹»DmC Ü O»B´¯ AhÇ jΫ ϼm ¾B´¯ BÍj·k ÅI ÓÎZÍ #...ÉZIh¯ ÓÎZÍ B§e 18. ibid, pg. 221:

Ðé Ë ~iÞA Ë ÕBÀn»A ɼN´» Ó¸I (ª) ϼ§ ÅI ÅÎnZ»A ÆC (ª) ɼ»A fJ§ ÏIC ŧ Ë$ #(ª)BÍj·k ÅI ÓÎZÍ Ó¼§ ÜG fYC Ó¼§ BθJM Á» Ë BMjÀYC

19. The Oxford Dictionaries of Saints. 20. The Histories of Prophets, pg. 354. 21. Tafsir al-Amthal.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− ath-Thaqalain: 22. Taken from Nur

ŧ LÌJZ¿ ÅIG ŧ ÓnΧ ÅI fÀZ¿ ÅI fÀYC ŧ BÄIBZuC Å¿ Ñf§ ϯB¸»A ¾ÌuC ϯ ÓnΧ ÆB·C ÂÝn»A Éμ§ j°¨U BIC O»Dm :¾B³$ ,ÓmBĸ»A ÅI fÍjI ŧ Á»Bm ÅI ÁqBÇ Ðé ç ɼ» ÒVY BÎJà h׿ÌÍ ÆB· :¾B´¯ ?ÉÃB¿k ½ÇC Ó¼§ ɼ»A ÒVY fÈÀ»A ϯ Á¼¸Í ÅÎY ÁÍj¿ ÅIA Ðé å ä ð ä ä ä ê äÏÃBME æ ÏÃGê ¾B³} :?¾B³ ÅÎY ɻ̴» ©ÀnM B¿ C ,½mj¿ jΫ ê ä ä Ëä LBN¸»A ê ɼ»A fJ§ Ïļ¨U Ðé çé ä :¾B´¯ ?fÈÀ»A ϯ ÌÇ Ë ¾BZ»A ¹¼M Ó¼§ BÍj·k Ó¼§ ɼ» ÒVY h׿ÌÍ ÆB¸¯ :O¼´¯ ?{BÎJà ê Ðé Ðé ÆB· Ë ,BÈħ jJ¨¯ Á¼¸Í ÅÎY ÁÍjÀ» ɼ»A Å¿ ÒÀYi Ë É¼» ÒÍE ¾BZ»A ¹¼M ϯ ÓnΧ ÆB· ç É» Oz¿ ÓNY Á¼¸NÍ Á¼¯ OÀu ÁQ ,¾BZ»A ¹¼M ϯ É¿Ý· ©Àm Å¿ Ó¼§ ÒVY BÎJà Ðé ÉQi̯ BÍj·k PB¿ ÁQ ,ÅÎNÄnI ÓnΧ OÀu f¨I ½U Ë l§ ɼ» ÒVY BÍj·k ÆB· Ë ,ÆBNÄm BÍ} :?½U Ë l§ ɻ̴» ©ÀnM B¿ C ,jάu ÏJu ÌÇ Ë ÒÀ¸Z»A Ë LBN¸»A ÓÎZÍ ÉÄIG ç é ä ä æ å å æ ä ä ëì å ä å äæä ê ÐÓÎZÍ ê ha Á¼¸M ÅÎÄm ©Jm ÂÝn»A Éμ§ −¼I BÀ¼¯ {BÎJu ê Á¸Z»A ÊBÄÎME Ë ÑÌ´Iê LBN¸»A Ðé ,ÅΨÀUC pBÄ»A Ë ÓÎZÍ Ó¼§ ÒVY ÓnΧ ÆB¸¯ ,ÉλG ɼ»A ÓYËC ÅÎY Ò»Bmj»A Ë ÑÌJÄ»BI Ðé Ðé ç ç ÂeE ɼ»A μ¼a hÄ¿ pBÄ»A Ó¼§ ɼ» ÒVY jάI AfYAË B¿ÌÍ f»Ba BIC BÍ ~iÞA Ó´JM oλ Ë #~iÞA ÉĸmC Ë ÂÝn»A Éμ§ ±³

¢

23. The Histories of Prophets, pg. 361-362. − 24. Taken from Tafsir al-Mizan:

Ðé ŧ ÂÝn»A Éμ§ ɼ»A fJ§ BIC O»Dm$ :¾B³ KÇË ÅI ÒÍËB¨¿ ŧ ÊeBÄmHI ϯB¸»A ϯ Ðé ç B×Îq Á¼§C B¿ :¾B´¯ ?ÌÇ B¿ ½U Ë l§ ɼ»A Ó»G ¹»g KYC Ë ÁÈIi Ó»G Lj´NÍ B¿ ½z¯C ä :¾B³ ÁÍj¿ ÅI ÓnΧ \»Bv»A fJ¨»A ÆC ÔjM ÜC ÑÝv»A ÊhÇ Å¿ ½z¯C Ò¯j¨¿ f¨I Ë} ä çé ä å æ å ê ì Ëä ÑÝv»BI ê ì ê ÏÃBuËC ê #{BÎY O¿e B¿ ÑB·l»A

25. The Histories of Prophets, pg. 68-76.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− 26. From Tafsir Majma' al-Bayan:

Ðé Ðé Å¿ Ó»B¨M ɼ»A Ïļ´ÄÍ ¾lÍ Á»$ :¾B³ ÉÃC Á¼m Ë É»E Ë Éμ§ ɼ»A Ó¼u (fÀZ¿) Éħ ÐËi Ë #AhÇ Á¸À»B§ ϯ ÏÄUjaC ÓNY PAjÈñÀ»A ÂBYiC Ó»G ÅÍjÇBñ»A LÝuC

27. Taken from Tafsir al-Amthal:

Ðé ɼ»A ɼ¨VÍ ÕjÀ¼» ¶fv»A ÆBn»$ :ÂÝn»A Éμ§ ϼ§ ÅÎÄ¿ÛÀ»A jοC ŧ ÒÍAËi ϯ Aj´Ã Ë #ÉQiÌÍ Ë É¼·DÍ ¾BÀ»A Å¿ jÎa pBÄ»A ϯ

− 28. The reference in this verse is, of course, to Ishaq second son from his ± − (ª) Ibrahim's − − (ª) is the son of Ishaq first wife Sara. Ya'qub ± − (ª) from his wife Rebecca, may the − does not mention much from the blessings of Allah be upon them all. The Quran − is mentioned extensively in Surah − − narrative of Ishaq (ª). The narrative of Ya'qub Yusuf ± − of course was Yusuf's − and other verses. Ya'qub, father, may peace bupon them both. − and 'Esau (äwΧê). Among Ishaq's wife Rebecca blessed Ishaq ±− ± − (ª) with twins: Ya'qub Jewish and Christian scholars, some contend that 'Esau sold his birthright, meaning − (ª) for a bowl of lentils at a time when he was the right of inheritance, to Ya'qub

− ª) obtained the birthright famished [Genesis 25:29-34]. Others contend that Ya'qub( through deception contrived by his mother Rebecca [Genesis 27:34-40]. However, − was favored with prophethood while 'Esau was not. In fact, It none dispute that Ya'qub − (ª) following his father's death after is mentioned that 'Esau threatened to kill Ya'qub realizing the value of his lost birthright. 'Esau is mentioned as having a less than virtuous life, particularly in his youth, although he is said to have reformed himself later in his life and both made amends to reconcile their differences. − 29. Various aspects of the narrative of prophet Musa (ª) are mentioned in the following − al-Baqarah (2); al-Maidah − − (6); al-A'raf − (7); Yunus − chapters of Quran: (5); al-An'am − − (11); Ibrahim (10); Hud (14); al-Isra− (17); al-Kahf (18); Maryam (19); Ta ± Ha (20); − (25); ash-Shu'ara −½ (26); an-Naml (27); al-Qasas − al-Muminun (23); al-Furqan ± ± (28); − (31); al-Ahzab Luqman ± − (33) as-Saffat ± ± − (37); al-Mumin (40); az-Zukhruf (43); − − (51); an-Najm (53); as-Saff − − (79) and al-A'la (87). azh-Zariyat (61); an-Nazi'at ± ± 30. The Histories of Prophets, pg.173-174.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− − (The History of al-Ya'qubi), − 31. This account is found in: Tarikh al-Ya'qubi vol. 1, pg. 25. Other accounts indicate that Hajar ran seven times between the two mountains Safa− and Marwa− before fainting and then finding the water of Zamzam at her feet upon − − awakening. (al-Kamil Fi at-Tarikh, Vol. 1, pg. 90). − − − was 70 years old while Ibrahim − 32. In al-Kamil Fi at-Tarikh, Ibn Athir says Sara was 120. − − both give her age at However, in his footnotes, it indicates that at-Tabari and al-Yaqubi ± ± 90 in their respective histories. Vol. 1, pg. 89. − pg. 212. 33. al-Munjid Fi al-A'lam, 34. The Histories of Prophets, pg. 250-252. − 35. Taken from Tafsir al-Burhan:

ÅI fÀZ¿ BÄQfY ¾B³ ,fλ̻A ÅI fÀYC ÅI ÅnZ»A ÅI fÀZ¿ BÄQfY :¾B³ ÉÍÌIBI ÅIG ŧ ÅÀ§ ÆBÄm ÅI fÀZ¿ Ë jÎÀ§ ÏIC ÅI fÀZ¿ ŧ ,fÍlÍ ÅI LÌ´¨Í ŧ ,iB°v»A ÅnZ»A Ðé Ðé äË} :ÉIBN· ϯ ɼ»A ¾B³ Ðh»A ½Î§BÀmG ÆC$ :¾B³ ÂÝn»A Éμ§ ɼ»A fJ§ ÏIC ŧ ,Êj·g åæ ç é ä ç åä ä ä æ ä ä ä åÉÃGì k ä½Î§BÀmG æ æ ê ê ¶eBu ê ê LBN¸»A ϯ j·gA ½Î§BÀmG Å¸Í Á» {BÎJà ê ÆB· ê ÜÌmi ÆB· Ë f§Ì»A ê ê ê Ðé ç ÑËj¯ AÌb¼n¯ ÊËhaD¯ ɿ̳ Ó»G ½U Ë l§ ɼ»A ÉR¨I ÕFÎJÃÞA Å¿ BÎJà ÆB· ½I ÁÎÇAjIG ÅI Ðé å æ Ï» :¾B´¯ ,O×q BÀI ÏÃjÀ¯ ¹Î»G ÏÄR¨I É»ÝU ½U ɼ»A ÆC :¾B´¯ ¹¼¿ ÊBMD¯ ,ÉÈUË Ë ÉmCi Ðé #Éμ§ ɼ»A Ó¼u ÅÎnZ»BI ©ÄvÍ BÀI ÑÌmC − ath-Thaqalain: 36. Taken from Tafsir Nur

äÁ»ê ÐifM C$ :¾B³ (ª) Byj»A ÅnZ»A ÏIC ŧ Ðj°¨V»A ÆBÀμm ÊeBÄmHI iBJaÞA ÆÌΧ ϯ ç ç #Êj¤NÄÍ ÜÌY É» o¼V¯ ÝUi f§Ë :¾B³ ,ÐieC Ü :O¼³ ?f§Ì»A ¶eBu ½Î§BÀmG ÓÀm − − (The History of Ya'qubi), − 37. Tarikh al-Ya'qubi vol. 1, pg. 11.

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− 38. Taken from Tafsir al-Burhan:

ÅI ½z°¿ ŧ ÆBÀR§ ÅI ËjÀ§ ŧ ÉÎIC ŧ ÁÎÇAjIG ÅI ϼ§ ŧ LÌ´¨Í ÅI fÀZ¿ ŧ Ðé Ðé Ðé É»E Ë Éμ§ ɼ»A Ó¼u ɼ»A ¾Ìmi ¾B³ ÂÝn»A Éμ§ (ª) ɼ»A fJ§ ÏIC ŧ jIBU ŧ \»Bu Ðé Ðé ç ÒÀΤ§ Ò»lÄ¿ ɼ»A fħ É» OÃB· ɼ»A Ò¸ÖÝ¿ Å¿ B¸¼¿ ÆC ½ÎÖAjJU ÏÃjJaC$ :Á¼m Ë Ðé Ò»lÄ¿ ɼ»A Å¿ ¹» ÆC :¾B´¯ ,oÍieG ÓMD¯ ~iÞA Ó»G ÕFÀn»A Å¿ ¡JÇD¯ Éμ§ KN¨N¯ Ó»G K¼ ÁQ ,jñ°Í Ü BÈ¿BÍC ÂBu Ë jñ°Í Ü ¾Bλ TÝQ Ó¼v¯ ,Á¸Ii fħ Ï» ©°qD¯ Ðé Ó» μ¼C f³ Ë Á¸»Ûm OÎñ§C f³ ¹ÃG :¹¼À»A ¾B´¯ ,¹¼À»A ϯ jZn»A ϯ ½U Ë l§ ɼ»A ,ÉI oÃE Ó¼¨» PÌÀ»A ¹¼¿ ÏÄÍjM f´¯ ,ÒUBY Ó»G K¼D¯ ¹Î¯B·C ÆC KYC BÃC Ë ÏYBÄU ¹¼¿ K¼ñÍ ÉI f¨v¯ K·iC :¾B³ ÁQ ,ÉYBÄU ¡nJ¯ Õ6Ïq Êj·g ©¿ ÏÄ×ÄÈÍ oλ ÉÃH¯ ¾B´¯ ,Òn¿Bb»A Ë Ò¨IAj»A ÕFÀn»A ÅÎI ½J´NmB¯ f¨uC É» ½Î´¯ BÎÃf»A ÕFÀn»A ϯ PÌÀ»A ç Pj¿C SÎY tj¨»A ½£ OZM ÏÃG KV¨»A ¾B³ ?BJB³ ºAiC Ï» B¿ PÌÀ»A ¹¼¿ BÍ :¹¼À»A Å¿ Xjb¯ w¬N¿B¯ oÍieG ©Àn¯ ,Òn¿Bb»A Ë Ò¨Ij»A ÕFÀn»A ÅÎI Ï¿eE `Ëi |J³C ÆC Ðé çé ä ç ä å æ ä ä ä ê BÃB¸¿ ÊBĨ¯i Ë} :½U Ë l§ ɼ»A ¾B³ Ë ÉÃB¸¿ ÉYËi |J´¯ ¹¼À»A `BÄU #{Bμ§ On the authority of Abi Abdillah (as-Sadiq), peace be upon him, he said: The ± ±− Messenger of Allah, blessings of Allah and peace be upon him and his family, said: − informed me that one of the angels of Allah had a great status with Allah. '"Jibrail Then, (the angel) was censured and he fell from the sky to the earth. Then, Idris came along. He said that there is a status for you from Allah, then intercede for me with your Lord." "He prayed three days without tiring and fasted its days not tiring (also). Then, he sought from Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, (his request) in the early morning and from the angel. The angel said: You have been granted your request and my wing has been released for me and I would like to reward you, seek your need (from me). He said: Show me the Angel of Death (Malak al-Maut), perhaps I might keep company with him, surely he has not delighted me with his mention in anything." "(The angel) spread his wing, then he said: Ride! and he ascended seeking the Angel of Death in the skies of this world. Then, he confronted him between the fourth and fifth heaven. (The angel) said: O Angel of Death! I had not seen you at all. He said: It Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

is a surprise, I am under the shade of the throne (of Allah) where I have been commanded to take the soul of man between the fourth and fifth heavens. Idris listened and became sick (in his stomach). He emerged from the wing of the angel. Then, his soul was taken at his place (where he stood). Allah, the Mighty and Majestic said: 'And We raised him high in Heaven.' [Maryam 19:57]." − where obligatory verses of Sajdah occur: 39. There are four places places in the Quran − − − Surah as-Sajdah, 32:15; Surah Ha 41:38; Surah ± Mim as-Sajdah (al-Fussilat), ±± − − an-Najm, 53:62; Surah al-'Alaq, 96:19. − There are eleven places where the recommended verses of Sajdah occur: Surah ½ − 7:206; Surah − 17:109; − − − al-A'raf ar-Ra'd 15:13; Surah an-Nahl al-Isra ± 16:50; Surah − 25:60; Surah − − − − Surah Maryam 19:58; Surah al-Hajj 22:18 & 77; Surah al-Furqan ± − 84:21 (Taken from al-Minhaj − − − an-Naml 27:26; Surah Sad al-Inshiqaq ± − 38:24; Surah − vol. 1, pg. 222-223). as-Saliheen By Ayatullah 'Ali al-Husaini as-Sistani, ± ± ±− ± Nothing is required to be recited in either the obligatory or recommended Sajdah. The − following Zhikr, however, is recommended on the authority of Muhammad (al-Baqir) ± Ibn 'Ali Ibn al-Hussain (ª):

ç é ä ç ì å å åÐé ì ä Ð ç æ ä ä ç åÐé ì ä Ð ç é ä ç é ä åÐé ì ä Ð ê Ë BÃBÀÍGê ɼ»A ÜGê É_»Gê Ü ,B´Y B´Y ɼ»A ÜGê É_»Gê Ü ,B³iê Ë ÒÍeÌJ§ ê ɼ»A ÜGê É_»Gê Ü ,B´ÍfvM ä æ è ä è æ ä æ ä ç ä æ å ä çä æ ä æ å ä ç é ä ç ä ä ð ä ä ä å æ ä ä è ê ±ÖBa ½Î»gê fJ§ BÃC ½I ,AjJ¸Nn¿ Ü Ë B°¸ÄNn¿ Ü Ë B³iê Ë AfJ¨M ê í ÏIi BÍ ¹» PfVm è êäæ å (245 x ,6 X ,Ò¨Îr»A ½ÖBmË) .jÎVNn¿

"There is no God except Allah, justly, in reality; There is no God except Allah, as a faith and affirmation; There is no God except Allah, as a humble veneration and servitude. I prostrate to you, O my Lord! In worship and servitude, without pride and without arrogance. Rather, I am a lowly, fearful servant seeking refuge." − 40. Tafsir Majma' al-Bayan. − 41. Taken from Tafsir Majma' al-Bayan:

Ðé Ðé ɼ»A Å¿ BÍAfÈ»A ²j ÁÈÎñ¨M$ :¾Ì´Í SÎY Á¼m Ë É»E Ë Éμ§ ɼ»A Ó¼u ÏJÄ»A ŧ ÐËi #BÎÃf»A ϯ BÈί Æ̼vÍ AÌÃB· ÏN»A ÑÝv»A OγAÌÀ»

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− explains the incident in detail 42. The following narration, taken from Majma' al-Bayan − (ª) did not descend to the prophet for an amount of time due to which wherein Jibrail the prophet became very anxious:

ÅI jzÄ»A ÆA :pBJ§ ÅIG ŧ Ò¿j¸§ Ë jÎJU ÅI fΨm ŧ ÊeBÄmHI ¶BZmG ÅI fÀZ¿$ AÌ»B´¯ ,ÒÄÍfÀ»BI eÌÈÍ iBJYC Ó»G sÍj³ BÀÇh°ÃC ¡Î¨¿ ÏIC ÅI ÒJ´§ Ë Ñf¼· ÅI TiBZ»A Ë ,¾ËÞA LBN¸»A ½ÇC ÁÈÃH¯ ɻ̴I ÁÇAjJa Ë ÉN°u ÁÈ» B°u Ë fÀZ¿ ŧ ÊÝm :BÀÈ» .BÃfħ oλ B¿ ÕFÎJÃÞA Á¼§ Å¿ ÁÇfħ O»B³ B¿ ÁÈ» ÜB³ Ë ,(x) ÏJÄ»A ŧ eÌÈλA iBJYC ÜDn¯ ,ÒÄÍfÀ»A B¿f³ ÓNY BUjb¯ Á» ÆG Ë ½mj¿ ÏJà Ìȯ ÅÈI Á·jJaC ÆH¯ ,TÝQ ŧ ÊÌ»DmC eÌÈλA iBJYC ÁÈ» ¾B´¯ ,sÍj³ ,¾Ì´N¿ ½Ui Ìȯ ½¨°Í ÁÈ» ÆB· f³ ÉÃH¯ ÁÇj¿C ÆB· B¿ ¾ËÞA jÇf»A ϯ AÌJÇg ÒÎN¯ ŧ Ê̼m Á¸ÍCi Éί AËCj¯ Ë ÊÛJà ÆB· B¿ BÈIiB¬¿ Ë ~iÞA ¶iBr¿ −¼I f³ ²AÌ ½Ui ŧ Ê̼m Ë KÎV§ SÍfY .ÌÇ B¿ `Ëj»A ŧ Ê̼m (.ÏJà Ìȯ `Ëj»BI Á·jJbÍ Á» Ë ÅÎNÄR»A ŧ Á·jJaC ÆH¯ :ÔjaC ÒÍAËi ϯ Ë) Ë fÀZ¿ ÅÎI Ë Á¸ÄÎI B¿ ½v°I Á·BÄ×U f³ !sÍj³ jqB¨¿ BÍ ÜB´¯ Ò¸¿ Ó»G B¯jvÃB¯ ç ç Ë Af« Éħ ÁN»Dm BÀI Á·jJaC :¾B´¯ ÊÌ»Dn¯ (x) ÏJÄ»A Ó»G AËÚBV¯ ,Òv´»A ÁÈμ§ Bv³ Ðé ¹»g ϯ ÉλG ɼ»A TfZÍ Ü Ò¼Î» Ñjr§ oÀa (x) S¸À¯ ,Éħ A̯jvÃB¯ ,ÅRNnÍ Á» Ðé ç ɼ»A ¾Ìmi Ó¼§ μr¯ ,¹»g ϯ AÌÀ¼¸M Ë Ò¸¿ ½ÇC ±UiC ÓNY ½ÎÖAjJU ÉÎMDÍ Ü Ë BÎYË ,Éμ§ Ò¸¿ ½ÇC ÉI Á¼¸NÍ B¿ (x) Ðé j¿C ŧ Éħ ÊÌ»Dm B¿ BÈί Ë ±È¸»A ÑiÌnI ÆBZJm ɼ»A ŧ (ª) ½ÎÖAjJU ÊÕFU ÁQ Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

ä ä åä æ ä ä ä ,ÒÍàA {`Ëj»A ê í êŧ ¹ÃÌ»DnÍ Ë} :Éμ§ ¾lÃC Ë ²AÌñ»A ½Uj»A Ë ÒÎN°»A Ðé Ïħ OnJNYG f´¯ ÊÕFU ÅÎY ½ÎÖAjJV» ¾B³ (x) ɼ»A ¾Ìmi ÆC Ï» j·h¯ ¶BZmG ÅIG ¾B³ ä ä ä å ä ä ä æ ä ì åì ä ää ä æ ê ÅÎIæ B¿ É» ¹Iið j¿DI ÒÍàA {BÄÍfÍC ê ê ÜGê ¾lÄNà B¿ Ë} :(ª) ½ÎÖAjJU É» ¾B´¯ ,½ÎÖAjJU BÍ It is narrated from Muhammad Ibn Ishaq ± ± − with his chain of narrators on the authority of − (he Sa'eed Ibn Jubair on the authority of 'Akramah on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas, said): "The Quraish dispatched Nadr and 'Uqbah Ibn Abi Mu'eet± to ± ± Ibn al-Harith ` Jewish Rabbis in Madeenah. They (the Quraish) said to them: Ask them about Muhammad, describe for them his characteristics and inform them of his saying 'For ± they are the original people of the Scripture and with them is knowledge of prophets that is not with us.'" "They set out until reaching Madeenah. They asked the Rabbis of the Jews about the prophet (S) ± and they said for them whatever the Quraish had said. The Rabbis said to them: Ask him about three matters, if he answers you (correctly) about them, then, he is a delegated prophet. If he doesn't do it, then he is a deceitful man." "Then, see your view in the matter. Ask him about youths disappearing in the early era-what is their affair for surely there is a amazing story about them. Ask him about a man (whose) travels reached the eastern (horizon) of the earth and the western (horizon)-what was his story? And ask him about the soul-what is it? " In another tradition, it says: "If he informs you of two and does not inform you about the soul, then he is a prophet." "They both left heading towards Makkah. They said: O kinsfolk of the Quraish! We have come to you with the details of that which is between you and Muhammad. They ± narrated to them the narrative. Then, they went to the prophet (S). ± They questioned him. Then, he (S) ± said: I will inform you of that which you asked regarding it tomorrow and it will have no exceptions" They departed from him and he (S) ± waited fifteen nights and Allah did not − communicate any revelation with him in that nor did Jibraeel (AS) come to him until rumors swirled among the people of Makkah and they were talking about that. The Messenger of Allah grieved about that which the people of Makkah were saying about it."

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− − "Then, Jibraeel came to him (S) ± on behalf of Allah, Glorified be He, with Surah al-Kahf. In it was that which they asked him about regarding the affair of the youths and the man traversing (the east and west), and it was revealed to him: 'And they ask you regarding the soul. Say: The soul is one of the commands of my Lord, and you −½ 17:85]" are not given aught of knowledge but a little.' [al-Isra In another tradition, Ibn Ishaq ± − said: "It was mentioned to me that the Messenger of − Allah (S) (AS) at the time when he came: "Surely you have held back ± said to Jibraeel − − something from me, O Jibraeel! Then, Jibraeel (AS) said to him: 'And we do not descend but by the command of your Lord...' [Maryam 19:64]." − ath-Thaqalain: 43. Taken from Tafsir Nur

ÅÀYj»A fJ§ ÅI ÅnZ»A ŧ LBñb»A ÅI ÒÀ¼m ŧ ÓÎZÍ ÅI fÀZ¿ ϯB¸»A ¾ÌuC ϯ Ðé Ðé Ë l§ ɼ»A ¾Ì³ ϯ ÂÝn»A Éμ§ ɼ»A fJ§ ÏIC ŧ jÎvI ÏIC ŧ ÑlÀZ»A ÏIC ÅI ϼ§ ŧ ä å ä ä ì ää ä ì ä ä æå ä å æÁÈμ§ æ ä êÅÎN´Íj°»A æ ä ä ê ä íÐC AÌÄ¿E æê ä ä ÐÓ¼NM èjÎa å ÅÍh»A ë ðä BÄMBÍE ê ê AËj°· ê ¾B³ PBÄÎI ÅÍh¼» AgGê Ë}$ :½U Ðé Ðé ç çé ä å ä æ ä ä ç ä BÄNÍÜË Ó»G BrÍj³ B§e É»E Ë Éμ§ ɼ»A Ó¼u ɼ»A ¾Ìmi ÆB· :¾B³ {BÍfÃê ÅnYC Ë B¿B´¿ Ë ÅÎÄ¿ÛÀ»A jÎ¿Þ AËj³C ÅÍh»A AÌÄ¿E ÅÍh¼» sÍj³ Å¿ AËj°· ÅÍh»A ¾B´¯ AËj¸ÃA Ë AËj°Ä¯ ç Ðé ç çé ä å ä æ ä ä ç ä è æ ä æ ä ä ä ä ê ÅnYC Ë B¿B´¿ jÎa êÅÎN´Íj°»A Aei ɼ»A ¾B´¯ ,ÁÈÄ¿ AjÎΨM {BÍfà OÎJ»A ½ÇC BÄ» ê ä íÐC}æ ÐC ä ä ä çé æ ä ç å ä æ æ å æ ä æ æ å æ ä ä æ æ ä ä #{BÍÕi ë Å¿ê ÁȼJ³ Bĸ¼ÇC Á· Ë} :ÁÈμ§ ê Ë BQBQC ÅnYC ÁÇ Æj³ − 44. Taken from al-Kafi:

é ŧ ÆBÄm ÅI fÀZ¿ ŧ ÓnΧ ÅI fÀZ¿ ÅI fÀYC ŧ ÓÎZÍ ÅI fÀZ¿ ÆAËj¿ ÅI iBÀ§ Ðé Ðé :½U Ë l§ ɼ»A ¾Ì³ ŧ (ª) ɼ»A fJ§ BIC ¾Dm$ :¾B³ ÆAjÈ¿ ÅI Ò§BÀm ŧ ä åä æ ä Ü åSÎY é KÃh»A KÃhÍå fJ§ ÌÇ ¾B³ {ÆÌÀ¼¨Í åå æä æ ä ä æ ä æÁÈUifNnÄm...} ÉÎȼMå ɨ¿ ÒÀ¨Ä»A É» ÊefVN¯ ê #KÃh»A ¹»g Å¿ iB°¬NmâA ŧ ÒÀ¨Ä»A ¹¼M Muhammad Ibn Yahya on the authority of Ahad Ibn Muhammad Ibn 'Isa on the ± ± ± ± − on the authority of 'Ammar − Ibn Marwan − on the authority of Muhammad Ibn Sanan ± − − he said: "I asked Abu − 'Abdillah (ª) about the saying authority of Sama'ah Ibn Mihran, of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic: "...We draw them near (to destruction) by degrees − 7:182] (Vol. 2, pg. 452). from whence they know not." [al-A'raf Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

Å¿ XAifNmâA$ :¾B³ (ª) ϼ§ ÅI ÅÎnZ»A ŧ pBJ§ ÅIG ŧ iAÌÃÞA iBZI LBN· ϯ Ðé Ðé #ɼ»A Ó»G KN· Ë j¸r»A ÉJ¼nÍ Ë ÒÀ¨Ä»A Éμ§ −JnÍ ÆC ÊfJ¨» ÉÃBZJm ɼ»A − on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas − on the authority of al-Husain In the book Bihar ± − al-Anwar ± − from Allah for His servant is that He showers blessings Ibn 'Ali (ª), he said: "al-Istidraj upon him while he withholds thankfulness." (Vol. 75, pg. 118). 45. Taken from Tafsir al-Qummi:

:ɻ̳ ϯ (ª) j°¨U ÏIC ŧ eËiBV»A ÏIC ÒÍAËi ϯ ÁÎÇAjIG ÅIG ϼ§ jÎn°M ϯ ç ä ä ä ç ì ä ä åä ä ä ì æä ää ä ä ä Ðh»A ê ê j°· ê äOÍCiC} ÅI ½ÖAË ÅI xB¨»A ÆC ¹»g Ë {Af»Ë Ë ÜB¿ ÅÎMËÞ ¾B³ Ë BÄMBÍFI $ Ó¼§ PiÞA ÅI LBJb» ÆB· Ë ÅÎÖlÈNnÀ»A fYC ÌÇ Ë ÏÀÈn»A (ÁQ ÏrÍj´»A) ÂBrÇ Ë KÇh»A ÒÄV»A ÆC ÆÌÀ§lM ÁNn» C :xB¨»A É» ¾B´¯ ,ÊByB´NÍ ÊBMD¯ μY ½ÖAË ÅI xB¨»A Ðé BÀ¿ jÎa BÈί ÅÎMËÞ É¼»A ̯ ÒÄV»A ¹ÄÎI Ë ÏÄÎI f§ÌÀ¯ ,Ó¼I :¾B³ ,?jÍjZ»A Ë Òz°»A Ðé ç æ ä Ð æì ä æ ä ä ð ä ä æ ä ä ä ä ä ê ,Afȧ ÅÀYj»A fħ hbN»A ÂC Kά»A ©¼ C} :½U Ë l§ ɼ»A ¾Ì´Í Ë ,BÎÃf»A ϯ OÎMËC ê ê å ä ì ä ç æ ä æ ä ä å åä å å ä ä é ä ä ä å ä åä ä å å ä å å æ ä ä ì ä ê Ë ¾Ì´Í B¿ ÉQjÃê Ë ,f¿ LAh¨»A AËhbMA Ë ,Aej¯ BÄÎMDÍ Å¿ê É» fÀà í Ë ¾Ì´Í B¿ KN¸Äm Ý· ê ç é æ æ ä ä ä å å ä ä æ ä ä åå æ ä ä ì ä çé æ åä å å ä ç ä Ðé å æ ê ÆËe Ë {Afyê ÁÈμ§ ê Å¿ê ê ÆÌÃÌ¸Í Ë ÁÈMeBJ¨I ê ê ê ê ÆËj°¸Îm Ý· ,Al§ê ÁÈ» AÌÃ̸λê ÒÈ»Eê ɼ»A #ÉI Æj´Í Ðh»A ÅÍj´»A fz»A − 46. Taken from Majma' al-Bayan:

ç ç ÅI xB¨»A Ó¼§ Ï» ÆB· Ë BÎÄ« ÝUi OÄ· :¾B³ ,PiÞA ÅI LBJa ŧ \ÎZv»A ϯ ÐËi Ðé Ë É»E Ë Éμ§ ɼ»A Ó¼u fÀZÀI j°¸M ÓNY ¹Îz³C Ü :Ï» ¾B´¯ ÊByB´MG ÉNÎMC ÅÍe ½ÖAË ²Ìn¯ PÌÀ»A f¨I S¨JÀ» ÏÃH¯ :¾B³ ,S¨JM Ë PÌÀM ÓNY ÉI j°·C Å» :O¼´¯ ,Á¼m ä ä ì ä æä ää ä ê ê j°· Ðh»A ê OÍCiC} :ÒÍàA O»lį :¾B³ ,f»Ë Ë ¾B¿ Ó»G O¨Ui AgG ¹ÄÍe ¹Îz³C {...BÄMBÍFI

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− 47. Nahju al-Balaghah, Sermon 150:

åä ä ä ä å ä ä å ä åæ ä ä å ì åì ä ä ä ä æ ä æ å ä ä ä Ëä ÕFz¬J»BI äÆÌħÝNÍ ä ä ê Ë êªÌJNÀ»A Å¿ê ©IBN»A Å¿ê fÖB´»A ê ê ë ê ŧ$ ê Æ̼ÍAlNί eÌ´À»A ê CjJNÍ ½Î¼³ äæ ê #ÕF´¼»A ê ð fħ

48. Taken from Tafsir al-Amthal:

PBÈ¿ÞA Ë ÕFIàA ÆG :¾B³ ,ÂBÍC ef§ :O»B³ ?ºfħ ÌÇ B¿$ :¾B³ ,ÉIBZuC fYC ¾Dm ÉÃG #pB°ÃÞA ef§ Éĸ» Ë ,¹»g ÆÌvZÍ − vol. 3, pg. 259. This tradition can also be found in al-Kafi, 49. Taken from Tafsir al-Amthal:

Ðé ç é Ð ¾BUi ¹×_»ËC ,BÃBJ·i ÜG ÆÌ¸Í Ü f¯Ì»A !ϼ§ BÍ$ :Á¼n»A Ë É»E Ë Éμ§ ɼ»A Ó¼u ¾B´¯ Ðé #ÅδNÀ»A ÁÇBÀn¯ ÁÈ»BÀ§C Ïyi Ë ÁÈvNaC Ë ÁÈJYD¯ ,½U Ë l§ ɼ»A AÌ´MG

− vol. 8, pg. 96. This tradition can also be found in al-Kafi, 50. This tradition is taken from Tafsir al-Qummi:

Ðé ɼ»A fJ§ ÏIC ŧ ÉÎIC ŧ j°¨U ÅI ÆBÀμm ŧ LÌJZ¿ ÅI ÅnZ»A ŧ ÏIC ÏÄQfY ÉÃH¯ Ðé Ðé Á» Å¿ :Á¼m Ë É»E Ë Éμ§ ɼ»A Ó¼u ɼ»A ¾Ìmi ¾B³$ :¾B³ ÂÝn»A ÁÈμ§ ÉÖFIE ŧ ÉÎIC ŧ Ðé OÎÀ»A ÏuÌÍ ±Î· Ë É¼»A ¾Ìmi BÍ :O¼³ ,ÉMËj¿ ϯ w´Ã ÆB· PÌÀ»A fħ ÉNÎuË ÅnZÍ Ðé Ë PAËBÀn»A jB¯ Áȼ»C :¾B³ ÁÈλG pBÄ»A ©ÀNUA Ë ÑB¯Ì»A ÉMjzY AgG :¾B³ ?PÌÀ»A fħ ,BÎÃf»A iAe ϯ ¹Î»G Pfȧ ÏÃG ,ÁÎYj»A ÅÀYj»A ,ÑeBÈr»A Ë Kά»A Á»B§ ,~iÞA ç ÆC Ë ¹»Ìmi Ë ºfJ§ AfÀZ¿ ÆC fÈqC Ë ¹» ¹Íjq Ü ºfYË OÃC ÜG É»G Ü ÆA fÈqC ÏÃG ÆC Ë μY ÆAlÎÀ»A Ë if´»A Ë μY LBnZ»A Ë μY S¨J»A ÆC Ë μY iBÄ»A ÆC Ë μY ÒÄV»A ,O»là BÀ· ÆEj´»A ÆC Ë OQfY BÀ· ¾Ì´»A ÆC Ë O§jq BÀ· ÂÝmâA ÆC Ë O°uË BÀ· ÅÍf»A

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

Ðé Ðé Ðé ç ç É»E Ë AfÀZ¿ ɼ»A ÏYË ÕAlV»A jÎa AfÀZ¿ ɼ»A ÔlU ,ÅÎJÀ»A μZ»A ¹¼À»A ɼ»A OÃC ¹ÃG Ë Ðé BÍ ,ÏNÀ¨Ã ϯ ÏÎ»Ë BÍ Ë ÏMfq fħ ÏJYBu BÍ Ë ÏNIj· fħ ÏMf§ Áȼ»C ,ÂÝn»BI Lj³C OÄ· Ïn°Ã Ó»G Ïļ¸M ÆG ¹ÃH¯ ÅΧ Ò¯j Ïn°Ã Ó»G Ïļ¸M Ü ÏÖFIE É»G Ë ÏÈ»G Ï» ½¨UA Ë ÏNrYË jJ´»A ϯ oÃF¯ ÐfYË ÅN°»A ϯ ÔjmC Ë jÎb»A Å¿ f¨IC Ë jr»A Å¿ ç ç AiÌrÄ¿ ºB´»C ÂÌÍ Afȧ ì ä ä ì ä å æä ä ê Ü} :ɻ̳ ϯ ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm ϯ ÒÎuÌ»A ÊhÇ μÍfvM Ë ÏuÌÍ ÁQ Å¿ ÜG ê ê Ò§B°r»A Æ̸¼ÀÍ ç æ ä Ð æì ä æ ä ä ì ÊhÇ ¥°ZÍ ÆC Á¼n¿ ½· Ó¼§ μY ÒÎuÌ»A Ë OÎÀ»A fȧ Ahȯ {Afȧ ÅÀYj»A fħê hbMA ê Ðé Ðé :¾B³ Ë Á¼m Ë É»E Ë Éμ§ ɼ»A Ó¼u ɼ»A ¾Ìmi BÈÎÄÀ¼§ :ϼ§ ¾B³ Ë BÈÀ¼¨NÍ Ë ÒÎuÌ»A #ÂÝn»A Éμ§ ½ÎÖAjJU BÈÎÄÀ¼§ − − A tradition nearly identical to this also appears in Tafsir al-Burhan; Tafsir Nur − ath-Thaqalain; Tafsir al-Amthal and Majma' al-Bayan. − Surah − 51. al-Quran, at-Taubah 9:30. − Surah − 52. al-Quran, at-Taubah 9:30. − 53. Tafsir al-Burhan:

Ðé ϼ§ ÅI ÅnZ»A ŧ ÓmÌ¿ ÅI ɼ»A fJ§ ŧ fÀYC ÅI j°¨U BÄQfY :¾B³ ÁÎÇAjIG ÅI ϼ§ Ðé äË} :ɻ̳ ÂÝn»A Éμ§ ɼ»A fJ§ ÏIÞ O¼³$ :¾B³ jÎvI ÏIC ŧ ÉÎIC ŧ ÑlÀY ÏIC ŧ ç Ðé ç ä Ð æì ä ä ì å TBÃC Ò¸ÖÝÀ»A ÆC Ë Af»Ë ɼ»A ÆC sÍj³ O»B³ SÎY ÊhÇ :¾B³ {Af»Ëä åÅÀYj»A hbMAA AÌ»B³ Ðé ç é ç æ ä æ åæ æ ä ä ç ç ç BÀΤ§ Òbnà ϯ Ë BÀ¼£ ÐC {AeGê B×Îq ÁN×Uê f´»} :ÁÈμ§ Aei Ó»B¨M Ë ºiBJM ɼ»A ¾B´¯ ç #AfÇ ¾BJV»A jbM Ë ~iÞA μrÄM Ë ÉI AÌ¿i BÀ¿ ÏÄ¨Í Æjñ°NÍ PAËBÀn»A eB¸M

− 'Ali Ibn Ibrahim (relates in his Tafsir), he said: Ja'far Ibn Ahmad related to us on the ± − on the authority of al-Hasan authority of 'Abdullah Ibn Musa Ibn 'Ali on the authority of ± Abu− Hamzah on the authority of his father on the authority of Abu− Baseer, he said: "I ± ± said to Abu− 'Abdullah, peace be upon him (about Allah's) saying: 'And they say: The Beneficent God has taken (to Himself) a son.' He said: This is due to the fact that the Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

Quraish said that Allah had a child and that the angels are feminine. Then, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted said, refuting them: 'Certainly you have made an abominable assertion.' In other words, an unjust (assertion) and in one manuscript, a great (abomination) almost dividing the heavens. Meaning that which they accused (Allah of) had nearly split the earth and caused the mountains to fall down in pieces." − 54. Taken for Tafsir Majma' al-Bayan:

Ðé Ðé ɼ»A Ó¼u ɼ»A ¾Ìmi ¾B³$ :¾B³ (ª) j³BJ»A j°¨U ÌIC ÏÄQfY Ï»BÀR»A ÑlÀY ÏIC jÎn°M ϯ Ðé ç L̼³ ϯ Ï» ½¨UA Ë Afȧ ºfħ Ï» ½¨UA Áȼ»A ½³ :(ª) ϼ¨» Á¼m Ë É»E Ë Éμ§ ç #(ª) ϼ§ BÀÈ»B´¯ AeË ÅÎÄ¿ÛÀ»A

55. ibid.

Ðé Ðé ÓNY ÉλG ÅÎÄ¿ÛÀ»A L̼´I ɼ»A ½J³C ÜA ɼ»A Ó»G ÉJ¼´I fJ§ ½J³C B¿$ :ÆBJY ÅI ÂjÇ ¾B³ #ÁÈNJZ¿ Ë ÁÈNÀYi Ë ÁÈMeÌ¿ ÁȳkjÍ

56. ibid.

Ðé ç ç ÉJZί ÉJYD¯ BÃݯ OJJYC ÏÃC ½ÎÖAjJV» ¾B³ BÄ¿Û¿ KYC AgG ɼ»A ÆC$ :oÃC ÅI ©ÎIi ¾B³ Ðé ç ÁQ ,ÕFÀn»A ½ÇC ÉJZί ÊÌJYD¯ BÃݯ KYC ɼ»A ÆC ÜC ÕFÀn»A ϯ ÐeBÄÍ ÁQ ,½ÎÖAjJU #~iÞA ½ÇC ϯ ¾ÌJ³ É» ©yÌÍ

57. ibid.

Ë ,ÏÄz¬IC B¿ ÏÄz¬JÍ ÆC Ó¼§ AhÇ Ï°ÎnI Å¿ÛÀ»A ÂÌrÎa OIjy Ì»$ :¾B³ ϼ§ ŧ Óz³ ÉÃC ¹»g Ë ÏÄJYC B¿ ÏÄJZÍ ÆC Ó¼§ μ¯BÄÀ»A Ó¼§ BÈN¼ÀVI BÄÍf»A OJJu Ì» #μ¯BÄ¿ ¹JZÍ Ü Ë Å¿Û¿ ¹z¬JÍ Ü :¾B³ ÉÃC Ï¿ÞA ÏJÄ»A ÆBn» Ó¼§ Óz´ÃB¯

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

− 58. Taken from al-Mizan:

Ðé Ðé ɼ»A Ó¼u ɼ»A ¾Ìmi ¾B³$ :¾B³ ÕEjJ»A ŧ ÏÀ¼Íf»A Ë ÉÍËej¿ ÅIG XjaC iÌRÄ»A iAe ϯ Ë Ðé ç ç Ï» ½¨UA Ë AeË ºfħ Ï» ½¨UA Ë Afȧ ºfħ Ï» ½¨UA Áȼ»C :ϼ¨» Á¼m Ë É»E Ë Éμ§ å ä ä å ä ä ì ì Ðé ä æ ä ä PBZ»Bv»A åÁÈ»åä 彨VÎm ê ÆG} ê ê é A̼À§ ê Ë AÌÄ¿E ÅÍh»A ê :ɼ»A ¾lÃB¯ ,ÑeÌ¿ ÅÎÄ¿ÛÀ»Aç iËfu ϯ Ð æì #ϼ§ ϯ O»lį :¾B³ {AeËé å åÅÀYj»A

59. ibid:

ì K»B ÏIC ÅIG ϼ§ ϯ O»lÃ$ :¾B³ pBJ§ ÅIG ŧ ÉÍËej¿ ÅIG Ë ÏÃAjJñ»A XjaC ÆG} ê å ä ä åä ä ì ç ä æ ä ä PBZ»Bv»A Ð æ ì åÁÈ»åä 彨VÎm ê ê ê é A̼À§ L̼³ ϯ ÒJZ¿ :¾B³ {AeËé å åÅÀYj»A ê Ë AÌÄ¿E ÅÍh»A #ÅÎÄ¿ÛÀ»A − ± Makarem − 60. According to Shaikh Nasir in his Tafsir al-Amthal, numerous scholars have confirmed that this verse was revealed regarding 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib ± − (ª). He mentions − − Sibt Ibn al-Jouzi in Tazhkirah; al-Kanji 'Allamah Zamakhshari in his Tafsir al-Kashaf; − − − al-'Uqba; ash-Shafa'i; al-Qurtubi (al-Jami'); Muhib ad-Deen at-Tabari in Zhakair ± ± ± ± − al-Quran); − − − − in his well-known (Gharaib (al-Qummi) an-Naisapuri Ibn Sabagh al-Maliki − al-Manthur; − ± in Dar − in al-Fusul al-Haithami in as-Sawa'iq ±− al-Muhimmah; Suyuti ± ± − − − in Ruh − ± al-Ma'ani. al-Muhraqah; al-Alusi He also notes that a tradition nearly identical ± to the one mentioned in footnote 51 was reported by ath-Ta'labi in his Tafsir (al-Kashf − − on the authority of al-Bara −½ Ibn 'Azib Wa al-Bayan) and reports that this tradition is also mentioned in numerous other sources with minor differences. He mentions that the tradition similar to that found in footnote 56 has also been recorded in numerous − sources on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas. 61. Taken from Tafsir al-Amthal and orininally recorded in the book as-Sawa'iq ± ± − al-Muhriqah by al-Haithami on the authority of Muhammad Ibn al-Hanafiyyah: ± ±

#ÉNÎI ½ÇÞ Ë Ï¼¨» eË ÉJ¼³ ϯ Ë ÜG Å¿Û¿ Ó´JÍ Ü$

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

62. Taken from Tafsir al-Amthal:

Ðé Ðé Á¼m Ë É»E Ë Éμ§ ɼ»A Ó¼u ɼ»A ¾Ìmi B§e$ :ÂÝn»A Éμ§ ¶eBv»A ÂB¿âA ŧ SÍfY ϯ Ðé ç KÇ Áȼ»C :pBÄ»A ©Ànλ ÉMÌu BÈI B¨¯Ai ,ÉMÝu jaE ϯ ÂÝn»A Éμ§ ÅÎÄ¿ÛÀ»A jÎ¿Þ Ðé :ɼ»A ¾lÃB¯ ,Åδ¯BÄÀ»A iËfu ϯ ÒÀ¤¨»A Ë ÒJÎÈ»A Ë ,ÅÎÄ¿ÛÀ»A iËfu ϯ ÑeÌÀ»A ϼ¨» å ä ä åä ä ì ì ç Ð æ ì å åä å ä æ ä ä ê ÆG} ê ê é A̼À§ #{AeËé å åÅÀYj»A ÁÈ» ½¨VÎm PBZ»Bv»A ê Ë AÌÄ¿E ÅÍh»A ê

− 63. Taken from Tafsir al-Burhan:

fJ§ ÅI ÅnZ»A ŧ LBñb»A ÅI ÒÀ¼m ŧ ÓÎZÍ ÅI fÀZ¿ ŧ LÌ´¨Í ÅI fÀZ¿ ŧ Ðé Éμ§ ɼ»A fJ§ ÏIÞ O¼³$ :¾B³ jÎvI ÏIC ŧ ,ÉÎIC ŧ ÑlÀY ÏIC ÅI ϼ§ ŧ ÅÀYj»A ç å ç ä ä æå ä ä ì ì ä :ÂÝn»A ä ð äåê ä¹ÃBn¼I æ ì ä BÀÃH¯} ê Ë ÅδNÀ»A ê ÉIê ê jrJN» ê êê åÊBÃjnÍ ÊjnÍ BÀÃG ¾B³ {Af»é B¿Ì³æ ÉIê ê ihÄM ê ç ÉI ihÃC Ë ÅÎÄ¿ÛÀ»A ÉI jrJ¯ ,BÀ¼§ ÂÝn»A Éμ§ ÅÎÄ¿ÛÀ»A jοC ÂB³G ÅÎY ÉÃBn» Ó¼§ ç ç éå #AiB°· ÐC {Af»} ÉIBN· ϯ ÁÇj·g ÅÍh»A ÁÇ Ë ÅÍj¯B¸»A

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

BIBLIOGRAPHY Tafsir References •

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− - (ÆEj´»A jÎn°M ϯ ÆBÎJN»A)- Shaikh Abu− Ja'far Muhammad at-Tibyan Ibn al-Hasan Ibn 'Ali at-Tusi ± ± ± ± − b. − al-Islami. − − First 460 QH/1068 CE, 10 Vols. Maktab al-A'lam Qum, Islamic Republic of Iran. ± Edition, circa 1988. (Electronic Edition).

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jZI Ë µÖB³f»A lÄ· jÎn°M) Shaikh Muhammad Rida ± ± − al-Qummi al-Mashhadi, b.

12th century QH/circa 18th century CE, 14 vols. Muassasah at-Taba'ah wa an-Nashr. First ± ± − Edition. (Electronic Edition). •

− - (ÆEj´»A jÎn°M ϯ ÆBÎJ»A ©ÀV¿) - 'Allamah − Majma' al-Bayan Abu− 'Ali al-Fadl at-Tibirsi, ± ± ± Ibn al-Hasan ½ − − − − b.548 QH/circa 1153 CE, 5 vols. Dar Ihyai at-Tarath al-'Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon. Circa 1959. ± ± (Electronic Edition).



− al-Huwaizi, b. 1112 Nur ath-Thaqalain - (Åμ´R»A iÌà jÎn°M) Shaikh 'Abu 'Ali Ibn Jam'ah al-'Urusi − Second Edition. QH/circa 1699 CE, 5 vols. al-Matba'ah al-'Ilmi, Qum, Islamic Republic of Iran, ± (Electronic Edition). Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M

Historical References •

− − al-Kamil Fi at-Tareekh - (cÍiDN»A ϯ ½¿B¸»A) by Ibn Athir ('Iz ad-Deen Abi al-Hasan Abi al-Karam ± − − Ihyai − al-'Arabi, Beirut, − Lebanon. 1st. Edition, 1989. ash-Shiyabani). Dar ± −½ at-Tarath



− − − − Histories of the Prophets - (ÕBÎJÃÞA cÍiAÌM) - Sayyid Hasan al-Lawasani, 1 vol. Manshurat ± − − Beirut, − Lebanon, 1987. Third Edition. Lawasani, − Narratives of Prophets - (ÕFÎJÃÞA wv³) by Qutb d. 573 HQ/circa 1178 CE. ± ± ad-Deen Rawindi, − − − − Astan-e-Quds. − − 1 vol. Bunyad-e-Pijuhish-hai Qum, Islamic Republic of Iran,1403 HQ/circa ± 1983. (Electronic version).

• The



The Oxford Dictionary of Saints, by David Hugh Farmer. Oxford University Press, 2004. 5th Edition



− ± ± 2 vols. − - (ÏIÌ´¨Î»A cÍiDM) - by Ahmad − Ibn Ja'far Ibn Wadih, The History of al-Ya'qubi Ibn Abi Ya'qub ± − Sadir, − Dar Beirut. ±− Miscellaneous References



− as-Saliheen al-Minhaj - (ÅÎZ»Bv»A XBÈÄ¿) (The Path of the Righteous) by Ayatullah 'Ali al-Husaini ± ± ±− ± − Maktab Sayyid as-Sistani, − Qum, Islamic Republic of Iran, − 2 vols. circa 1993. as-Sistani.



− al-Munjid Fi al-A'lam- (ÂݧÞA ϯ fVÄÀ»A) (An encyclopedia of the Muslim and 'Arab world). Dar − Lebanon 1982, 12th edition. al-Mashriq, Beirut,

• The Holy Quran, Translated by M.H. Shakir. Tahrike Tarsile Quran. 1989. •

− − Nahju al-Balaghah (Sermons of 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib) compiled by compiled by Sayyid 'Ali Razi. ±− Tahrike Tarsile Quran, 1984. Third Edition. (Translation).



− - (ϯB¸»A ¾ÌuC) by Abu− Ja'far Muhammad − d. − al-Kafi − Ibn Ishaq Usul Ibn Ya'qub ± ± − al-Kulaini ar-Razi, − al-Kutub al-Islamiyyah, − − − 369 QH/circa 980 CE.. Dar Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, 8 ± vols.1946. (Electronic version).

Commentary on Surah − Maryam

ÁÍj¿ ÑiÌm jÎn°M