Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL Internet-Based Test

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Test and Score Data ® Summary for TOEFL Internet-Based Test September 2005–December 2006 Test Data Test of English as a Foreign Language™

This edition of the TOEFL Test And Score Data Summary contains data on the performance of examinees who took the TOEFL Internet-based test (TOEFL iBT) between September 2005 and December 2006. Data from computer-based and paper-based tests can be found on the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl.

Listening. Learning. Leading.

www.ets.org/toefl

Table of Contents ®

History of the TOEFL Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The TOEFL Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Internet-Based Test Data for September 2005–December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Table 1.

Observed Minimum and Maximum Scores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Table 2.

Percentile Ranks – Total Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Table 3.

Percentile Ranks – Graduate-Level Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Table 4.

Percentile Ranks – Undergraduate-Level Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Table 5.

Percentile Ranks – Other Students. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Table 6.

Percentile Ranks – Applicants for Professional License. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Table 7.

Means and Standard Deviations – Males. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Table 8.

Means and Standard Deviations – Females . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Table 9.

Total and Section Score Means – All Examinees by Native Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Table 10. Total and Section Score Means – Nonnative English-Speaking Examinees by Geographic Region and Native Country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

For additional information about the Test of English as a Foreign Language, see the TOEFL Score User Guide, TOEFL iBT at a Glance, and the TOEFL Internet-based Test Score Comparison Tables. Order these publications in print form or download them at www.ets.org/toefl. Visit the TOEFL program’s Download Library for a complete list of downloadable publications. Copyright © 2007 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. ETS, the ETS logos, GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS, POWERPREP, TOEFL, the TOEFL logo, and TWE are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the United States of America and other countries throughout the world. TEST OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE and TEST OF WRITTEN ENGLISH are trademarks of Educational Testing Service. COLLEGE BOARD is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. Prometric is a registered trademark of Thomson Learning. A single copy of this publication may be downloaded for individual use. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without permission in writing from Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ, USA. Violators will be prosecuted in accordance with all applicable copyright and trademark laws. Permission requests may be made online at www.ets.org or sent to Educational Testing Service, Office of the General Counsel, Attn: Permissions Administrator, Rosedale Road, MS 04C, Princeton, NJ 08541, USA.

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History of the TOEFL® Program The Test of English as a Foreign Language™, better known as TOEFL®, is designed to measure the English proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 110 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and exchange programs worldwide. The TOEFL Program — A national council on the testing of English as a foreign language was formed in 1962; its members were representatives of more than 30 private organizations and government agencies concerned with the English proficiency of nonnative speakers of English who wished to study at colleges and universities in the United States. The council supported the development of the TOEFL test for use starting in 1963–64. Financed by grants from the Ford and Danforth Foundations, the TOEFL program was first administered by the Modern Language Association. In 1965, the College Board® and Educational Testing Service® (ETS®) assumed joint responsibility for the program. Because many who take the TOEFL test are potential graduate students, a cooperative arrangement for the operation of the program was entered into by ETS, the College Board, and the Graduate Record Examinations® Board in 1973. Under this arrangement, ETS is responsible for administering the TOEFL program with guidance from the TOEFL Board. The TOEFL Board is comprised of 15 members. Some are affiliated with such institutions and agencies as undergraduate and graduate schools, community colleges, nonprofit educational exchange organizations, and other public and private agencies with an interest in international education. Other members are specialists in the field of English as a foreign or second language.

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Development of the Test — The test originally contained five sections. As a result of extensive research, a threesection test was developed and introduced in 1976. In July 1995, the test item format was modified somewhat within the same three-section structure. In recent years, various constituencies called for a new TOEFL test that would (1) be more reflective of communicative competence models; (2) include more constructed-response tasks and direct measures of writing and speaking; (3) include tasks that integrate the language modalities tested; and (4) provide more information than the paperbased TOEFL test (TOEFL pBT) about the ability of international students to use English in an academic environment. Accordingly, the TOEFL Board initiated a broad effort under which language testing will evolve in the twenty-first century. The introduction of the computer-based TOEFL test (TOEFL cBT) in 1998 was the first incremental step in this broad test-improvement effort. The next step was the introduction of an Internetbased version of the TOEFL test (TOEFL iBT) in September 2005. The test was first launched in the United States, and has been gradually rolled out worldwide. TOEFL iBT assesses all four language skills (reading, listening, speaking, and writing) that are important for effective communication. TOEFL iBT emphasizes integrated skills and provides better information to institutions about students’ ability to communicate in an academic setting and their readiness for academic coursework. As TOEFL iBT test was introduced in an area, TOEFL cBT was discontinued after a period of overlap to ensure a smooth transition to TOEFL iBT. The final administration of TOEFL cBT was held in September 2006. TOEFL pBT will continue to be offered on a limited basis to support the TOEFL iBT testing network. The Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL cBT and pBT will be available on the TOEFL website in March 2007.

䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

The TOEFL Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT) TOEFL iBT was introduced in the United States in September 2005 and was gradually introduced worldwide from 2005 to 2006. TOEFL iBT was developed in response to a request by institutions to provide a test that would measure nonnative speakers’ ability to communicate in English in an academic setting. TOEFL iBT: • Measures the ability to communicate by combining all four language skills – Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing • Is 100% academically-focused, measuring the kind of English used in academic settings • Provides fair and objective scoring • Provides valid and reliable information to support score users to make effective decisions TOEFL iBT is about four hours long, and all four sections are taken on the same day. The Reading section measures the ability to understand academic reading material, and the Listening section measures the ability to understand spoken English as it is used in colleges and universities. The Speaking section consists of six tasks that measure the ability to speak English in an academic setting. The Writing section consists of two tasks that measure the ability to write in a way that is appropriate for college and university course work. Some questions in the Speaking and Writing sections require the test takers to combine, or integrate, information from more than one source. For example, test takers are asked to read a passage, listen to a short lecture about a topic, and then speak or write in response. These integrated tasks are designed to simulate the academic experience. Internet delivery enables ETS to deliver the test at official test centers in more locations. Speaking and writing tasks are scored by multiple, rigorously trained raters who provide unbiased, objective evaluations of the responses via the Online Scoring Network.

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Test Preparation—Everyone registered to take the TOEFL test receives test preparation materials free of charge. Examinees who register to take TOEFL iBT receive a link to a TOEFL iBT Sampler when the registration is complete. The Sampler includes questions from all four sections of TOEFL iBT. The Reading and Listening sections are interactive and sample responses are provided for the Writing and Speaking questions. Several other test preparation products are available for purchase. For more information about TOEFL iBT and related products, please visit the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl. Please be aware that because TOEFL iBT was introduced gradually throughout the world from September 2005 through October 2006, the data in this edition do not reflect performance for a comparable period of time in all countries. We expect subsequent editions of this document to reflect worldwide performance for the specified time periods.

Visit the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl for the most up-to-date information.

䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

Internet-Based Test Data for September 2005–December 2006 The data presented in the tables below are based on the total number of examinees who took TOEFL iBT between September 2005 and December 2006. Table 1 gives actual ranges of observed scores for the period from September 2005 through December 2006. The percentile ranks for section and total scale

scores are shown in Table 2 for the total group. In Tables 3–6, examinees have been classified by their reason for taking the test (information supplied by them at the test center).

Table 1. Observed Minimum and Maximum TOEFL iBT Section and Total Scores Min.

Section 1. Reading

0

30

2. Listening

0

30

3. Speaking

0

30

4. Writing

0

30

Total

0

120

Percentile Rank

Speaking

Total Scale Score

Listening

99 92 85 79 74 69 63 59 54 50 46 42 38 34 31 28 25 22 19 17 14 12 10 9 7 6 4 3 2 1

98 92 85 78 71 64 59 53 47 42 38 34 30 26 23 20 17 15 13 11 9 8 6 5 4 3 2 1

99 97 94 90 85 ** 78 69 60 ** 51 42 34 25 ** 17 12 8 ** 6 4 3 2 ** 1

97 93 89 83 ** 76 68 ** 59 50 40 ** 32 25 ** 18 12 ** 8 4 2 ** 1

120 116 112 108 104 100 96 92 88 84 80 76 72 68 64 60 56 52 48 44 40 36 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0

100 99 95 90 85 79 72 66 59 53 46 40 35 30 25 21 17 14 11 8 6 4 3 2 1

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

97 87 78 71 65 59 53 49 44 40 36 32 29 25 23 20 17 15 13 11 9 8 6 5 4 3 2 2 1

96 88 79 70 63 56 51 45 40 35 31 27 23 20 17 15 12 10 9 7 6 5 4 3 2 2 1

99 96 92 87 81 ** 74 65 55 ** 47 38 30 22 ** 14 9 5 ** 3 2 1

96 90 84 77 ** 69 61 ** 51 42 33 ** 25 18 ** 13 8 ** 5 2 1

120 116 112 108 104 100 96 92 88 84 80 76 72 68 64 60 56 52 48 44 40 36 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0

100 98 92 86 78 71 64 57 50 44 38 32 27 23 18 15 11 9 6 5 3 2 1

Mean S.D.

19.1 7.8

20.5 6.9

19.4 5.3

20.1 5.7

Mean S.D.

79 23

Mean S.D.

21.0 7.3

21.8 6.5

20.1 5.1

21.3 5.5

Mean S.D.

84 22

Writing

Reading

Scale Score

Percentile Rank

Speaking

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Writing

Listening

Total Scale Score

Table 3. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL iBT Scores — Graduate-Level Students*

Reading

Scale Score

Table 2. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL iBT Scores — Total Group*

5

Max.

*Based on the total number of examinees who tested between September 2005 and December 2006.

*Based on the total number of examinees who indicated that they were applying for admission to colleges or universities as graduate students.

**Indicates a non-existent scale score for Speaking and Writing.

**Indicates a non-existent scale score for Speaking and Writing.

䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

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98 94 88 81 75 69 63 57 52 47 42 37 33 29 26 23 19 17 14 12 10 8 7 5 4 3 2 1

99 97 95 91 86 ** 79 72 63 ** 55 46 37 28 ** 19 13 9 ** 6 4 2 1 ** 1

98 95 91 86 ** 79 72 ** 63 54 45 ** 36 28 ** 21 14 ** 8 4 3 ** 1

120 116 112 108 104 100 96 92 88 84 80 76 72 68 64 60 56 52 48 44 40 36 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0

100 99 97 93 88 83 77 71 65 59 53 47 41 36 30 26 21 17 13 10 7 5 3 2 1

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

99 94 90 84 80 76 71 67 63 59 55 51 47 43 40 36 32 29 26 25 21 18 16 14 11 9 7 5 4 2

98 94 88 82 77 71 66 60 54 50 45 41 38 34 30 27 24 21 19 16 13 11 9 8 6 5 3 2 1

99 98 96 94 89 ** 84 76 69 ** 61 53 44 34 ** 25 18 13 ** 10 7 5 3 ** 2 2 1

98 96 92 88 ** 82 75 ** 67 57 48 ** 40 31 ** 25 18 ** 12 7 4 ** 1

120 116 112 108 104 100 96 92 88 84 80 76 72 68 64 60 56 52 48 44 40 36 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0

Mean S.D.

17.3 7.9

19.8 6.9

19.1 5.3

19.5 5.6

Mean S.D.

76 23

Mean S.D.

17.2 8.2

19.0 7.4

18.1 5.6

18.9 5.8

Mean S.D.

Percentile Rank

Speaking

Total Scale Score

Listening

99 95 90 85 81 77 72 68 64 60 56 52 47 43 40 36 32 29 25 23 19 17 14 12 10 7 6 4 3 1

Writing

Reading

Scale Score

Percentile Rank

Speaking

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Writing

Listening

Total Scale Score

Table 5. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL iBT Scores — Other Students*

Reading

Scale Score

Table 4. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL iBT Scores — Undergraduate-Level Students*

99 98 94 89 84 79 74 68 62 56 50 45 39 34 29 24 20 17 13 11 8 6 4 3 1

73 24

*Based on the total number of examinees who indicated that they were applying for admission to colleges or universities as undergraduate students.

*Based on the total number of examinees who indicated that they were applying for admission to schools other than colleges or universities, e.g., secondary schools.

**Indicates a non-existent scale score for Speaking and Writing.

**Indicates a non-existent scale score for Speaking and Writing.

䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

Percentile Rank

Speaking

Total Scale Score

Listening

30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

99 94 88 81 75 69 62 56 50 45 40 35 31 26 22 19 16 13 11 9 8 6 6 5 4 3 2 2 1

98 94 87 78 70 62 54 46 38 32 27 22 18 15 12 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1

99 97 94 90 85 ** 75 62 49 ** 36 26 17 11 ** 6 3 2 ** 1

98 95 90 85 ** 77 67 ** 56 44 33 ** 25 17 ** 12 8 ** 5 3 2 ** 1

120 116 112 108 104 100 96 92 88 84 80 76 72 68 64 60 56 52 48 44 40 36 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0

100 99 97 93 87 80 72 63 53 44 37 29 22 17 14 10 8 6 4 3 2 2 1

Mean S.D.

20.2 6.6

22.0 5.5

20.9 4.1

20.6 5.2

Mean S.D.

84 18

Writing

Reading

Scale Score

Table 6. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL iBT Scores — Applicants for Professional License*

*Based on the total number of examinees who indicated that they were taking the TOEFL test to become licensed to practice their professions in the United States or Canada. **Indicates a non-existent scale score for Speaking and Writing.

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Tables 7 and 8 present means and standard deviations of section and total scores separately for male and female examinees tested between September 2005 and December 2006.

Table 7. Means and Standard Deviations for TOEFL iBT Section and Total Scores, Males* Group

Reading

Listening

Speaking

Writing

Total

Total Group

19.5 7.9

20.5 7.1

19.0 5.4

20.0 5.8

79 23

Graduate Level

21.5 7.2

22.1 6.5

20.0 5.0

21.4 5.5

85 21

Undergraduate Level

17.3 8.2

19.8 7.1

18.8 5.2

19.3 5.7

75 23

Other Students

17.4 8.5

19.4 7.4

18.1 5.6

18.8 5.9

74 24

Applicants for Professional License

20.6 6.4

22.1 5.4

20.7 3.9

20.7 5.3

84 18

*Based on examinees who tested between September 2005 and December 2006 and responded to a question about gender group membership.

Table 8. Means and Standard Deviations for TOEFL iBT Section and Total Scores, Females* Group

Reading

Listening

Speaking

Writing

Total

Total Group

19.1 7.6

20.8 6.7

20.1 5.2

20.5 5.5

80 22

Graduate Level

20.6 7.2

21.9 6.3

20.7 5.1

21.4 5.4

85 21

Undergraduate Level

17.6 7.7

20.3 6.7

19.7 5.3

20.1 5.5

78 22

Other Students

17.2 8.1

19.0 7.4

18.5 5.6

19.2 5.6

74 24

Applicants for Professional License

20.0 6.7

21.9 5.5

21.2 4.2

20.7 5.3

84 18

*Based on examinees who tested between September 2005 and December 2006 and responded to a question about gender group membership.

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Tables 9 and 10 may be useful in comparing the performance on TOEFL iBT of a particular student with that of other students from the same native country and with that of students who speak the same language. It is important to point out that the data do not permit the generalization that there are fundamental differences in the ability of the various national and language groups to learn English or in the level of English proficiency they can attain. The tables are based simply on the performance of those examinees native to particular countries and languages who happened to take TOEFL iBT. Table 9. TOEFL iBT Total and Section Score Means1 — All Examinees Classified by Native Language2

21 20 19 16 17 20 25 19

83 80 77 67 67 80 99 77

Bashkir Basque Belorussian Bemba Bengali Berber Bikol Bosnian Bulgarian Burmese

* * 20 * 22 17 * 18 21 17

* * 22 * 23 20 * 22 23 19

* * 22 * 23 19 * 22 21 18

* * 22 * 23 19 * 20 22 19

* * 86 * 91 75 * 82 88 72

Catalan Cebuano Chichewa ( Nyanja ) Chinese Chuvash Croatian Czech

23 20 * 19 * 21 20

24 22 * 19 * 24 23

21 21 * 18 * 23 23

22 21 * 20 * 22 21

90 84 * 75 * 89 87

Danish Dutch

24 25

26 27

26 26

25 25

101 103

Efik English Estonian Ewe

20 21 24 17

20 23 26 19

22 23 23 19

22 23 24 19

84 90 97 74

Farsi Fijian Finnish French Fula-Peulh

18 * 23 22 13

21 * 26 22 15

20 * 23 21 18

19 * 24 21 16

78 * 96 86 61

Ga Galician Ganda Georgian German Greek Guarani Gujarati Gwichin

20 * * 18 23 21 * 18 *

22 * * 21 25 22 * 20 *

20 * * 20 24 20 * 20 *

22 * * 19 24 21 * 20 *

83 * * 78 96 85 * 78 *

Hausa Hebrew Hindi Hungarian

19 22 24 22

21 25 24 24

20 24 23 22

20 23 24 22

79 94 96 90

Ibo (Igbo) Icelandic Ilocano Indonesian Inupiaq Italian

20 23 20 19 * 20

20 26 21 21 * 18

21 23 21 19 * 16

21 24 21 21 * 17

82 95 82 80 * 71

Japanese Javanese

15 14

17 16

15 15

17 18

65 63

Kannada Kanuri Kashmiri Kazakh Khmer Kikuyu Konkani Korean Kurdish Kurukh

24 * 24 18 16 20 25 17 16 *

25 * 25 20 18 21 25 19 19 *

24 * 25 20 18 21 24 17 19 *

25 * 24 20 19 21 26 19 18 *

97 * 98 78 72 83 101 72 73 *

Total

Total

22 20 21 18 19 21 24 20

Writing

Writing

21 20 20 18 18 21 25 20

Speaking

Speaking

19 19 17 14 14 18 25 18

Listening

Listening

Afrikaans Akan Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Assamese Azerbaijan

Native Language

Reading

Native Language

Reading

(Based on the total number of examinees who tested between September 2005 and December 2006)

Lao Latvian Lingala Lithuanian Luba-Lulua Luo

* 20 * 19 * 18

* 23 * 23 * 19

* 22 * 22 * 20

* 21 * 21 * 20

* 87 * 84 * 77

Macedonian Madurese Malagasy Malay Malayalam Maltese Marathi Mende Minankabau Mongolian Mossi

19 14 * 22 23 * 24 * * 14 *

22 17 * 23 24 * 25 * * 17 *

22 17 * 20 23 * 23 * * 17 *

20 18 * 23 24 * 25 * * 17 *

83 66 * 89 93 * 97 * * 66 *

Nepali Norwegian

16 23

19 26

20 25

20 24

76 98

Oriya Oromo

24 *

24 *

22 *

25 *

95 *

Palauan Polish Ponapean Portuguese Punjabi Pushtu

* 19 * 21 20 16

* 23 * 23 22 19

* 22 * 21 22 20

* 20 * 21 21 20

* 83 * 85 84 75

Romanian Russian

23 20

24 23

22 22

23 21

92 85

Samoan Santali Serbo-Croatian Shona Sindhi Sinhalese Slovak Slovene Somali Spanish Sundanese Swahili Swedish

* * 19 20 21 20 20 23 14 21 * 17 22

* * 23 22 24 22 23 25 18 22 * 19 25

* * 22 24 23 21 22 23 20 21 * 20 25

* * 21 23 23 22 22 22 18 20 * 19 23

* * 84 90 91 85 87 92 70 84 * 76 95

Tagalog Tamil Tatar Telugu Thai Tibetan Tigrinya Tongan Turkish Turkmen Twi-Fante

20 24 * 20 17 18 19 * 18 15 20

22 24 * 21 19 21 21 * 20 19 21

22 23 * 21 17 20 20 * 18 19 21

22 24 * 21 18 20 19 * 19 17 21

85 95 * 83 71 79 78 * 76 69 83

Uighur Ukrainian Urdu Uzbek

* 19 19 17

* 22 21 20

* 22 22 21

* 20 22 19

* 82 84 77

Vietnamese

17

17

17

19

71

Wolof

14

16

17

17

63

Xhosa

*

*

*

*

*

Yapese Yoruba

* 20

* 21

* 20

* 21

* 83

*

*

*

*

*

Zulu

1. Because of the unreliability of statistics based on small samples, means are not reported for subgroups of less than 30. 2. Because of changes in region and/or country boundaries, certain languages may have been added or deleted since the previous table was published.

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Table 10. TOEFL iBT Total and Section Score Means1 — All Examinees Classified by Geographic Region and Native Country2

18 18 * 18 * 19 * * * * 17 18 17 * * 18 17 18 * 21 16 * 20 * 18 21 * 17 * 23 * * * 17 21 * 20 * 17 * 19 17 25 * 19 17 20 21 * 22 24

71 69 * 71 * 74 * * * * 63 69 68 * * 75 67 66 * 82 60 * 80 * 68 78 * 64 * 90 * * * 64 82 * 77 * 66 * 73 68 99 * 73 67 79 81 * 87 93

23 * * * * * 19 21 22 23 20 22 19 * 17 20 19 * * * * 19 17 14 20 18 * 21 *

24 * * * * * 22 23 24 24 21 24 21 * 20 22 21 * * * * 21 20 18 22 21 * 22 *

22 * * * * * 20 21 23 21 20 22 19 * 21 21 21 * * * * 20 22 18 23 22 * 21 *

23 * * * * * 20 21 23 21 20 22 19 * 19 20 21 * * * * 20 19 17 21 20 * 20 *

93 * * * * * 82 85 92 89 81 90 78 * 77 82 83 * * * * 80 79 67 86 80 * 84 *

AMERICA Argentina Aruba Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Falkland Islands (Malvinas) French Guiana Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Martinique Mexico Netherlands Antilles

Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Puerto Rico Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States Uruguay Venezuela Virgin Islands (British)

Total

19 18 * 18 * 19 * * * * 18 19 17 * * 19 18 18 * 21 18 * 21 * 19 19 * 18 * 22 * * * 17 20 * 21 * 17 * 20 19 26 * 19 18 19 21 * 23 24

Writing

Total

18 17 * 18 * 19 * * * * 16 17 17 * * 20 18 17 * 21 15 * 20 * 16 19 * 16 * 23 * * * 17 21 * 20 * 17 * 18 18 25 * 18 17 21 21 * 22 23

Speaking

Writing

Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Congo Congo, The Democratic Republic of Cote D’Ivoire Djibouti Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Reunion Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Swaziland Tanzania, United Republic of Togo Tunisia Uganda Zaire Zambia Zimbabwe

Listening

Speaking

16 16 * 17 * 17 * * * * 13 15 16 * * 17 14 13 * 19 11 * 19 * 15 19 * 14 * 22 * * * 13 20 * 16 * 15 * 16 13 23 * 16 15 19 18 * 20 22

AFRICA

Geographic Region and Native Country

Reading

Listening

Geographic Region and Native Country

Reading

(Based on the total number of examinees who tested between September 2005 and December 2006)

19 19 19 20 22 * * * * * * 20 23 20 *

21 22 21 22 23 * * * * * * 22 25 22 *

21 21 20 20 21 * * * * * * 22 22 21 *

21 20 20 20 21 * * * * * * 21 23 20 *

83 82 79 82 87 * * * * * * 85 93 83 *

14 18 18 * * 16 20 * * * 18 22 19 15 18

19 20 20 * * 18 19 * * * 21 23 21 17 21

21 20 21 * * 18 18 * * * 19 23 19 15 20

19 20 21 * * 19 20 * * * 22 23 21 17 20

73 78 80 * * 71 76 * * * 80 91 80 65 80

16 17 19 * 16 22 * 14 17 16 19 20 25 19 16 15 17 16 18 17

18 19 22 * 18 23 * 18 19 19 21 22 25 22 18 21 19 20 21 17

17 17 21 * 17 20 * 17 18 20 22 22 24 21 17 21 17 20 21 17

18 19 21 * 20 24 * 17 19 20 21 21 26 21 19 20 18 19 20 19

69 72 82 * 71 89 * 66 73 76 83 85 100 83 71 77 72 74 80 71

* 18 * 18 24 21 25 19 21 22 19 * 20 24 * 23 * 24 23 18 23 * 21 * 22 22 * 20

* 20 * 21 26 23 25 22 23 24 21 * 23 26 * 25 * 26 23 21 25 * 22 * 24 25 * 18

* 21 * 21 25 23 24 22 21 23 21 * 23 26 * 23 * 23 21 20 24 * 20 * 22 22 * 16

* 20 * 20 25 22 24 20 22 22 21 * 21 25 * 24 * 24 22 19 24 * 21 * 22 23 * 17

* 78 * 80 99 89 99 83 88 90 82 * 88 101 * 94 * 97 88 78 96 * 85 * 90 93 * 71

ASIA Afghanistan Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Darussalam Cambodia China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands East Timor Hong Kong India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kyrgyzstan Lao, People’s Democratic Republic Macau Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Tajikistan Thailand Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Vietnam

EUROPE Aland Islands Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech and Slovakia Czech Republic Denmark England Estonia Faroe Islands Finland France Georgia Germany Gibraltar Greece Greenland Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy

(continued)

10

䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

18 22 * 21 24

70 88 * 84 95

19 * * 21 * 25 23 19 24 23 20 * * 19 20 23 22 22 24 18 19 23 * 18

22 * * 23 * 27 26 23 25 24 23 * * 23 23 25 23 25 25 20 22 24 * 23

22 * * 22 * 25 25 22 23 22 22 * * 21 22 23 21 24 23 18 22 25 * 22

21 * * 21 * 25 24 20 23 23 21 * * 20 22 23 21 23 23 19 20 24 * 19

84 * * 87 * 102 98 84 95 92 85 * * 84 87 93 87 95 96 76 83 97 * 82

21 19 21 * 21

20 21 21 * 20

19 20 20 * 19

77 76 81 * 78

MIDDLE EAST/NORTH AFRICA Algeria Bahrain Egypt Gaza Strip Iran, Islamic Republic of

17 16 19 * 18

Total

19 22 * 22 23

Writing

Total

18 24 * 23 25

Speaking

Writing

Kosovo Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of) Madeira Islands Malta Moldova, Republic of Monaco Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation San Marino Scotland Serbia and Montenegro Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Wales Yugoslavia

Listening

Speaking

15 20 * 18 23

EUROPE (cont’d)

Geographic Region and Native Country

Reading

Listening

Geographic Region and Native Country

Reading

Table 10 (continued)

Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Morocco Oman Palestinian Territory Qatar Saudi Arabia Sudan Syrian Arab Republic United Arab Emirates West Bank Yemen

15 21 16 12 19 18 17 11 14 9 10 14 16 12 17 11

19 25 19 16 22 21 19 14 18 14 15 18 20 16 19 16

20 24 19 18 21 20 19 18 19 16 18 19 20 18 18 18

18 22 18 16 21 18 18 16 18 15 15 17 18 16 17 16

73 92 72 62 84 77 73 60 68 54 59 67 74 62 70 61

* 22 * * * 21 * * * * * * * * * * * * *

* 24 * * * 22 * * * * * * * * * * * * *

* 24 * * * 20 * * * * * * * * * * * * *

* 23 * * * 21 * * * * * * * * * * * * *

* 93 * * * 84 * * * * * * * * * * * * *

PACIFIC REGION American Samoa Australia British Indian Ocean Territory Cook Islands Fiji French Polynesia Guam Kiribati Micronesia, Federated States of New Caledonia New Zealand Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu

1. Because of the unreliability of statistics based on small samples, means are not reported for subgroups of less than 30. 2. Because of changes in region and/or country boundaries, certain countries may have been added or deleted since the previous table was published.

11

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