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Catalogue no. 71-606-X2008004 ISSN 1914-6299 ISBN 978-1-100-10273-3

Research Paper The Immigrant Labour Force Analysis Series

The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education By Jason Gilmore and Christel Le Petit Labour Statistics Divison 7th floor, Jean-Talon Building, Ottawa, K1A 0T6 Telephone: 613-951-7118

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Statistics Canada Labour Statistics Divison

The Immigrant Labour Force Analysis Series

The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education

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Note of appreciation Canada owes the success of its statistical system to a long-standing partnership between Statistics Canada, the citizens of Canada, its businesses, governments and other institutions. Accurate and timely statistical information could not be produced without their continued cooperation and goodwill.

The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education

Acknowledgements This report on the immigrant labour market in Canada using results from the Labour Force Survey (LFS) was made possible through a partnership with Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRSDC), Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) and Statistics Canada (STC). The authors would like to thank all those who contributed to this release, including: the LFS operations, processing and system team, the LFS client services team, and fellow analysts. The input and support by staff in other STC divisions, specifically: Methodology, Communications (including those at the Regional Offices) and Dissemination, is also much appreciated. Of course we also appreciated the support, insight and constructive criticism of our managers. We would also like to thank the group of STC, CIC and HRSDC researchers, managers and analysts for their critical review of this report. Last but certainly not least, Statistics Canada would like to acknowledge the most important contributors to this report–the respondents to the surveys used in the publication. Our sincere gratitude is extended to these respondents. This report would not have been possible without their co-operation.

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Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 71-606

The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education

Table of contents Page Executive summary

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Background

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Section 1 Definitions and concepts

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Section 2 Labour market outcomes of university-educated immigrants by region of education

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University degree obtained in Canada

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University degree obtained outside Canada

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Section 3 Immigrant labour market outcomes, university degree-holders by region of education and selected provinces

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Section 4 Immigrant labour market outcomes, postsecondary certificate or diploma-holders by region of education

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Conclusions

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Appendix A Detailed hierarchy of regions and countries of highest postsecondary education

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Appendix B Detailed tables

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Charts 2.1 Employment rate of Canadian university degree-holders, by period of landing, immigrants aged 25 to 54, 2007

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2.2 Share of region of university education (excluding Canada), very recent and recent immigrants aged 25 to 54, 2007

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2.3 Employment rate of university graduates, by region of highest education, very recent immigrants aged 25 to 54, 2007

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2.4 Employment rate of university graduates, by region of highest education, recent immigrants aged 25 to 54, 2007

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2.5 Employment rate of university graduates, by region of highest education, established immigrants aged 25 to 54, 2007

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3.1 Region of immigrants’ university education, by province, all immigrants aged 25 to 54, 2007

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3.2 Employment rate of university-educated very recent immigrants, selected provinces, by region of university education, population aged 25 to 54, 2007

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Tables 2.1 Region of highest university education, by period of landing, immigrants aged 25 to 54, 2007

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2.2 Proportion of students and student labour market participation rate for immigrants with university degrees obtained in Canada, population aged 25 to 54, 2007

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2.3 Proportion of students and student labour market participation rate, by region of university education, very recent immigrants with university degrees, population aged 25 to 54, 2007

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2.4 Participation rates of university-educated Canadian born and very recent immigrants, by region of highest university education and sex, Canadian population aged 25 to 54, 2007

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4.1 Labour market outcomes by region of postsecondary education and period of landing, immigrants aged 25 to 54 with a postsecondary certificate or diploma, Canada, 2007

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The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education

Executive summary More and more, Canada relies on the education and skills of immigrants to maintain and strengthen our economy. With an aging population and a declining birth rate, immigrants are looked upon to fill in the gaps in our labour market. In 2007, with few exceptions, very recent immigrants who had any level of postsecondary education (whether a certificate, diploma or university degree) had employment rates that were lower than that of their Canadian-born peers – no matter where this postsecondary education was obtained. Among other factors, these lower rates could have been affected by: the age difference between these immigrants (for those educated in Canada) and their Canadian-born counterparts; their student status; their refugee status (for those from certain regions); and gender. In 2007, very recent immigrants aged 25 to 54 who received their highest university education in Canada were, on average, five years younger than Canadian born with degrees. With just a few years in Canada – which some of these immigrants spent in continuing education – they were less likely to have significant Canadian work experience, or overall work experience, compared to their Canadian-born peers. This could explain some of the 2007 employment rate gap between these two groups. Almost one in five very recent immigrant university graduates were attending school in Canada in 2007, even though they already had a university degree. The proportion of immigrants attending school was even higher among those who already held a Canadian degree. The majority of university-educated, very recent immigrant students were not participating in the 2007 labour market. Refugees often do not have all their postsecondary documentation with them upon landing in their new home country, which could pose delays or barriers to securing employment. Although the Labour Force Survey is not able to identify refugees, the low employment rates among very recent immigrants with a Latin American or African university degree may be related, in part, to the disproportionately higher number of highly-educated refugees from these regions that landed during this five-year period (compared with other regions). Gender was also an important factor in the 2007 participation and employment rates of very recent immigrants. While immigrant women represented nearly half of university-educated very recent immigrants, their participation in the labour force was significantly lower, particularly for those born or educated in Asia. Factoring out student status reduced, but did not eliminate, these gaps. Recent and established immigrants who received their highest university education in Canada or Europe had comparable employment rates in 2007 to the Canadian born. In contrast, many of those who obtained these credentials in Latin America, Asia or Africa had lower employment rates. One of the exceptions to the latter group was immigrants who received their university degree from a Southeast Asian (mainly Filipino) educational institution. There were some provincial labour market outcome variations of note: for example, immigrants in Ontario with a Canadian university degree – for all periods of landing – had employment rates in 2007 that were not much different from Canadianborn Ontarians. Very recent and recent immigrants in Quebec with a Canadian, Asian or African university degree had lower employment rates than Canadian-born Quebeckers; additional schooling to the exclusion of labour market participation, however, was particularly prevalent among very recent immigrants in Quebec.

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Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 71-606

The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education

Background With an aging workforce and a low fertility rate, Canadian governments have increasingly turned to immigration as a way of trying to match the skills and knowledge with our labour market demand. Highly educated immigrants have been sought to help drive Canada’s economy. In 2007, landed immigrants aged 25 to 54 were more likely to have a university education than the Canadian born (37% versus 22%). The difference was even more pronounced among the cohort who immigrated very recently: more than half of immigrants (54%) who landed since 2002 had a university education. In the first report on the 2006 labour market of immigrants based on the Labour Force Survey, it was found that, while those born in Canada and who had higher educational attainment had a high employment rate and a low unemployment rate, it was not the same situation for very recent immigrants (i.e.,those who landed within the previous five years). For example, very recent immigrants with a university degree had an unemployment rate similar to those very recent immigrants with only high school education. Furthermore, the unemployment rate of university educated very recent immigrants was four times that of similarly-educated Canadian born. On the other hand, the labour market outcomes of established immigrants – those who landed more than 10 years earlier – by education level were similar to that of the Canadian born. These findings indicate that, at least among the group of immigrants who landed most recently, higher education did not result in a greater likelihood of being employed in 2006. A second report examined the 2006 labour market outcomes by country of birth. One of the main findings was that immigrants from the Philippines enjoyed employment and unemployment rates similar to Canadian born, regardless of period of landing. These comparable results, however, were more an exception than the rule, as other groups generally had some difficulties securing employment, especially in their first five years following landing. Nonetheless, for immigrants from most countries of birth who had landed more than 10 years earlier, their employment and unemployment rates were comparable to that of the Canadian born. Immigrants born in Africa, however, regardless of period of landing, had employment rates were that lower than, and unemployment rates that were higher than that of the Canadian born. A third report provided an update on the labour market outcomes of immigrants based on 2007 data. While there were a large number of full-time employment gains for immigrants from 2006 to 2007, the employment rate gap with the Canadian born widened. Most of the growth for immigrants was among established immigrants, particularly those in Quebec and Alberta, and for immigrants with a university degree. Some of the reasons associated with the difficulties experienced by immigrant were revealed in the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC), released in 2005. In that survey, very recent immigrants identified the following factors as barriers to integrate into the labour market: lack of knowledge of one of the official languages; lack of Canadian work experience; lack of knowledge of the local labour market; and lack of credential recognition by their potential employer.1 A number of Canadian studies over the past 10 years have also pointed to concerns over the transferability and recognition of education obtained outside of Canada; specifically, high levels of education obtained in some foreign countries are not as readily accepted in the Canadian labour market as others.2,3,4,5,6 Some of this research argues that the indications of problems with the recognition of foreign credentials is not just a particular situation in Canada, but rather are seen in other immigrant destinations, such as the United States and Europe. In this paper, fourth in a series of analytical reports, the relationship between the region where an immigrant received their highest level of postsecondary education and their 2007 labour market outcomes, by time since landing, is examined. This report first examines the labour market outcomes (with a focus on employment rates) of university-educated immigrants with degrees from Canada, then those with degrees from foreign countries. Next, these results are analyzed for the three largest provincial destinations for immigrants (Ontario, British Columbia and Quebec). Finally, the labour market outcomes of immigrants with postsecondary certificates or diplomas are examined, based on where they obtained these credentials. This report sets out to answer the following questions: Do the labour market outcomes vary by region or country of postsecondary education? What about immigrants with a Canadian postsecondary education; are their labour market outcomes similar to the Canadian born? 1. Grondin, Chantal. 2007. Knowledge of Official Languages Among New Immigrants: How Important Is It in the Labour Market? Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-615-XIE. Ottawa. http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/89-624-XIE/89-624-XIE2007000.htm (accessed May 16, 2008). 2. Thompson, Eden Nicole. “Immigrant Occupational Skill Outcomes and the Role of Region-Specific Human Capital”. Working Paper Series no 00-04. Vancouver: Research on Immigration and Integration in the Metropolis (RIIM), p.28. 3. Bauder, Harald. 2003. “‘Brain Abuse’, or the Devaluation of Immigrant Labour in Canada”. Antipode. Vol. 35(4), p. 699-717. 4. Sweetman, Arthur. 2004. “ Immigrant Source Country School Quality and Labour Market Outcomes”. Analytical Studies Research Paper Series, Catalogue No. 11F0019MIE – No. 234. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 5. Reitz, Jeffrey G. 2005. “Tapping Immigrants’ Skills: New Directions for Canadian Immigration Policy in the Knowledge Economy”, IRPP Choices, Vol. 11, No. 1, February 2005. 6. Li, Peter S. 2001. “The Market Worth of Immigrants’ Educational Credentials”. Canadian Public Policy Vol. XXVII, No. 1, p. 23-38. Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 71-606

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The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education

Section 1 Definitions and concepts All data in this report will be presented based on the immigrants’ time since landing: very recent (five years or less prior to their 2007 interview), recent (between five and 10 years) and established (10 years or more) and for the core workingage population (i.e., population aged 25 to 54).

Framework of a Canadian Immigrant’s Integration into the Labour Market The difficulties that immigrants to Canada face in finding employment, particularly those who have landed more recently, are often associated with several factors,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 including: • • • • • • •

recognition of foreign credentials level of educational attainment degree and length of experience abroad and within Canada differences in quality of education in some countries language barriers and related difficulties varying strength of social networks knowledge of and information about the Canadian labour market

The overarching factor is time—the more time that an immigrant spends in Canada, the more likely he or she will be able to address some or all of the difficulties mentioned above, and therefore increase his or her chances of obtaining employment. Major developments, such as the state of the economy during a particular period of landing, can also magnify or diminish the capacity of immigrants to address the above-mentioned factors. While the Labour Force Survey (LFS) is not a longitudinal survey and cannot differentiate between cause and effect, it can provide a less direct approach to this factor by using the concept of period of landing.

This series of reports on immigrants in the labour force examines the data available with this framework in mind, while recognizing that many of these factors cannot be addressed within the scope of the LFS. The concept of “labour market outcomes” can cover various aspects such as wages and earnings, occupation, employment or unemployment status, participation in the labour market, hours of work, and temporary or permanent status. Earnings, in particular, are considered an important dimension of labour market outcomes. This report, however, focuses only on the labour market outcomes of unemployment, employment and participation rates as they relate to postsecondary education. A future Labour Force Survey report on immigrants in the labour force, scheduled for fall 2008, will examine the characteristics of immigrant employment, of which wages is one element.

1. Galarneau, Diane and René Morissette. 2004. “Immigrants: Settling for less?” Perspectives on Labour and Income. Vol. 5, no. 6. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-001-XIE. p. 5–16. http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/75-001-XIE/10604/art-1.htm (accessed January 22, 2008). 2. Green, David A. and Christopher Worswick. 2002. Earnings of Immigrant Men in Canada: The Roles of Labour Market Entry Effects and Returns to Foreign Experience. Paper prepared for Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Vancouver, British Columbia. University of British Columbia. 3. Sweetman, Arthur. 2003. Immigrant Source Country Education Quality and Canadian Labour Market Outcomes. Kingston, Ontario. Queen’s University, School of Policy Studies. 4. Chui, Tina and Kelly Tran. 2005. Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada: Progress and Challenges of New Immigrants in the Workforce. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-615-XIE. Ottawa. http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/89-615-XIE/89-615-XIE2005001. htm (accessed January 22, 2008). 5. Ferrer, Ana and W. Craig Riddell. 2004. Education, Credentials and Immigrant Earnings. University of British Columbia, Department of Economics. 6. Reitz, Jeffrey G. 2007. “Immigrant Employment Success in Canada, Part I: Individual and Contextual Causes.” Journal of International Migration and Integration Vol. 8, no. 1. p. 11–36. 7. Public Policy Forum, November 2004. “Bringing Employers into the Immigration Debate Survey and Conference”. http://www.ppforum. ca/common/assets/publications/en/bringing_employers_into_the_immigration_debate.pdf (accessed February 28, 2008). 8

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The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education

Immigration data from the Labour Force Survey Beginning in January 2006, five questions were added to the Labour Force Survey (LFS) to identify immigrants and to determine when they landed in Canada (year and month for those landing within the previous five years), and the country in which they received their highest level of educational attainment greater than high school. The questions are as follows: In what country was ... born? Is … now, or has he/she ever been, a landed immigrant in Canada? In what year did … first become a landed immigrant? In what month? In what country did … complete his/her highest degree, certificate or diploma? Since these questions are in the LFS every month, analysts and researchers now have a continuous data series they can use to monitor immigrant’s employment patterns and trends.

What are the regions of highest postsecondary education? In this report, every country is assigned to a lower-level region (e.g., “United Kingdom” is part of “Northern Europe”), and every lower-level region is assigned to a higher-level region (e.g., “Northern Europe” is part of “Europe”). Appendix A describes in detail how the regions and countries of highest postsecondary education have been grouped. These groupings conform to those used in the census, with one exception: in the census, “Caribbean and Bermuda” is grouped within “the Americas” as opposed to “Latin America,” and this is what we have done in this analytical report. This lower-level region was grouped within “Latin America” solely for the sake of descriptive brevity—i.e., instead of using the terms “the Americas excluding North America” or “Central/South America and Caribbean and Bermuda.” We recognize that some people from the Caribbean and Bermuda are not ethnically Latin American. Also, all references to “Asia” refer to “Asia including the Middle East,” which is the longer, standard census reference for this region. Although there is a generally strong relationship between region of birth and region of highest postsecondary education, it is not a conclusive one. Unless otherwise stated, references to a particular country or region are attributable to the country or region of highest postsecondary education. Note: The region of highest postsecondary education questions were not asked in the Labour Force Survey to those born in Canada. While according to the 2006 Census, 96% of non-immigrants with university degrees received their education in Canada, for this current report it should not be assumed that all Canadian born with postsecondary education received their credentials within Canada.

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The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education

Definitions and concepts used by the Labour Force Survey Immigrant type Very recent immigrants: individuals who have been landed immigrants to Canada for 5 years or less—i.e., up to 60 months. In this study, it refers to those who arrived in Canada from 2002 to 2007. Recent immigrants: individuals who have been landed immigrants to Canada from 5 to 10 years—i.e., 61 to 120 months. In this study, it refers to those who arrived in Canada from 1997 to 2002. Established immigrants: individuals who have been landed immigrants to Canada for more than 10 years—i.e., 121 months or more. In this study, it refers to those who arrived in Canada before 1997. Others: individuals residing in Canada who were born outside of Canada and are not landed immigrants—e.g., temporary foreign workers, Canadian citizens born outside Canada and those with student or working visas.

Labour market outcomes Labour market outcomes: unemployment, employment and participation rates, for the purpose of this study. (See the “Labour market outcomes and earnings” box for more information.) Labour force: the civilian, non-institutional population aged 15 and older who were employed or unemployed during the survey reference week. Employment rate: the number of employed people expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15 and older. The employment rate for a particular group (e.g., by age, sex, marital status, province) is the number employed in that group expressed as a percentage of the population for that group. Participation rate: the total labour force expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15 and older. The participation rate for a particular group (e.g., women aged 25 years and older) is the labour force in that group expressed as a percentage of the total population for that group. Student labour force participation rate: in this report, the labour force of students aged 25 to 54 expressed as a percentage of the total student population aged 25 to 54. Unemployment rate: the number of unemployed people expressed as a percentage of the labour force. The unemployment rate for a particular group (e.g., by age, sex, marital status) is the number unemployed in that group expressed as a percentage of the labour force for that group.

Core working age Working age: age 15 years and older. Core working age: age 25 to 54 years. These individuals are more likely to have completed school and be available for full-time work and less likely to have entered retirement than those aged 15 to 24 or 55 and older. People of core working age are the primary focus of the analysis in this report.

Comparability with the Census of Population When developing the immigrant questions for the Labour Force Survey (LFS), care was taken to ensure that immigrant concepts and variables arising from the questions would be comparable with those used in the Census of Population. However, since the LFS is a sample survey, the estimates are subject to more sampling variability than the census and could, therefore, differ from those published by the 2006 Census.

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Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 71-606

The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education

Section 2 Labour market outcomes of university-educated immigrants by region of education This section presents the labour market outcomes (in particular, the employment rates) of the nearly 1.2 million core workingage immigrants with a university degree as their highest level of education, based on where they obtained this degree. In the first part of this section, the analysis focuses on the labour market outcomes of immigrants who have obtained a Canadian university degree. As seen in Table 2.1, Canadian-educated very recent and recent immigrants represented a small portion of all degree-holders from these periods of landing. However, the Canadian-educated were assessed separately because the recognition of Canadian credentials should not play a part in their attempt to secure employment. Following this analysis, the labour market experiences of immigrants who obtained their highest degree in a foreign university is presented, by the different regions where they received this degree. Table 2.1

Region of highest university education, by period of landing, immigrants aged 25 to 54, 2007 Total landed immigrants

Very recent immigrants

Recent immigrants

Established immigrants

thousands University-educated immigrants Educated in Canada Educated in Asia Educated in Europe Educated in the United States Educated in Africa Educated in Latin America

1,172.1 420.6 418.2 182.9 53.5 47.2 44.4

319.2 27.5 167.7 61.4 16.2 22.8 21.6

285.5 50.3 142.1 56.1 11.5 12.6 11.3 E

567.4 342.8 108.4 65.5 25.8 11.8 11.4

E use with caution: coeffi cient of variation (CV) between 16.5% and 33.3% Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

University degree obtained in Canada Less than one in ten very recent and recent immigrants received their university degree in Canada; majority of established immigrants received their degree in Canada In 2007, one in three core working-age immigrants (over 400,000) with degrees had obtained their highest degree in Canada. Since it takes time to obtain a degree, the longer the immigrant has been in Canada, the greater chance that they had obtained their degree from a Canadian university. The proportion of Canadian degree-holders was higher for those immigrants who landed many years earlier; 60% of university-educated established immigrants had a Canadian university degree, while 18% and 9% of university-educated recent and very recent immigrants (respectively) had done so. Very recent immigrants with a Canadian university education had lower employment rates than Canadian born; age and student status likely played a role An estimated 28,000 very recent immigrants had obtained their highest university degree in Canada. Despite their Canadian education, their employment rate in 2007 was much lower than their Canadian-born university educated counterparts (Chart 2.1). One factor that may play a role in this employment rate gap is the general lack of Canadian work experience among very recent immigrants, relative to the possibly longer experience of the Canadian born with similar degrees. This relatively limited experience is in part reflected in their age – they are, on average, five years younger than similarly-educated Canadian born (33.2 years vs. 38.6 years) – and also by their time since landing (i.e., less than five years). Lack of work experience is not the only possible explanation for the employment rate gap between Canadian universityeducated very recent immigrants and their Canadian-born counterparts. Almost one-third (30.3%) of these very recent immigrants with a Canadian university degree were attending school again in 2007 (Table 2.2); this was more that four times higher than the proportion of university-educated Canadian born attending school. Most of these students were in full-time university studies, even if they already had a Canadian university degree. While they were studying, only half of these students were participating in the labour force, resulting in lower overall participation and employment rates compared to university-educated Canadian-born students.

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The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education

On the other hand, both recent and established immigrants who had a Canadian university degree had employment rates in 2007 similar to that of their Canadian-born peers (Chart 2.1). On average, these immigrants were much closer in age to Canadian born degree-holders (35.4 years for recent immigrants, 39.2 years for established immigrants versus 38.6 for Canadian born), which, along with their time since landing, has likely provided them with some tools and work experiences within Canada to improve their chances of securing employment. Chart 2.1

Employment rate of Canadian university degree-holders, by period of landing, immigrants aged 25 to 54, 2007 percentage 100 95 90

89.9

90.7

Established immigrants

Canadian born

87.3

85 80 75.3 75 70 Very recent immigrants

Recent immigrants

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Table 2.2

Proportion of students and student labour market participation rate for immigrants with university degrees obtained in Canada, population aged 25 to 54, 2007 Population

Proportion of students

thousands Canadian born Very recent immigrants Recent immigrants Established immigrants

2,384.6 27.5 50.3 342.8

Student labour force participation rate percent

6.7 30.3 12.7 6.0

73.3 52.1 74.8 67.2

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

University degree obtained outside Canada Although a number of highly-educated immigrants have a Canadian university degree, most do not, particularly those who landed within the past 10 years (Table 2.1). In this section, we look at the labour market outcomes of immigrants with foreign degrees. Over half of very recent and recent immigrants received their university degree in Asia The regions in which both very recent and recent immigrants received their university degree were similar, and are looked at together in this section. As expected, given the large number of immigrants to Canada coming from Asia including the Middle East, more than half of university-educated very recent and recent immigrant who received their education outside of Canada had obtained their credentials at an Asian or Middle Eastern educational institution (Chart 2.2). European-based university degrees were the next most common among immigrants educated outside of Canada. University degree-holders from American institutions represented a relatively small share, at 5%. It is interesting to note, however, that only one-third of immigrants with an American university degree were born in the United States. Three-quarters of those with a European degree were born in Europe, while nine out of ten of those who had obtained their degree from Asia, Latin America or Africa were born in the same region. 12

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The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education

Chart 2.2

Share of region of university education (excluding Canada), very recent and recent immigrants aged 25 to 54, 2007 1% 5% United States

6%

Latin America Europe Africa 22%

Asia Oceania

59%

7%

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Very recent immigrants with American or European degrees had highest employment rate among foreign degree-holders, but were still below Canadian born The focus of this section is on very recent immigrants (i.e., those who landed less than five years earlier) with foreign university education. As presented in Chart 2.3, all very recent immigrants with foreign university degrees had employment rates that were lower than similarly-educated Canadian born in 2007. Unlike those with Canadian degrees, there is only a small age difference between very recent immigrants with foreign degrees and Canadian-born degree-holders (36.9 years versus 38.6 years). Therefore, any comparatively limited Canadian labour market experience is not likely due to age differences, but rather their length of time in Canada. The employment rate of very recent immigrants with a university degree from the United States or Europe was the highest among all foreign regions of education (Chart 2.3). While their employment rates were on par with that of very recent immigrants who had obtained their university degree in Canada, their rates were significantly lower than that of the Canadian born (Table 2.2). Obtaining employment was more difficult for most other immigrants with foreign degrees. In 2007, very recent immigrants with degrees from Latin America or Africa and, to a lesser extent, those with degrees from Asia, had employment rates that were much lower than those who had obtained their degree in Canada or the United States. Refugee status of foreign university-educated very recent immigrants from certain regions may play a role in securing employment It is possible that refugee status could play a role in a foreign-degree holder’s ability to secure employment. Refugees do not often have time to gather their formal educational documents and it may be difficult for anyone to contact their educational institution, which puts the refugees in a difficult position to confirm their credentials for prospective employers or professional associations.8 The Longitudinal Survey on Immigrants in Canada (LSIC) found that, in the short term, very recent immigrant refugees (without looking at levels of education) had the lowest participation rates of all immigrant categories, and were more likely to be enrolled in further education.9 While 3.6% of all very recent immigrants with a university degree were refugees, a much higher proportion of university educated immigrants from Latin America were refugees (15.4%), especially South America (21.6%). The overwhelming majority of these highly educated Latin American refugees were from Colombia (Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, special tabulation). A higher-than-average share (9.5%) of university-educated, very recent immigrants from Africa were refugees, with roughly equal numbers of these refugees from Eastern, Western, Northern and Central Africa. Therefore, some of the difficulties experienced by very recent immigrants from Latin America or Africa could be related to the high proportion of university-educated refugees originating from these two regions. 8. Phillips, Rosalie. 2000. Report: Seminar on Recognition of Refugee Qualifications. Presented by the International Credential Evaluation Service (ICES) to the Council of Europe Headquarters, November 15-16, 1999. http://cicic.ca/docs/en/refugee.en.pdf (accessed March 3, 2008). 9. Statistics Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2005. Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada: A Portait of Early Settlement Experiences”. Statistics Canada Catalogue No. 89-614-XWE. Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 71-606

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The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education

Chart 2.3

Employment rate of university graduates, by region of highest education, very recent immigrants aged 25 to 54, 2007 90.7

Canadian born United States

77.8

Canada

75.3

Europe

73.8 65.5

Asia Latin America

59.7

Africa

50.9 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

percentage Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

A large number of immigrants with foreign university degrees went back to school since landing in Canada Continuing education was prevalent among very recent immigrants with a university degree, even if that degree was obtained in Canada (Table 2.3). These newest immigrants were three times more likely to be attending school in 2007 than their Canadian born peers. They were also working on different type of skills, as 25% of them were in “other” studies (including language training and accreditation or professional upgrade programs) and another 25% were enrolled in CEGEP (general and vocational college) or college (Source: Labour Force Survey). Most of these students were not participating in the labour market in 2007 (i.e., were not working or looking for work), while the Canadian born university graduates who were in school had a high participation rate. Separating out the labour market outcomes of university-educated very recent immigrant students from non-students provides some additional insight into these differences. Immigrants attending school were much less likely to be participating in the labour market than Canadian-born students. The labour force participation rate gap in 2007 between university-educated, very recent immigrants who were not students and Canadian-born university graduates was about 12 percentage points (Appendix B); among students, the gap was 28 percentage points. The gap is smallest between immigrant and Canadianborn male non-students, and largest between immigrant and Canadian-born women (both students and non-students). Table 2.3

Proportion of students and student labour market participation rate, by region of university education, very recent immigrants with university degrees, population aged 25 to 54, 2007

Population

Proportion of students

Student labour force participation rate

Full-time student status

thousands Canadian born Very recent immigrants Asia Europe Canada Africa Latin America United States

Attending university

Attending college or CEGEP1

Attending “other” education

percent

2,384.6

6.7

73.3

50.8

77.4

13.2

9.0

319.0 167.7 61.4 27.5 22.8 21.6 16.2

19.0 16.9 17.1 30.3 19.6 33.4 11.0

45.1 42.6 43.8 52.1 36.8 44.8 83.3

60.7 66.4 53.1 67.3 62.6 53.6 F

47.2 39.8 39.4 81.8 56.2 38.6 F

25.9 34.0 17.4 F F F F

23.8 23.4 36.4 F F F F

F too unreliable to be published because of CV>33.3% and/or very small estimates 1. General and vocational college. Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey. 14

Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 71-606

The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education

Participation rates of university-educated very recent immigrant women were much lower than Canadian-born women In 2007, almost half (48.6%) of all university-educated very recent immigrants were women. However, these highly-educated women were much less likely to be participating in the labour force than their immigrant male counterparts (Table 2.4). In comparison, the participation rate of university educated Canadian-born women aged 25 to 54 was 80.8%, compared with 86.8% for Canadian-born men. Table 2.4

Participation rates of university-educated Canadian born and very recent immigrants, by region of highest university education and sex, Canadian population aged 25 to 54, 2007 Sex

Population

Participation rate

thousands

percent

Male Female

1,091.7 1,292.9

95.4 90.8

Male Female

164.2 155.0

87.1 62.71

Immigrant educated in Asia

Male Female

81.4 86.3

87.61 59.61

Immigrant educated in Europe

Male Female

31.6 29.8

92.4 70.51

Immigrant educated in Canada

Male Female

16.5 11.0

82.41 76.41

Immigrant educated in Africa

Male Female

13.1 9.7 E

80.21 38.1E,1

Immigrant educated in Latin America

Male Female

11.5 10.1

77.41 64.41

Immigrant educated in the United States

Male Female

9.5 6.8

93.7 76.51

Canadian born Very recent immigrants, by region of university education Immigrant educated in any region

E

use with caution: coefficient of variation (CV) between 16.5% and 33.3% 1. Significantly different from the respective Canadian-born value (p33.3% and/or very small estimates. Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Very recent immigrants with an Asian university degree represented the largest group of all very recent university educated immigrants in Canada; they were also the largest groups in the three major destination provinces. Their employment rate, however, was much lower than the Canadian born in these provinces (Chart 3.2). School attendance among university-educated very recent immigrants varied by province, as did the type of schooling School attendance and lower labour force participation of students, as mentioned in the previous sections, can impact the participation and employment rates of immigrants, and very recent immigrants in particular. It is therefore interesting to note that the level of school attendance, and the type of schooling, varies among the three largest provinces. Among the three main provincial immigrant destinations, Quebec had the highest proportion (32%) of very recent immigrants with a foreign university degree and attending school for further education in 2007; those in Ontario (15%) and British Columbia (17%) trailed this figure (Appendix B). Furthermore, these immigrant students were nearly half as likely to be participating in the labour market as university-educated Canadian-born students. 18

Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 71-606

The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education

The kind of schooling in which these immigrants were enrolled also differed, both between provinces and between these immigrants and Canadian born. For example, in all three provinces, most Canadian-born students with degrees were enrolled in university in 2007 (Appendix B). Among immigrants, however, the situation was different. In Quebec, two-thirds of university-educated very recent immigrants who were also students were attending university, compared with about onethird of British Columbia and Ontario immigrant students. Another one-third of the Ontario immigrant students were enrolled in “other” schooling, which includes language training and accreditation programs, while one-sixth of immigrant students in Quebec and British Columbia were enrolled in similar programs. The relatively high proportions of those attending “other” education programs may indicate that these immigrants, based on a need or desire to upgrade language skills or to fulfill professional accreditation obligations, were not prepared to enter the labour market in 2007. Recent and established immigrants with a degree from Europe had high employment rates in all three provinces Overall, the employment rate of university-educated recent and established immigrants was higher in all three provinces (compared with very recent immigrants). The recent and established immigrants educated in Europe and living in Ontario, Quebec or British Columbia enjoyed employment rates on par with that of the Canadian born (Appendix B). Established immigrants in British Columbia who had Asian university degrees also had an employment rate that was comparable to that of the Canadian born. A few employment rate gaps remained evident, however, particularly between recent immigrants educated in certain regions and the Canadian born. For example, in all three provinces, university-educated recent immigrants with Asian degrees had lower employment rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, as did African-educated recent immigrants in Quebec (Appendix B).

Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 71-606

19

The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2007: Analysis by Region of Postsecondary Education

Section 4 Immigrant labour market outcomes, postsecondary certificate or diploma-holders by region of education Many immigrants to Canada have a postsecondary education other than a university degree. This section presents an overview of the employment rates of immigrants whose highest level of education was a postsecondary certificate or diploma. In 2007, over 900,000 or 29% of core working-age immigrants had a postsecondary certificate or diploma as their highest postsecondary education, compared with 39% of Canadian born. Among the very recent and recent immigrant with that level of education, the largest share had a certificate or diploma from an Asian educational institution. For the established immigrants, the vast majority had a Canadian diploma, with European and Asian diplomas tied for second place. Immigrants from most periods of landing with a postsecondary certificate or diploma had lower employment rates than their Canadian-born peers Most immigrants with a postsecondary certificate or diploma, regardless of which region they obtained this education or how long they had been in Canada, had employment rates in 2007 that were lower than the Canadian born with the same level of education (Table 4.1). The most notable exception was established immigrants who had obtained their diploma within Canada. This group representing almost half of all immigrants with diplomas had an employment rate that was comparable with that of their canadian-born counterparts..

Table 4.1

Labour market outcomes by region of postsecondary education and period of landing, immigrants aged 25 to 54 with a postsecondary certificate or diploma, Canada, 2007 Population

Unemployment rate

thousands Canadian born

Employment rate

percent 4.2

91.3

87.4

911.3 126.8 135.7 648.8

6.41 10.21 9.11 5.21

86.71 76.01 83.31 89.51

81.21 68.31 75.61 84.91

Canadian education Total Landed immigrants Very recent immigrants Recent immigrants Established immigrants

484.0 14.7 35.7 433.6

5.71 F 9.41 5.31

90.5 81.01 89.4 90.9

85.31 72.81 81.01 86.0

Asia Total Landed immigrants Very recent immigrants Recent immigrants Established immigrants

194.8 60.1 53.6 81.2

8.01 10.4E,1 9.6E,1 5.5E

79.91 73.71 77.81 85.71

73.51 66.11 70.31 81.01

Europe Total Landed immigrants Very recent immigrants Recent immigrants Established immigrants

138.9 23.4 27.1 88.4

5.7 7.9E 7.8E 4.6E

85.81 81.61 85.6 86.91

80.91 75.21 79.31 82.91

University education, any region Total Landed immigrants Very recent immigrants Recent immigrants Established immigrants

4,283.7

Participation rate

Latin America Total Landed immigrants Very recent immigrants Recent immigrants Established immigrants

45.4 12.3 8.7 E 24.4

8.0E,1 F F 6.7E

85.01 75.61 80.5 91.4

78.21 68.31 72.4 85.2

Africa Total Landed immigrants Very recent immigrants Recent immigrants Established immigrants

31.3 10.9 8.1E 12.4E

10.3E,1 F F F

83.41 75.21 85.2 89.5

74.81 63.31 75.31 84.7

E use with caution: coeffi cient of variation (CV) between 16.5% and 33.3% F too unreliable to be published because of CV>33.3% and/or very small estimates 1. Significantly different from the respective Canadian-born value (p33.3% and/or very small estimates 1. Significantly different from the respective Canadian-born value (p33.3% and/or very small estimates 1. Significantly different from the respective Canadian-born value (p33.3% and/or very small estimates 1. Significantly different from the respective Canadian-born value (p33.3% and/or very small estimates 1. Significantly different from the respective Canadian-born value (p33.3% and/or very small estimates 1. Significantly different from the respective Canadian-born value (p33.3% and/or very small estimates 1. Significantly different from the respective Canadian-born value (p33.3% and/or very small estimates 1. Significantly different from the respective Canadian-born value (p33.3% and/or very small estimates 1. General and vocational college. Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

32

Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 71-606

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