The Pacific Islands

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The University of the South Pacific. School of Geography, Earth ... Suva. Fiji Islands. Phone: +679-32-32222. Email: [email protected] Presentation held at the.

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Reducing the Impacts of Disasters on Sustainable Development in SIDS

The Pacific Islands

Dr. Eberhard Weber The University of the South Pacific School of Geography, Earth Science and Environment Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment Suva Fiji Islands Phone: +679-32-32222 Email: [email protected] Presentation held at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio +20) Rio de Janeiro, June 2012

THIS IS AN UNPUBLISHED PRESENTATION. PLEASE DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE WITHOUT PERMISSION

R d i th t off Di t Reducing the IImpacts Disasters on Sustainable Development p in SIDS The e Pacific ac c Islands s a ds Eberhard Weber The University of the South Pacific Suva, Fiji Islands [email protected]

Rio +20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development June 20 – 22, 2012

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Structure of Presentation • Natural Hazards in the Pacific Islands • Economic Impact • Social vulnerabilities of Pacific Islanders • Policy Response

http://across.co.nz/OceaniaMap.html

Natural Hazards and Disasters in h P ifi IIslands l d the Pacific When it comes to disaster statistics the Pacific Islands and Asia are often put together. This disguises g the very y particular nature of disasters in the Pacific Islands. They are Î

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Causing g less casualties and less damage g in absolute terms Theyy are casing g more casualties and more damage g in relative terms, measured as share of GDP or population affected or Govt. revenue A single or few disasters can destroy development achievements of decades.

Guha-Sapir D, Vos F, Below R, with Ponserre S. Annual Disaster Statistical Review 2010: The Numbers and Trends. Brussels: CRED; 2011, p.33

Guha-Sapir D, Vos F, Below R, with Ponserre S. Annual Disaster Statistical Review 2010: The Numbers and Trends. Brussels: CRED; 2011, p.33

Total

3,967

1,163,983

4,791,044

823,041

East & NE Asia

908

162,804

2,567,214

578,602

North & Central Asia

297

34,644 ,

17,231 ,

15,636 ,

South & SW Asia

1,283

566,423

1,914,696

141,506

South-East Asia

1,069

394,687

272,777

48,220

406

5 5,425 425

19 126 19,126

39 078 39,078

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P ifi Pacific Australia + NZ

16,832

36,252

Source:The Asia-Pacific Disaster Report, 2010

Taken from: World Bank 2006,Adapting to natural hazards in the Pacific Islands Region; also in: Lal et al. (2009), Review of Economic and Livelihood Impact Assessment

Taken from: World Bank 2006,Adapting to natural hazards in the Pacific Islands Region

Impact of Disasters Direct Impacts / Damages such as Fatalities / people affected ff Direct economic costs in form of damages to infrastructure, crops, health and educational services, water and power supply

Indirect Impacts such as Disruption Di ti iin th the flflow off goods d Job losses Water and vector born diseases Fall in tax revenue

Disasters and Poverty Damage of sources of livelihood Destruction of assets Impact on health and ed education cation Psychosocial impacts Gender impacts Accumulation of adverse events Baseline vulnerability is higher after disaster

DRR in the Pacific Islands Adapting the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 to the regional context, leaders adopted a regional framework in 2005. Titled ‘An Investment for Sustainable Development in the Pacific Island Countries – Disaster Risk Reduction and Disaster Management: A Framework for Action 2005-2015’. There are six Themes Theme 11: Governance Th G - organisational, i ti l institutional, i tit ti l policy li andd decisiond ii making framework g , information,, public p awareness and education Theme 2: Knowledge, Theme 3: Analysis and evaluation of hazards, vulnerabilities and elements at risks Theme 4: Planning for effective preparedness, response and recovery Theme 5: Effective, integrated and people-focused early warning systems Theme 6: Reduction of underlying risk factors Source: HFA Progress in Asia - Pacific 2009 - 2011

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The Pacific Islands Framework of Action on Cli t Change Ch 2006 2015 reflects fl t the th Climate 2006-2015 commitments made by leaders from the region in the UN Framework on Climate Change. Change Endorsement of other international instruments such h as the h JJohannesburg h b Pl Plan off IImplementation l i (which led to the Declaration at the World Summit on Sustainable S t i bl Development) D l t) andd the th Mauritius M iti Strategy for Further Implementation of the Barbados Plan of Action also reiterate the significance of disaster risk management as a development concern in the Pacific Islands.

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Source: HFA Progress in Asia - Pacific 2009 - 2011

A Pacific Disaster Risk Management Partnership Network (PDRMPN) was formed with the objective of assisting countries to implement this framework and other related commitments. Its role includes supporting countries to develop and implement DRM National Action Plans. Pacific Disaster Net, a regional information database has been launched to assist decision making on DRR issues and was put to use during the tsunami in Samoa and Tonga in 2009.

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Some Pacific island countries have taken steps cross cutting issues of disaster towards integrating cross-cutting risk management / reduction and climate change adaptation. adaptation A number of initiatives to strengthen regional collaboration ll b ti in i DRM iin th the P Pacific ifi is i implemented i l t d jointly by SOPAC, the Secretariat of the Pacific Community and UNISDR as part of an MOU signed in 2010. SOPAC hhas also l iinitiated i i d collaboration ll b i with i h the h UNDP Pacific Centre to enhance disaster managementt cooperation ti between b t the th Pacific P ifi andd Caribbean regions. Source: HFA Progress in Asia - Pacific 2009 - 2011

Challenges z

Gaps in research and development of scientific tools

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Sustaining public awareness

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Intra-government t a gove e t coordination coo d at o

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Resource and capacity constraints

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Reach to sub-national levels (up to community level)

© E. Weber, Tarawa Atoll, Kiribati

Acknowledgement of Sources: 1.Tsunami Samoa, Eberhard Weber 2.Alan Resture, USP 3.Alan Resture, USP 4.http://www.anglicantaonga.org.nz/layout/set/print/News/Tikanga-Pasifika/fiji-s-anglicans

Brining DRR and CCA closer to each other

Source: UNISDR, UNDP, 2012: Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in the Pacific: An Institutional and Policy Analysis. Suva, Fiji: UNISDR, UNDP, 76pp.

Differences between CCA and DRR

Source: UNISDR, UNDP, 2012: Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in the Pacific: An Institutional and Policy Analysis. Suva, Fiji: UNISDR, UNDP, 76pp.