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This is the author version published as: Banks, Tamara D., Davey, Jeremy D., & Biggs, Herbert C. (2010) The influence of safety ownership on occupational road safety outcomes. Journal of the Australasian College of Road Safety, 21(4), pp. 36-42.

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Abstract Being as a relatively new approach of signalling, moving-block scheme significantly increases line capacity, especially on congested railways. This paper describes a simulation system for multi-train operation under moving-block signalling scheme. The simulator can be used to calculate minimum headways and safety characteristics under pre-set timetables or headways and different geographic and traction conditions. Advanced software techniques are adopted to support the flexibility within the si

The Influence of Safety Ownership on Occupational Road Safety Outcomes By Tamara Banks*, Jeremy Davey*, Herbert Biggs* * Centre for Accident Research and Road Safety – Queensland, Queensland University of Technology, Victoria Park Road, Kelvin Grove, 4059, QLD, Australia. Email: [email protected]

Abstract Questionnaires and interviews were conducted with employees and senior managers from three Australian organisations to explore the relationship between perceived managerial ownership of safety responsibilities and occupational road safety. It was found that the perceived authority of the person primarily responsible for managing road risks and perceived shared ownership of safety tasks were both significant independent predictors of safer driving behaviours. It was identified that the position of the person accepting primary risk management responsibilities was typically a member of the OHS team and typically in a management position. The extent that ownership was shared across members within the researched organisations varied, with personnel from OHS and fleet management typically accepting partial ownership of managing occupational road risks. Based on the findings, several recommendations are made to assist practitioners in managing occupational road risks.

Keywords Occupational road safety; Work-related road safety; Safety ownership; Driver behaviour questionnaire

Introduction The success of organisational change initiatives appears to be influenced by the owners of the change initiative. Workplace Health and Safety Acts generally advocate a duty of care to all parties. For example in accordance with the Queensland Workplace Health and Safety Act 1995, duties of care to workers and third parties are shared by everyone [1]. Therefore ownership of occupational road safety must be embraced by all members of an organisation. Whilst general safety responsibilities are often readily adopted by industry, it currently appears that ownership of occupational road safety is often only adopted by employees operating in specific positions such as Workplace Health and Safety Manager or Fleet Manager. This paper will explore safety ownership with respect to the position of the primary change owner and the extent to which ownership is shared across members of an organisation. In relation to primary ownership of managing occupational road risks, it is suggested that the organisational position of the employee may be related to the effectiveness of the safety initiative. A recent case study revealed that changes in management level and the department of the person primarily in change of safety were associated with changes in the safety behaviours of employees [2]. Barrett et al. noted that employees initially reported only

minimal adherence to safe working practices as they believed that the Health and Safety Manager did not carry the necessary authority or respect to achieve compliance with safety procedures and rules. Upon the Health and Safety Manager’s resignation, the Production Director assumed primary ownership of safety. With his authority to fire employees immediately for non compliance to rules or procedures, health and safety compliance increased within the organisation. The importance of position authority has also been recognised in earlier research. For example De Michiei et al. [3] observed that responsibility for safety procedures in high incident-rate mines was often delegated to safety personnel who lacked the authority to enforce safe work procedures. Findings from these studies suggest that management department and level of authority may be related to achieving effective implementation of safety initiatives. More specifically, the job description and authority of the primary change owner may restrict their ability to execute or influence others to execute key safety management practices. For example it is suggested that within an organisation, the position of Fleet Asset Manager may require different priorities, competencies, authority levels and circles of influence to the position of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Manager. The appropriateness of a safety owner’s position may also vary in relation to the safety initiative. For example a risk management strategy comprising the selection of safe vehicles may be better suited to leadership from within a fleet department rather than a health and safety department. Currently the influences of safety ownership have not been researched with respect to occupational road safety. To address this gap, this paper will explore whether the position of the person primarily responsible for managing road safety is related to road safety outcomes. In addition to the position of the primary owner of managing occupational road risks, it is suggested that the extent to which ownership is shared across members of an organisation may also be related to the success of a safety initiative. It has long been recognised in the safety literature that managers at different hierarchical levels within an organisation have different roles in the overall management of OHS [4]. Senior managers are typically responsible for organisational strategies such as managing organisational structure and developing policy. Middle level managers are typically responsible for interpreting and implementing policies and programs. Lower level managers, including supervisors and team leaders, are typically responsible for operational matters such as co-ordinating and facilitating work tasks [5]. As managers operating within different positions and levels within an organisation typically have different responsibilities, each manager may be able to provide a unique and valuable role in managing safety. Furthermore, research conducted across a range of westernised countries including New Zealand, Canada and America, supports the utility of a decentralised risk management approach to enhance occupational safety [6-8]. For example research has found that the reorganisation of a coal mine work section into an autonomous work group resulted in increased employee knowledge of safe practices and procedures, beneficial communication, and increased employee responsibility for safety [8]. To effectively manage OHS performance it is suggested that ownership of safety management tasks should be shared by employees in all safety critical positions. Safety critical positions may vary between organisations but will typically include: Managing Director/Chief Executive Officer; Senior Manager; Operations Manager; Project Manager; Site Manager; National OHS Manager; State OHS Manager; Regional OHS Manager; Site OHS Advisor and employees [9]. The sharing of safety responsibilities may allow an organisation to draw upon

the expertise of employees whose competencies and position responsibilities are best aligned with each safety management task. Recent research findings pertaining to manufacturing companies support the formalisation of safety management responsibilities. More specifically, research investigating the characteristics of over 400 manufacturing companies, found that organisations with low rates of lost time injuries typically defined health and safety responsibilities in all managers’ job descriptions and included health and safety topics in performance appraisals [10]. As previously noted, the influences of safety ownership have not been researched with respect to occupational road safety. To further address this gap, the current research will explore whether the level of shared ownership of safety management tasks by employees in safety critical positions is related to road safety outcomes.

Method To comprehensively explore the relationships between safety ownership and occupational road safety outcomes, a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques was conducted. Firstly, a brief questionnaire was utilised to gain exploratory data from a large sample of employees. Interviews were then conducted with a smaller sample of employees and managers to gain more in-depth data. This provided a robust methodology that allowed the researchers to clarify and validate the data obtained through questionnaires with the data obtained through interviews. Questionnaire An online questionnaire was administered to 444 employees sourced from three Australian organisations. These organisations included a cross section of private and public organisations, profit and not-for-profit organisations, and medium and large vehicle fleet organisations. More specifically these organisations were responsible for a combined workforce of approximately 42,000 and a combined fleet of approximately 19,000. Participating organisations operated fleets that comprised a mixture of vehicle models and required their employees to operate vehicles in both rural and urban environments. Given the real-world context of this study, the selection of participants was a convenience sample with a minimum of 100 participants being sampled from each of the organisations. All employees with access to the internet within the participating organisations where sent an email invitation to participate in the questionnaire. As participation was voluntary, a self-selection bias may be present in this sample. A majority of the participants were male (69 percent). Participants ranged in age from 20 years to 65 years (M = 44, SD = 10). All participants reported regularly driving a vehicle for occupational purposes. The questionnaire collected demographic, safety ownership and safety outcome data. Time restrictions were imposed by the participating organisations for their employees to complete the questionnaire. Therefore to achieve a brief questionnaire, two items were utilised to explore differences in safety ownership. These items were developed to further investigate previous research findings that suggest that the department and level of authority of the person taking primary ownership of safety tasks [2, 11] and the extent to which ownership of safety tasks is shared [9, 12] may be related to organisational safety outcomes. Participants were asked to indicate their level of agreement with the following two statements. The first statement “The people predominantly responsible for road safety in my organisation carry the necessary authority and respect to achieve compliance” was developed to assess employees’ perceptions in regards to the person primarily responsible for managing road risks in their organisation. The second statement “Responsibility for achieving work-related road safety is

shared across members in my organisation” was developed to assess employees’ perceptions of the extent to which safety was shared across members of the organisation. Items were measured using a five-point Likert scale ranging from one representing strongly disagree to five representing strongly agree. Consistent with previous occupational road safety research, the modified Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) [13] and self-reported involvement in driving incidents [1314] were collected for use in the current study as safety outcome variables. Participants were presented with a list of 34 items and were required to indicate how often they had committed each of the driving behaviours over the past six months on a seven-point Likert scale. Response options ranged from one representing never, to seven representing always. Incident involvement was measured via the frequency of crash involvement (any incident involving a motor vehicle that resulted in damage to a vehicle or other property, or injury regardless of who was considered to be ‘at fault’) experienced during the past 12 months while driving for work. To ensure participant anonymity all completed questionnaires were sent directly to the researcher. Questionnaire data was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 15. Before commencing analyses, the data was screened for accuracy. An examination of histograms confirmed the absence of outliers and an examination of residuals scatterplots confirmed that the assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedasticity were not violated. The sample size was considered sufficient as the cases-to-IV ratio exceed the level of 40 to 1 as recommended by Tabachnick and Fidell [15] for conducting statistical regression analyses. When conducting post hoc comparisons, a Bonferroni adjustment was applied to the significance level. As only a small number of planned comparisons were being made an alpha value of .025 was selected to reduce the probability of making a type I error. In applying this more stringent level of significance, the authors recognise that the associated loss of power may result in true differences in the treatment population not being identified. Interview Interviews were conducted with 18 participants sourced from the same three organisations that participated in the questionnaire. Participants from within each organisation comprised of four front line employees and two senior managers. The selection of participants was a convenience sample with care taken to ensure that the participants selected were representative of each organisation’s driving workforce and that they had not previously participated in the questionnaire. Participants ranged in age from 24 to 58 years. As the majority of the drivers within the researched organisations were male, eighty-three percent of the employees selected for interviewing were male. All participants reported regularly driving a vehicle for occupational purposes. Several structured questions were asked to all participants to explore employees’ perceptions in relation to safety ownership. Participants were asked to identify the position of the person primarily responsible for managing occupational road safety in their organisation. To identify the extent to which safety was shared across members within an organisation, participants were presented with a list of seven task categories and asked to indicate the positions of anyone in their organisation who were accepting responsibility for actioning the safety tasks with respect to each category. The task categories were selected based on previous research findings in the construction industry that identified links between the categories and workplace safety [12].

The task categories enquired about in the interviews comprised: proactively identifying, assessing and determining appropriate controls for OHS hazards and risks; communicating and consulting with stakeholders regarding OHS risks; monitoring, reporting and evaluating safety program effectiveness; engaging with subcontractors in OHS performance management; identifying and implementing relevant components of the OHS and workers compensation management systems; understanding and applying workers compensation and case management principles; and providing leadership and management to staff and subcontractors in OHS performance. After piloting the interview with two managers and two employees from another organisation to ensure the content was understood and interpretations of the categories was consistent, face-to-face interviews were conducted in private offices on the premises of each organisation. Participation was voluntary and written consent was obtained from all participants. Participants were interviewed individually to minimise any contamination of data arising from potential group bias. Upon completion of the interviews, a thematic analysis was conducted. A coding manual was developed and key points and significant statements were identified through reviewing the notes taken by the researcher in combination with the verbatim transcripts. Finally, conclusions were drawn after interpretations of the data were verified against the questionnaire results and the existing literature.

Results This section presents the findings from the questionnaire data followed by the interview data. Mean and standard deviation scores are presented for each of the safety ownership items. Bivariate correlation scores between each of the safety ownership items and the road safety outcome measures are then presented. To examine the utility of the safety ownership items for predicting road safety outcomes, regression analyses were conducted in relation to driver behaviours and crash involvement. Driver behaviours were measured using the 34-item modified driver behaviour questionnaire. A factor analysis of this scale extracted the following four factors: errors; fatigue and distractions; violations; and unsafe driving preparations. Factor four failed to achieve an acceptable reliability coefficient cut-off level of .70 [16] and was therefore excluded from further analyses. Crash involvement was a dichotomous variable with employees grouped according to whether they reported being involved in no vehicle incidents, or one or more vehicle incidents, while driving for work during the past 12 months. Mean and Standard Deviation scores Mean and standard deviation scores were calculated for both safety ownership items. Potential responses ranged from one to five, with higher scores indicating safer perceptions. Participants indicated moderate agreement with the first item “The people predominantly responsible for road safety in my organisation carry the necessary authority and respect to achieve compliance” (M = 3.18, SD = .98). Participants indicated slightly higher agreement with the second item “Responsibility for achieving work-related road safety is shared across members in my organisation” (M = 3.38, SD = .99). Before examining safety ownership perceptions in regards to safety outcomes, analyses of variances were conducted to determine if perceptions varied between the three organisations. It was identified that the mean scores did not differ significantly among the organisations in regards to perceived authority (p = .07) or perceived shared ownership (p = .85).

Correlations and regressions Bivariate correlation scores were calculated for the two ownership variables and the road safety outcome variables. It was found that the two safety ownership variables were significantly correlated (r = .54, p < .01). Table 1 presents the correlation statistics between the ownership variables and the road safety outcome variables. Table 1 Bivariate correlations between safety ownership variables and road safety outcome variables Overall Errors Fatigue and Driver distractions Behaviour Authority -.13** -.07 -.19** Shared -.09 -.05 -.11* Note: *p < .05 **p < .001 1 1 = No crashes, 2 = One or more crashes

Violations

Vehicle Crashes1

-.03 -.04

.04 .02

As can be seen in Table 1, it was found that individuals’ perceptions of authority were negatively associated with both overall driver behaviours and the second driver behaviour factor (fatigue and distractions). Furthermore, individuals’ perceptions of shared ownership were negatively associated with fatigue and distractions. While these correlations are significant, it is important to note that they are relatively weak. Details pertaining to these correlation analyses and the follow up regression analyses are provided below. No significant relationships were observed among employees’ safety ownership perceptions and selfreported driving errors, driving violations, or vehicle crashes. Authority Correlation results reveal that perceived authority was negatively related to overall driver behaviours (r = -.13, p < .001). This finding indicates that participants who perceived that road risks were managed by personnel with authority and respect reported engaging in overall safer driving behaviours. A hierarchical regression was conducted to investigate the capacity of perceived authority to predict overall driving behaviours. In predicting overall driving behaviours, age, gender and average hours driven each week for work, were entered into the equation as control variables at step 1. To examine the influence of perceived authority on driving behaviours beyond these variables, this variable was entered separately at step 2. The overall model (including all predictors) was significant (F(4, 459) 14.42 = p < .001). The first step accounted for 6% of the variance in overall driving behaviours (F(3, 460) = 18.24, p

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