TOEFL® Computer-Based and Paper-Based Tests - ETS

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This edition of the TOEFL Test And Score Data Summary contains data on the ... took the paper-based TOEFL test between July 2005 and June 2006. Data from.

Test and Score Data Summary for

TOEFL Computer-Based and Paper-Based Tests ®

July 2005—June 2006 Test Data Test of English as a Foreign Language

TM

This edition of the TOEFL Test And Score Data Summary contains data on the performance of examinees who took the computer-based TOEFL test and those who took the paper-based TOEFL test between July 2005 and June 2006. Data from previous testing periods can be found on the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl. This edition does not contain performance data for the TOEFL Internet-based test (TOEFL® iBT) which was introduced in September 2005 and gradually implemented worldwide in 2006. A separate edition with performance data for the TOEFL iBT can be found on the TOEFL website at www.ets.org/toefl.

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Table of Contents ®

History of the TOEFL Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Computer-Based TOEFL Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Computer-Based Test Data for 2005-06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Table 1. Observed Minimum and Maximum Scores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Table 2. Percentile Ranks – Total Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Table 3. Percentile Ranks – Graduate-Level Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Table 4. Percentile Ranks – Undergraduate-Level Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Table 5. Percentile Ranks – Other Students. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Table 6. Percentile Ranks – Applicants for Professional License. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Table 7. Means and Standard Deviations – Males. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Table 8. Means and Standard Deviations – Females . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Table 9. Total and Section Score Means – All Examinees by Native Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Table 10. Total and Section Score Means – Nonnative English-Speaking Examinees by Geographic Region and Native Country. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Table 11. Percentile Ranks – Writing Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

The Paper-Based TOEFL Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Paper-Based Test Data for 2005-06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Table 12. Observed Minimum and Maximum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 13. Percentile Ranks – Total Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 14. Percentile Ranks – Graduate-Level Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 15. Percentile Ranks – Undergraduate-Level Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 16. Percentile Ranks – Other Students. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 17. Percentile Ranks – Applicants for Professional License. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 18. Means and Standard Deviations – Males. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 19. Means and Standard Deviations – Females . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 20. Total and Section Score Means – All Examinees by Native Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 21. Total and Section Score Means – Nonnative English-Speaking Examinees by Geographic Region and Native Country. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 22. Percentile Ranks for TWE Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 15 16 17

For additional information about the Test of English as a Foreign Language, see the TOEFL Score User Guide, TOEFL iBT at a Glance, and the TOEFL Internet-based Test Score Comparison Tables. Order these publications in print form or download them at www.ets.org/toefl. Visit the TOEFL program’s Download Library for a complete list of downloadable publications. Copyright © 2007 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. ETS, the ETS logos, GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATIONS, POWERPREP, TOEFL, the TOEFL logo, and TWE are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service (ETS) in the United States of America and other countries throughout the world. TEST OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE and TEST OF WRITTEN ENGLISH are trademarks of Educational Testing Service. COLLEGE BOARD is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. Prometric is a registered trademark of Thomson Learning. A single copy of this publication may be downloaded for individual use. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without permission in writing from Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ, USA. Violators will be prosecuted in accordance with all applicable copyright and trademark laws. Permission requests may be made online at www.ets.org or sent to Educational Testing Service, Office of the General Counsel, Attn: Permissions Administrator, Rosedale Road, MS 04C, Princeton, NJ 08541, USA.

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History of the TOEFL® Program The Test of English as a Foreign Language™, better known as TOEFL®, is designed to measure the English proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 110 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and exchange programs worldwide. The TOEFL Program — A national council on the testing of English as a foreign language was formed in 1962; its members were representatives of more than 30 private organizations and government agencies concerned with the English proficiency of nonnative speakers of English who wished to study at colleges and universities in the United States. The council supported the development of the TOEFL test for use starting in 1963–64. Financed by grants from the Ford and Danforth Foundations, the TOEFL program was first administered by the Modern Language Association. In 1965, the College Board® and Educational Testing Service® (ETS®) assumed joint responsibility for the program. Because many who take the TOEFL test are potential graduate students, a cooperative arrangement for the operation of the program was entered into by ETS, the College Board, and the Graduate Record Examinations® Board in 1973. Under this arrangement, ETS is responsible for administering the TOEFL program with guidance from the TOEFL Board. The TOEFL Board is comprised of 15 members. Some are affiliated with such institutions and agencies as undergraduate and graduate schools, community colleges, nonprofit educational exchange organizations, and other public and private agencies with an interest in international education. Other members are specialists in the field of English as a foreign or second language.

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Development of the Test — The test originally contained five sections. As a result of extensive research, a threesection test was developed and introduced in 1976. In July 1995, the test item format was modified somewhat within the same three-section structure. In recent years, various constituencies called for a new TOEFL test that would (1) be more reflective of communicative competence models; (2) include more constructed-response tasks and direct measures of writing and speaking; (3) include tasks that integrate the language modalities tested; and (4) provide more information than the paperbased TOEFL test (TOEFL pBT) about the ability of international students to use English in an academic environment. Accordingly, the TOEFL Board initiated a broad effort under which language testing will evolve in the twenty-first century. The introduction of the computer-based TOEFL test (TOEFL cBT) in 1998 was the first incremental step in this broad test-improvement effort. The next step was the introduction of an Internetbased version of the TOEFL test (TOEFL iBT) in September 2005. The test was first launched in the United States, and has been gradually rolled out worldwide. TOEFL iBT assesses all four language skills (speaking, listening, reading, and writing) that are important for effective communication. TOEFL iBT emphasizes integrated skills and provides better information to institutions about students’ ability to communicate in an academic setting and their readiness for academic coursework. As TOEFL iBT was introduced in an area, TOEFL cBT was discontinued after a period of overlap to ensure a smooth transition to TOEFL iBT. The final administration of TOEFL cBT was held in September 2006. TOEFL pBT will continue to be offered on a limited basis to support the TOEFL iBT testing network. The Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL iBT will be available on the TOEFL Web site in March 2007.

䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

The Computer-Based TOEFL Test In July 1998, ETS introduced the computer-based version of the TOEFL test (TOEFL cBT) in many areas of the world. This move was the first critical step toward a long-term goal of enhancing assessments by using electronic technology to test more complex skills. A primary goal of the TOEFL program is to provide more extensive information than it has in the past about candidates’ English proficiency. In response to institutions’ requests to include a productive measure of writing, the program added a Writing section (essay) as part of each TOEFL cBT test administration. This addition was one step toward a more communicative test. Essay ratings were integrated into section and total scores, but were also reported separately on official score reports for informational purposes. New types of questions were added to the Listening and Reading sections; these new question types moved beyond multiple-choice questions. Visuals were also added to the Listening section, providing a significant enhancement to that portion of the test. Two sections of the test — Listening and Structure — were computer adaptive, meaning the test was tailored to each examinee’s performance level. The test started with questions of moderate difficulty. As an examinee answered each question, the computer scored the question and used that information, as well as the responses to previous questions, to determine the question it would present next. As long as examinees responded correctly, the computer typically selected questions of greater or equal difficulty. In contrast, if examinees answered questions incorrectly, the computer typically selected questions of lesser or equal difficulty. The computer was programmed to continuously find questions of an appropriate difficulty for test takers of all performance levels.

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Test Preparation—The TOEFL program took steps to ensure that an individual’s test performance was not influenced by a lack of computer experience. A set of tutorials, designed especially for nonnative speakers of English, was developed to teach the skills needed to take the test on computer. The interactive tutorials, presented at the beginning of each test session, provided instruction and practice in using a mouse, scrolling text, answering the various types of questions in the four test sections, and typing the essay using a standard word processing system for those examinees who elected to type their essay instead of handwriting it. Everyone registered to take the TOEFL test receives test preparation materials free of charge. Examinees who registered to take TOEFL cBT received TOEFL POWERPREP® software, which contained two complete cBT tests. The final administration of TOEFL cBT was held in September 2006. TOEFL cBT scores are valid for two years from the testing date. During this period, examinees can send their TOEFL cBT score reports to institutions of their choice. Procedures to request score reports are available on the TOEFL Web site.

Visit the TOEFL Web site at www.ets.org/toefl for the most up-to-date information.

䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

Computer-Based Test Data for 2005-06

The data presented in the tables below are based on 574,192 examinees who took TOEFL cBT between July 2005 and June 2006. Table 1 gives actual ranges of observed scores for the period from July 2005 through June 2006. The

percentile ranks for section and total scale scores are shown in Table 2 for the total group. In Tables 3–6, examinees have been classified by their reason for taking the test (information supplied by them at the test center).

Table 1. Observed Minimum and Maximum TOEFL cBT Section and Total Scores Min.

Section 1. Listening

0

30

2. Structure/Writing

0

30

3. Reading

0

30

Total

0

300

Section 2 Structure/Writing

Section 3 Reading

Total Scale Score

Percentile Rank

Scale Score

Section 1 Listening

Section 2 Structure/Writing

Section 3 Reading

Total Scale Score

30 28 26 24 22

99 93 82 68 53

99 93 81 62 47

98 92 80 63 46

300 280 260 240 220

100 96 84 67 50

30 28 26 24 22

99 92 80 65 49

99 92 78 57 41

98 90 74 55 39

300 280 260 240 220

100 94 80 62 44

20 18 16 14 12

40 29 20 14 9

34 23 15 9 5

32 21 13 7 4

200 180 160 140 120

34 22 14 8 4

20 18 16 14 12

35 24 16 10 6

28 18 11 6 3

25 15 9 5 2

200 180 160 140 120

28 17 10 5 3

10 8 6 4 2

5 3 1

3 1 1

2 1

100 80 60 40 20

2 1

10 8 6 4 2

4 2 1

2 1

1

100 80 60 40 20

1

Mean S.D.

20.7 5.6

21.5 5.1

21.8 4.8

Mean S.D.

Mean S.D.

21.3 5.3

22.3 4.8

22.7 4.5

Mean S.D.

214 47

*Based on the total group of 574,192 examinees tested between July 2005 and June 2006 in cBT test centers. (Total group includes 101,282 examinees not included in Tables 3–6 who did not indicate a “reason for taking the TOEFL test” or who indicated reasons other than those given in Tables 3–6.)

Percentile Rank

Section 1 Listening

Table 3. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL cBT Scores — Graduate-Level Students*

Scale Score

Table 2. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL cBT Scores — Total Group*

5

Max.

221 44

*Based on 279,225 examinees who indicated that they were applying for admission to colleges or universities as graduate students.

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Section 2 Structure/Writing

Section 3 Reading

Total Scale Score

Percentile Rank

Scale Score

Section 3 Reading

Total Scale Score

Percentile Rank

30 28 26 24 22

99 93 82 68 54

99 93 81 65 51

99 95 85 70 55

300 280 260 240 220

100 96 85 70 55

30 28 26 24 22

99 95 85 72 60

100 96 86 70 57

99 96 88 75 60

300 280 260 240 220

100 98 89 75 60

20 18 16 14 12

42 31 22 15 10

38 27 18 11 7

40 28 17 10 5

200 180 160 140 120

40 27 17 10 5

20 18 16 14 12

49 39 30 23 17

45 35 27 19 13

46 34 24 16 10

200 180 160 140 120

47 36 26 18 12

10 8 6 4 2

6 3 1

3 2 1

2 1

100 80 60 40 20

2 1

10 8 6 4 2

11 7 3

8 5 3 1

5 3 1

100 80 60 40 20

7 3 1

Mean S.D.

20.5 5.8

21.0 5.4

20.8 5.0

Mean S.D.

19.7 6.2

19.8 5.5

Mean S.D.

208 49

Section 1 Listening

Mean S.D.

*Based on 152,329 examinees who indicated that they were applying for admission to colleges or universities as undergraduate students.

Section 2 Structure/Writing

Section 1 Listening

Table 5. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL cBT Scores — Other Students*

Scale Score

Table 4. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL cBT Scores — Undergraduate-Level Students*

19.2 6.4

196 56

*Based on 24,514 examinees who indicated that they were applying for admission to schools other than colleges or universities, e.g., secondary schools.

Percentile Rank

Total Scale Score

Section 1 Listening

30 28 26 24 22

99 95 84 68 51

100 95 84 64 48

99 95 85 69 51

300 280 260 240 220

100 98 88 70 51

20 18 16 14 12

37 27 19 13 9

34 23 15 10 6

34 21 12 7 4

200 180 160 140 120

34 21 14 8 5

10 8 6 4 2

6 3 1

3 2 1

2 1

100 80 60 40 20

2 1

Mean S.D.

20.7 5.5

21.3 5.1

21.4 4.6

Mean S.D.

Section 3 Reading

Scale Score

Section 2 Structure/Writing

Table 6. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL cBT Scores — Applicants for Professional License*

211 46

*Based on 16,842 examinees who indicated that they were taking the TOEFL test to become licensed to practice their professions in the United States or Canada.

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Tables 7 and 8 present means and standard deviations of section and total scores separately for male and female examinees tested between July 2005 and June 2006.

Table 7. Means and Standard Deviations for TOEFL cBT Section and Total Scores, Males*

Group

Number

Section 1 Listening

Section 2 Structure/ Writing

Section 3 Reading

Total Scale Score

Total Group**

293,494

20.9 5.6

21.7 5.1

22.2 4.8

216 47

Graduate Level

160,039

21.5 5.3

22.4 4.7

23.1 4.5

223 43

Undergraduate Level

74,510

20.6 5.9

21.0 5.5

21.0 5.0

209 49

Other Students

11,373

19.4 6.4

19.8 6.2

20.2 5.5

198 56

6,519

20.7 5.6

21.1 5.2

21.5 4.8

211 47

Applicants for Professional License

*Based on examinees tested from July 2005 through June 2006 who responded to a question about gender group membership. **Total group includes 41,053 examinees not included in the four succeeding groups.

Table 8. Means and Standard Deviations for TOEFL cBT Section and Total Scores, Females*

Group

Number

Section 1 Listening

Section 2 Structure/ Writing

Section 3 Reading

Total Scale Score

Total Group**

262,861

20.7 5.5

21.5 5.1

21.5 4.8

212 47

Graduate Level

115,855

21.2 5.3

22.1 4.8

22.4 4.6

219 44

Undergraduate Level

76,023

20.5 5.7

21.1 5.3

20.7 4.9

208 48

Other Students

12,758

19.0 6.4

19.6 6.1

19.6 5.5

194 56

Applicants for Professional License

10,088

20.8 5.4

21.4 5.0

21.3 4.5

212 45

*Based on examinees tested from July 2005 through June 2006 who responded to a question about gender group membership. **Total group includes 48,137 examinees not included in the four succeeding groups.

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Tables 9 and 10 may be useful in comparing the performance on the TOEFL test of a particular student with that of other students from the same native country and with that of students who speak the same language. It is important to point out that the data do not permit the generalization that there are fundamental differences in the ability of the various national and language groups to learn English or in the level of English proficiency they can attain. The tables are based simply on the performance of those examinees native to particular countries and languages who happened to take TOEFL cBT. Table 9. TOEFL cBT Total and Section Score Means1 — All Examinees Classified by Native Language2

21 21 20 19 21 24 21

209 213 198 200 216 242 210

2 29 82 9 3,276 13 1 54 2,721 134

* * 23 * 24 * * 24 24 20

* * 23 * 25 * * 25 24 21

* * 23 * 25 * * 25 24 21

* * 232 * 246 * * 246 243 206

297 735 24 48,443 7 609

23 24 * 20 * 24

23 24 * 22 * 24

25 23 * 22 * 24

240 238 * 210 * 239

Danish Dutch

121 1,590

27 27

26 26

26 26

266 263

Efik - Ibibio English Estonian Ewe

84 9,775 65 108

21 21 25 20

24 23 25 23

22 21 24 21

222 217 247 212

Farsi (Persian) Fijian Finnish French Fula (Peulh)

2,015 2 620 4,942 17

21 * 27 23 *

21 * 24 23 *

21 * 25 24 *

210 * 254 234 *

Galician Ganda (Luganda) Georgian German Greek Guarani Gujarati

13 44 403 6,367 6,100 6 6,105

* 22 22 26 23 * 22

* 25 22 25 23 * 23

* 23 22 25 23 * 22

* 235 220 252 233 * 225

106 1,505 17,082 604

22 27 25 24

23 24 25 23

21 25 25 24

220 250 249 238

Ibo (Igbo) Icelandic Ilocano Indonesian Italian

1,204 44 153 4,446 5,803

22 26 23 22 17

24 26 23 21 19

22 25 22 21 23

227 257 226 214 196

Japanese Javanese

78,255 427

18 17

19 19

20 20

191 182

2,016 5 91 784 69 1,085 0 31 421 130,316 94 1 2

25 * 25 21 21 22 * 20 26 21 20 * *

26 * 26 22 22 24 * 22 27 22 20 * *

25 * 25 21 20 22 * 21 26 23 21 * *

255 * 256 215 210 229 * 208 266 217 204 * *

25 66 14 445 8 313

* 25 * 24 * 23

* 24 * 23 * 25

* 24 * 23 * 23

* 246 * 234 * 239

Bashkir Basque (Euskara) Belarusian Bemba Bengali Berber Bhili Bikol Bulgarian Burmese Catalan (Provencal) Cebuano (Visayan) Chichewa Chinese Chuvash Czech

Hausa Hebrew Hindi Hungarian (Magyar)

Kannada (Kanarese) Kanuri Kashmiri Kazakh Khmer Kikuyu Kinyarwanda Kirundi Konkani Korean Kurdish Kurukh (Oraon) Kusaiean Lao Latvian (Lettish) Lingala Lithuanian Luba-Lulua Luo

Macedonian Madurese Malagasy Malay Malayalam Malinke-Bambara-Dyula Maltese Marathi Marshallese Mende Minangkabau Mongolian More

154 74 2 909 2,132 15 3 3,931 1 20 2 134 18

24 19 * 23 25 * * 25 * * * 20 *

22 19 * 23 26 * * 26 * * * 20 *

22 19 * 23 25 * * 25 * * * 20 *

228 191 * 231 251 * * 254 * * * 200 *

Nauran Nepali Norwegian Nyanja

0 4,738 114 1

* 21 27 *

* 23 25 *

* 21 25 *

* 219 258 *

311 7

23 *

26 *

25 *

246 *

Palauan Panay-Hiligaynon Pashtu Pidgin Polish Ponapean Portuguese Punjabi

1 116 169 8 1,388 3 7,395 1,163

* 23 21 * 24 * 23 24

* 23 23 * 23 * 22 25

* 23 22 * 23 * 24 24

* 229 222 * 234 * 232 243

Romanian Ruanda Russian

1,528 22 4,907

25 * 23

25 * 23

25 * 23

251 * 227

Samar-Leyte Samoan Santali Serbo-Croatian Sesotho Setswana Shona Sindhi Sinhala Siswati Slovak Slovenian Somali Spanish Sundanese Swahili Swedish

31 2 1 559 11 190 129 309 102 6 243 82 62 25,293 9 691 271

22 * * 25 * 22 24 25 24 * 25 26 21 23 * 22 27

24 * * 23 * 25 26 26 23 * 24 25 21 22 * 24 25

22 * * 24 * 23 24 25 23 * 24 25 20 24 * 22 25

225 * * 237 * 230 249 251 235 * 244 252 210 229 * 228 257

Tagalog Tajik Tamil Tatar Telugu Thai Tibetan Tigrinya Tongan Trukese Tulu Turkish Turkmen Twi

4,657 0 5,720 25 23,770 12,892 61 20 6 3 115 21,220 29 198

24 * 25 * 21 19 22 * * * 26 21 * 22

24 * 26 * 23 20 23 * * * 26 21 * 24

23 * 25 * 22 21 23 * * * 25 21 * 22

239 * 253 * 221 201 226 * * * 258 213 * 227

Ukrainian Ulithian Urdu Uzbek

791 0 4,832 454

22 * 23 21

22 * 24 22

22 * 23 21

220 * 236 214

Oriya Oromo

Vietnamese

Section 1 Listening

Total Score Mean

22 21 20 20 22 25 21

Section 3 Reading

20 22 20 21 21 23 21

Native Language

Number of Examinees

Total Score Mean

Section 3 Reading

Section 2 Structure/Writing

239 262 171 22,986 377 135 261

Section 2 Structure/Writing

Afrikaans Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Assamese Azeri

Section 1 Listening

Native Language

Number of Examinees

(Based on 574,192 examinees who took the test between July 2005 and June 2006.)3

685

19

22

21

209

Wolof

22

*

*

*

*

Xhosa

4

*

*

*

*

* * 21

* * 24

* * 22

* * 225

*

*

*

*

Yapese Yiddish Yoruba Zulu

1 1 1,512 15

1. Because of the unreliability of statistics based on small samples, means are not reported for subgroups of less than 30. 2. Because of changes in region and/or country boundaries, certain languages may have been added or deleted since the previous table was published. 3. Includes 75,243 students whose native languages could not be determined.

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䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

Table 10. TOEFL cBT Total and Section Score Means1 — Nonnative English-Speaking Examinees Classified by Geographic Region and Native Country2

20 21 23 19 22 22 * * * * 21 * 20 * * * 20 * * 22 * * 22 * * * * * * 26 * * 18 22 * 21 * 21 * * 20 25 * 20 20 22 23 * 24

196 185 230 174 216 220 * * * * 202 * 187 * * * 203 * * 225 * * 227 * * * * * * 259 * * 179 224 * 205 * 203 * * 200 258 * 210 187 217 229 * 247

23 4 1,468 13 3 0 10 0 494 6,708 0 754 0 1,353 6,065 62 145 0 672 190 166 2 1 7 1,136 7 113 62 15 5 6,215

* * 24 * * * * * 23 23 * 24 * 24 21 24 20 * 24 22 23 * * * 22 * 20 24 * * 24

* * 24 * * * * * 22 22 * 24 * 23 21 23 19 * 23 21 22 * * * 21 * 20 22 * * 23

* * 25 * * * * * 23 24 * 23 * 25 23 24 22 * 23 22 23 * * * 22 * 19 23 * * 24

* * 246 * * * * * 230 230 * 235 * 239 216 237 202 * 234 217 229 * * * 216 * 197 233 * * 234

AMERICA Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Aruba Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil British Virgin Islands Canada Cayman Islands Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominica, Commonwealth of Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador French Guiana Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Martinique Mexico

Montserrat Netherlands Antilles Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Puerto Rico St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands U.S. Virgin Islands United States of America Uruguay Venezuela

Total Score Mean

20 20 25 17 22 23 * * * * 21 * 19 * * * 20 * * 24 * * 24 * * * * * * 27 * * 18 24 * 22 * 20 * * 20 26 * 22 19 22 25 * 26

Section 3 Reading

Total Score Mean

19 15 22 15 21 21 * * * * 18 * 16 * * * 21 * * 21 * * 21 * * * * * * 25 * * 18 22 * 19 * 20 * * 20 26 * 20 17 21 21 * 24

Section 2 Structure/Writing

Section 3 Reading

Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Congo - DRC Formerly Zaire Congo Republic Cote d’Ivoire Ivory Coast Djibouti Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia, The Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Reunion Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

0 8 29 62 49 2,389 439 0 0 0 7 2 5 2 1,890 101 1,224

* * * 23 22 22 25 * * * * * * * 24 25 23

* * * 22 21 23 24 * * * * * * * 23 25 22

* * * 22 22 24 23 * * * * * * * 22 26 23

* * * 223 219 229 239 * * * * * * * 231 250 229

99 226 1,287 11 4 74 9,017 5,947 72,973 4,641 78,635 1,198 4,203 128,445 108 26 241 1,998 11 132 138 5,027 4,258 6,389 456 162 33,327 27 13,162 27 675 705

18 21 22 * * 21 20 21 23 21 18 22 19 21 23 * 19 23 * 21 20 21 23 24 26 24 19 * 19 * 21 19

19 22 23 * * 21 23 22 24 21 19 22 19 22 23 * 20 23 * 20 21 23 25 24 26 23 21 * 20 * 22 22

18 21 23 * * 20 22 22 23 21 20 22 20 23 23 * 20 23 * 20 21 21 23 23 25 23 21 * 21 * 22 21

182 214 228 * * 206 216 216 236 214 192 217 193 218 232 * 196 232 * 202 206 218 238 238 255 234 206 * 200 * 218 207

230 46 213 300 3 251 338 105 2,796 375 397 581 38 130 38 79 0 688 3,213 437 5,415 5,918 2 541 38 15 0 5,827 0 106

21 19 22 26 * 23 26 24 24 25 23 24 24 27 23 25 * 27 23 22 26 23 * 24 27 * * 17 * 25

21 20 23 26 * 23 25 22 24 23 23 24 22 26 23 24 * 24 24 22 25 23 * 23 26 * * 19 * 24

21 21 21 26 * 23 26 23 24 24 22 24 23 26 23 24 * 25 25 22 25 23 * 24 26 * * 22 * 24

211 204 219 258 * 232 257 229 242 241 225 239 230 265 233 243 * 255 238 220 251 233 * 237 262 * * 196 * 245

Section 1 Listening

Section 2 Structure/Writing

79 74 203 56 37 140 6 4 4 2 52 23 194 8 12 24 150 25 14 573 18 7 3,118 7 29 10 9 30 19 136 17 4 31 4,467 7 64 1 37 1 19 48 159 7 384 81 72 238 23 172

AFRICA

Geographic Region and Native Country

Number of Examinees

Section 1 Listening

Geographic Region and Native Country

Number of Examinees

(Based on 574,192 examinees who took the test between July 2005 and June 2006.)3

ASIA Afghanistan Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Darussalam Cambodia China, People’s Republic of Hong Kong India Indonesia Japan Kazakstan Korea DPR Korea ROK Kyrgyzstan Laos Macau Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Burma Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Tajikistan Thailand Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Vietnam

EUROPE Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azores Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Czechoslovakia and Slovenia Denmark England Estonia Faroe Island Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Greenland Hungary Iceland Ireland Isle of Man Italy Kosovo Latvia

(continued)

9

䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

24 * * 23 * 27 * 26 24 26 25 22 * * 25 26 23 27 26 21 22 25 * * 24

23 * * 24 * 26 * 25 23 24 25 23 * * 24 25 23 25 25 21 22 25 * * 22

22 * * 23 * 26 * 25 23 26 25 23 * * 24 25 24 25 25 21 22 23 * * 23

230 * * 235 * 262 * 257 234 251 251 227 * * 243 256 233 254 252 212 222 242 * * 230

16 23 * * * *

18 24 * * * *

19 22 * * * *

179 229 * * * *

PACIFIC REGION American Samoa Australia Cook Islands Fiji French Polynesia Guam

54 99 2 4 8 1

Total Score Mean

* 234 *

Section 3 Reading

* 23 *

Section 2 Structure/Writing

Total Score Mean

Liechtenstein 5 Lithuania 491 Luxembourg 26 Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of) 168 Madeira Islands 0 Malta 3 Moldova 183 Monaco 6 Netherlands 1,484 Northern Ireland 1 Norway 123 Poland 1,389 Portugal 716 Romania 1,501 Russia 3,454 San Marino 0 Scotland 1 Slovakia 260 Slovenia 82 Spain 3,508 Sweden 229 Switzerland 1,292 Turkey 21,720 Ukraine 1,251 United Kingdom 110 Vatican City 1 Wales 0 Yugoslavia 411

Section 1 Listening

Section 3 Reading

* 23 *

EUROPE (cont’d)

Geographic Region and Native Country

Number of Examinees

Section 2 Structure/Writing

* 24 *

Section 1 Listening

Geographic Region and Native Country

Number of Examinees

Table 10 (continued)

2 4 2 1 2 21 6 1 3 4 1 1 5 2 0 0

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

21 21 22 19 21 21 26 21 20 23 20 22 19 17 20 21 21 19 * 20

21 21 22 18 21 20 23 20 18 23 19 22 17 16 18 20 21 18 * 19

21 18 21 17 21 19 24 20 17 21 19 22 17 14 17 19 20 16 * 17

211 202 216 179 209 202 242 204 182 223 192 219 178 158 183 201 205 174 * 186

Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia, Federated States of Nauru New Caledonia New Zealand Niue Island Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tahiti Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

MIDDLE EAST/NORTH AFRICA Algeria Bahrain Egypt Gaza Strip Iran Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Morocco Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Sudan Syria United Arab Emirates West Bank Yemen

118 245 4,382 70 2,163 443 1,931 3,061 2,395 4,358 186 186 85 534 3,880 260 835 2,791 0 140

1. Because of the unreliability of statistics based on small samples, means are not reported for subgroups of less than 30. 2. Because of changes in region and/or country boundaries, certain countries may have been added or deleted since the previous table was published. 3. Includes 62,947 students whose native country could not be determined or who reported English as their native language.

Table 11 presents the overall percentile ranks of TOEFL cBT essay scores based on examinees who took TOEFL cBT between July 2005 and June 2006. Writing was a mandatory section of TOEFL cBT. The essay in the Writing

section was holistically scored using a criterion-referenced 6-point score scale. This score was incorporated into the Structure/Writing scale score. Further information can be found in the TOEFL Score User Guide.

Table 11. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL cBT Writing Scores (Based on 574,192 examinees who took the test between July 2005 and June 2006.)

10

Writing Score

Percentile Rank

6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.0

98 93 84 70 48 27 14 6 3 1 1

Mean S.D.

4.0 0.97

䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

The Paper-Based TOEFL Test The paper-based version of the TOEFL test (TOEFL pBT) continues to be administered on specified dates in some countries, particularly in areas where accessibility to the Internet-based test (e.g., TOEFL iBT) is a concern. Each form of TOEFL pBT consists of three separately timed sections; the questions in each section are multiplechoice, with four possible answers or options per question. All responses are gridded on answer sheets that are scored by computer. • Section 1 of the test, Listening Comprehension, measures the ability to understand English as it is spoken in North America. The oral features of the language are stressed, and the problems tested include vocabulary and idiomatic expression as well as special grammatical constructions frequently used in spoken English. The stimulus material and oral questions are recorded in standard North American English; the response options are printed in the test books. • Section 2, Structure and Written Expression, measures recognition of selected structural and grammatical points in standard written English. The language tested is formal, rather than conversational. The topics of the sentences are of a general academic nature so that individuals in specific fields of study or from specific national or linguistic groups have no particular advantage.

The total test time is approximately two and one-half hours; however, approximately three and one-half hours are needed for a test administration to admit examinees to the testing room, to allow them to enter identifying information on their answer sheets, and to distribute and collect the test materials. Language specialists prepare the material for the TOEFL test. The TOEFL Committee of Examiners establishes overall guidelines for the test content and specifications. All item specifications, questions, and final test forms are reviewed for cultural and racial bias and content appropriateness, according to established ETS procedures. For test date information, see the Information and Registration Bulletin for TOEFL pBT and TSE testing or visit the TOEFL Web site at www.ets.org/toefl. Test Preparation — Everyone registered to take the TOEFL test receives test preparation materials free of charge. Examinees registered to take TOEFL pBT receive TOEFL Practice Tests, Volume 1, which includes two complete pBT tests. In addition, sample questions are downloadable from the TOEFL Web site. Other TOEFL test preparation products are available for purchase. For more information about these products and ordering information, go to the Learners and Test Takers section of the TOEFL Web site at www.ets.org/toefl.

• Section 3, Reading Comprehension, measures the ability to read and understand short passages that are similar in topic and style to those that students are likely to encounter in North American colleges and universities. Examinees read a variety of short passages on academic subjects and answer several questions about each passage. The questions test information that is stated in or implied by the passage, as well as knowledge of some of the specific words as they are used in the passage.

11

䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

Paper-Based Test Data for 2005-06

In 2005–06 TOEFL pBT was administered six times at preestablished testing centers throughout the world. The data presented below are based on 147,816 candidates who took the paper-based TOEFL test between July 2005 and June 2006.

Table 12 gives actual ranges of observed scores for the period from July 2005 through June 2006. The percentile ranks for section and total scale scores are shown in Table 13 for the total group. In Tables 14–17, examinees are classified by their reason for taking the test (information supplied by them at the test center).

Table 12. Observed Minimum and Maximum TOEFL pBT Section and Total Scores Section

Min.

Max.

1. Listening Comprehension

31

68

2. Structure and Written Expression

31

68

3. Reading Comprehension

31

67

313

677

Total

68 66 64 62 60 58 56 54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32

Mean S.D.

99 98 93 86 77 66 56 44 34 23 16 9 5 3 1 1

98 91 84 77 67 56 47 37 29 22 17 11 7 4 3 1 1

54.7 6.4

55.9 7.5

98 93 86 76 65 54 43 31 23 16 11 7 5 3 2 1 1 1

54.7 6.8

660 640 620 600 580 560 540 520 500 480 460 440 420 400 380 360 340 320

99 94 86 76 64 51 40 30 21 14 9 5 3 2 1

Mean S.D.

551 63

*Based on the total group of 147,816 examinees tested between July 2005 and June 2006 in TOEFL pBT centers. (Total group includes 13,430 examinees not included in Tables 14–17 who did not indicate a “reason for taking the TOEFL test” or who indicated reasons other than those given in Tables 14–17.)

12

68 66 64 62 60 58 56 54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32

Mean S.D.

99 98 94 86 76 64 53 40 29 19 12 7 3 2 1

98 89 82 74 62 50 40 30 23 16 12 7 4 3 1 1

55.3 6.0

57.1 7.0

98 92 83 71 59 47 35 24 16 11 7 4 3 2 1 1

56.0 6.2

Percentile Rank

Total Scale Score

Section 3 Reading Comprehension

Section 2 Structure and Written Expression

Section 1 Listening Comprehension

Table 14. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL pBT Scores — Graduate-Level Students*

Scale Score

Percentile Rank

Total Scale Score

Section 3 Reading Comprehension

Section 2 Structure and Written Expression

Section 1 Listening Comprehension

Scale Score

Table 13. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL pBT Scores — Total Group*

660 640 620 600 580 560 540 520 500 480 460 440 420 400 380 360 340 320

99 94 84 72 58 45 33 23 15 9 6 3 2 1

Mean S.D.

561 57

*Based on 92,329 examinees who, on their TOEFL answer sheets, indicated that they were applying for admission to colleges or universities as graduate students.

䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

54.3 6.9

54.1 8.0

Scale Score

Mean S.D.

*Based on 37,741 examinees who, on their TOEFL answer sheets, indicated that they were applying for admission to colleges or universities as undergraduate students.

100 97 95 92 87 82 77 70 62 53 46 36 27 19 12 7 4 2 1

50.6 7.3

49.6 8.3

99 98 95 91 86 81 73 64 54 45 35 26 19 13 9 6 4 3

49.0 7.9

Percentile Rank

537 67

100 98 96 92 88 83 76 69 60 49 38 28 19 11 6 3 2 1

Total Scale Score

Mean S.D.

52.5 7.1

68 66 64 62 60 58 56 54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32

Section 3 Reading Comprehension

99 95 89 81 71 61 51 40 30 21 14 8 5 2 1

Section 2 Structure and Written Expression

660 640 620 600 580 560 540 520 500 480 460 440 420 400 380 360 340 320

Section 1 Listening Comprehension

99 96 91 84 76 67 57 45 35 25 18 12 8 5 3 2 1 1

Table 16. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL pBT Scores — Other Students*

Percentile Rank

Section 2 Structure and Written Expression

99 92 88 82 74 65 57 47 39 31 24 17 11 7 4 2 1 1

Total Scale Score

Mean S.D.

99 97 92 85 77 67 58 48 38 28 20 12 7 4 2 1 1

Section 3 Reading Comprehension

68 66 64 62 60 58 56 54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32

Section 1 Listening Comprehension

Scale Score

Table 15. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL pBT Scores — Undergraduate-Level Students*

660 640 620 600 580 560 540 520 500 480 460 440 420 400 380 360 340 320

99 98 96 91 85 80 72 63 53 43 33 24 15 9 4 1

Mean S.D.

497 71

*Based on 2,016 examinees who, on their TOEFL answer sheets, indicated that they were applying for admission to schools other than colleges or universities, e.g., secondary schools.

13

53.4 7.7

52.8 6.8

99 97 92 86 78 66 54 41 30 21 15 10 7 5 3 2 1 1

660 640 620 600 580 560 540 520 500 480 460 440 420 400 380 360 340 320

99 97 93 85 77 68 54 42 31 21 14 9 6 4 1

Mean S.D.

530 64

Percentile Rank

Total Scale Score

52.7 6.8

99 95 91 86 79 70 62 51 43 33 25 18 11 8 5 3 2 1 1

Section 3 Reading Comprehension

Mean S.D.

100 98 96 91 84 76 67 57 48 35 25 16 10 5 3 1 1

Section 2 Structure and Written Expression

68 66 64 62 60 58 56 54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32

Section 1 Listening Comprehension

Scale Score

Table 17. Percentile Ranks for TOEFL pBT Scores — Applicants for Professional License*

*Based on 2,300 examinees who, on their TOEFL answer sheets, indicated that they were taking the TOEFL test to become licensed to practice their professions in the United States or Canada.

䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

Tables 18 and 19 present means and standard deviations of section and total scores separately for male and female examinees tested between July 2005 and June 2006.

Table 18. Means and Standard Deviations for TOEFL pBT Section and Total Scores, Males* Section 2 Section 1 Structure and Section 3 Listening Written Reading Comprehension Expression Comprehension

Total Scale Score

Group

Number

Total Group**

70,206

54.4 6.5

55.8 7.7

54.8 7.0

550 64

Graduate Level

44,994

54.9 6.1

57.1 7.1

56.1 6.3

560 58

Undergraduate Level

17,408

54.0 7.0

54.0 8.2

52.5 7.4

535 69

Other Students

915

50.2 7.7

49.4 8.6

48.9 8.4

495 76

Applicants for Professional License

826

52.0 7.0

52.5 8.3

52.2 7.8

523 70

*Based on examinees tested from July 2005 through June 2006 who responded to a question about gender group membership. **Total group includes 6,063 examinees not included in the four succeeding groups.

Table 19. Means and Standard Deviations for TOEFL pBT Section and Total Scores, Females* Section 2 Section 1 Structure and Section 3 Listening Written Reading Comprehension Expression Comprehension

Total Scale Score

Group

Number

Total Group**

76,377

55.1 6.3

56.0 7.4

54.5 6.6

552 61

Graduate Level

46,812

55.7 5.9

57.2 6.9

55.8 6.1

563 57

Undergraduate Level

19,836

54.5 6.8

54.3 7.8

52.5 6.9

538 65

Other Students

1,077

50.8 6.9

49.7 7.9

49.0 7.4

498 67

Applicants for Professional License

1,441

53.1 6.6

53.8 7.4

53.1 6.2

533 60

*Based on examinees tested from July 2005 through June 2006 who responded to a question about gender group membership. **Total group includes 7,211 examinees not included in the four succeeding groups.

14

䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

Tables 20 and 21 may be useful in comparing the performance on the TOEFL test of a particular student with that of other students from the same native country and with that of students who speak the same language. It is important to point out that the data do not permit the generalization that there are fundamental differences in the ability of the various national and language groups to learn English or in the level of English proficiency they can attain. The tables are based simply on the performance of those examinees native to particular countries and languages who happened to take the paper-based TOEFL test. Table 20. TOEFL pBT Total and Section Score Means1 — All Examinees Classified by Native Language2

55 53 54 50 * * 52

567 545 553 512 * * 535

Bashkir Basque (Euskara) Belarusian Bemba Bengali Berber Bhili Bikol Bulgarian Burmese

0 8 46 37 211 5 0 3 231 1,002

* * 57 57 56 * * * 60 51

* * 56 61 56 * * * 59 53

* * 55 56 55 * * * 56 51

* * 561 577 555 * * * 586 518

Catalan Cebuano (Visayan) Chichewa Chinese Chuvash Czech

6 71 40 99,025 2 10

* 58 56 55 * *

* 57 59 57 * *

* 57 55 55 * *

* 573 568 557 * *

Danish Dutch

476 272

63 62

62 60

60 58

618 600

Efik - Ibibio English Estonian Ewe

7 683 124 82

* 57 62 47

* 59 60 50

* 55 59 49

* 568 607 488

Farsi (Persian) Fijian Finnish French Fula (Peulh)

5,682 4 16 2,237 53

53 * * 54 47

54 * * 55 50

54 * * 54 48

532 * * 544 484

Galician Ganda (Luganda) Georgian German Greek Guarani Gujarati

3 1 3 1,355 1,227 3 46

* * * 61 55 * 59

* * * 60 52 * 58

* * * 59 50 * 55

* * * 603 522 * 575

Hausa Hebrew Hindi Hungarian (Magyar)

23 11 120 18

* * 60 *

* * 62 *

* * 58 *

* * 599 *

Ibo (Igbo) Icelandic Ilocano Indonesian Italian

88 500 5 389 688

52 63 * 54 52

56 60 * 52 54

53 59 * 54 56

537 609 * 535 541

Japanese Javanese

3,403 32

51 49

50 49

49 50

497 492

Kannada (Kanarese) Kanuri Kashmiri Kazakh Khmer Kikuyu Kinyarwanda Kirundi Konkani Korean Kurdish Kurukh (Oraon) Kusaiean

8 0 2 33 19 10 100 6 9 1,227 92 2 2

* * * 58 * * 50 * * 56 51 * *

* * * 54 * * 54 * * 53 49 * *

* * * 53 * * 52 * * 52 50 * *

* * * 551 * * 518 * * 539 501 * *

2 170 23 10 11 19

* 60 * * * *

* 56 * * * *

* 56 * * * *

* 576 * * * *

Lao Latvian (Lettish) Lingala Lithuanian Luba-Lulua Luo

Total Score Mean

Total Score Mean

58 55 56 50 * * 55

Section 3 Reading Comprehension

Section 3 Reading Comprehension

57 56 56 54 * * 53

Section 2 Structure and Written Expression

Section 2 Structure and Written Expression

46 629 489 5,344 17 1 219

Section 1 Listening Comprehension

Section 1 Listening Comprehension

Afrikaans Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Assamese Azeri

Number of Examinees

Native Language

Number of Examinees

(Based on 147,933 examinees who took the test between July 2005 and June 2006.)3

Macedonian Madurese Malagasy Malay Malayalam Malinke-Bambara-Dyula Maltese Marathi Marshallese Mende Minangkabau Mongolian More

147 3 29 97 101 83 2 10 37 15 0 152 20

59 * * 59 57 43 * * 55 * * 51 *

57 * * 56 58 46 * * 52 * * 49 *

55 * * 58 57 44 * * 49 * * 49 *

570 * * 573 571 446 * * 519 * * 496 *

Nauran Nepali Norwegian Nyanja

0 275 758 21

* 54 62 *

* 54 59 *

* 53 58 *

* 535 600 *

0 24

* *

* *

* *

* *

Palauan Panay-Hiligaynon Pashtu Pidgin Polish Ponapean Portuguese Punjabi

126 5 41 12 281 3 468 21

57 * 52 * 58 * 55 *

54 * 52 * 56 * 54 *

51 * 49 * 57 * 55 *

540 * 512 * 571 * 544 *

Romanian Russian

292 996

60 56

60 56

58 55

594 556

Samoan Santali Serbo-Croatian Sesotho Setswana Shona Sindhi Sinhala Siswati Slovak Slovenian Somali Spanish Sundanese Swahili Swedish

4 1 322 2 0 14 11 1,030 5 66 24 9 4,831 3 64 601

* * 58 * * * * 57 * 60 * * 58 * 51 62

* * 54 * * * * 54 * 59 * * 56 * 53 57

* * 54 * * * * 55 * 57 * * 56 * 52 57

* * 551 * * * * 552 * 585 * * 566 * 522 588

Tagalog Tajik Tamil Tatar Telugu Thai Tibetan Tigrinya Tongan Trukese Tulu Turkish Turkmen Twi

237 53 267 3 50 1,229 11 148 1 6 1 1,028 34 6

57 54 53 * 57 50 * 55 * * * 52 56 *

56 52 52 * 57 49 * 57 * * * 52 55 *

56 49 53 * 56 51 * 55 * * * 50 53 *

563 517 530 * 567 500 * 556 * * * 514 547 *

33 1 175 14

59 * 58 *

56 * 58 *

56 * 55 *

571 * 569 *

Native Language

Oriya Oromo

Ukrainian Ulithian Urdu Uzbek Vietnamese Wolof

5,194

51

56

54

535

117

49

50

49

495

Xhosa

1

*

*

*

*

Yapese Yiddish Yoruba

8 0 42

* * 51

* * 56

* * 53

* * 535

7

*

*

*

*

Zulu

1. Because of the unreliability of statistics based on small samples, means are not reported for subgroups of less than 30. 2. Because of changes in region and/or country boundaries, certain languages may have been added or deleted since the previous table was published. 3. Includes 1,523 students whose native languages could not be determined.

15

䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

Table 21. TOEFL pBT Total and Section Score Means1 — Nonnative English-Speaking Examinees Classified by Geographic Region and Native Country2

* * 58 60 * * * * 58 54 * 57 * 57 57 60 * * * 57 60 * * * * * 51 60 * * 58 *

* * 58 56 * * * * 55 54 * 56 * 54 55 58 * * * 54 58 * * * * * 50 58 * * 55 *

* * 57 55 * * * * 55 55 * 55 * 55 56 58 * * * 55 57 * * * * * 49 56 * * 56 *

* * 576 567 * * * * 560 544 * 562 * 553 564 586 * * * 556 582 * * * * * 498 582 * * 564 *

54 153 370 107 147 23 18 1 3 81 8 0 230 84 0 63

61 57 59 58 54 * * * * 60 * * 59 59 * 56

60 57 55 56 53 * * * * 58 * * 57 58 * 53

56 57 56 56 54 * * * * 55 * * 54 58 * 55

592 570 564 568 540 * * * * 575 * * 563 583 * 546

146 75 16 1 20 98,327 81 493 398 3,432 30 1,188 2 185 173 2 145 1,007 267 145 329 9 1,297 292 1,237 5,197 230 43 65 68 60 19

52 56 * * * 55 56 59 54 51 58 56 * 53 59 * 51 51 54 57 57 * 56 56 50 51 54 58 57 54 57 *

50 56 * * * 57 53 59 52 50 53 53 * 52 56 * 49 53 54 57 56 * 54 52 49 56 55 56 56 53 55 *

48 55 * * * 55 52 57 54 49 52 52 * 52 57 * 49 51 53 55 56 * 54 51 51 54 53 55 54 50 53 *

500 557 * * * 557 539 586 535 497 543 538 * 524 572 * 497 518 535 562 566 * 548 530 500 534 539 562 559 525 553 *

444 0 3 303 1 154 230 68 235 9 1,760 10 475 2 156 28 19 1,133 2 789 45 1 7 499 3 0 685 135 248 3 12 36

56 * * 62 * 58 62 57 60 * 54 * 63 * 61 * * 56 * 61 57 * * 63 * * 52 56 60 * * 62

56 * * 61 * 58 61 53 59 * 52 * 62 * 59 * * 57 * 60 53 * * 60 * * 54 53 56 * * 62

54 * * 60 * 57 61 54 56 * 50 * 60 * 58 * * 57 * 59 53 * * 59 * * 56 51 56 * * 59

551 * * 609 * 574 611 546 585 * 521 * 619 * 596 * * 565 * 599 542 * * 609 * * 541 532 573 * * 607

Total Score Mean

0 1 213 83 3 2 15 0 174 422 0 313 0 46 626 368 9 1 5 911 228 0 1 8 11 6 232 345 18 7 472 0

ASIA Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Darussalam Cambodia China, People’s Republic of Hong Kong India Indonesia Japan Korea (DPR) Korea (ROK) Laos Macau Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar (Burma) Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Vietnam Azerbaijan Kazakstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan

EUROPE

AMERICA Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Aruba Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil British Virgin Islands Canada Cayman Islands Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominica, Commonwealth of Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador French Guiana Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Martinique Mexico Montserrat

Netherlands Antilles Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Puerto Rico St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States of America Uruguay US Virgin Islands Venezuela

Section 3 Reading Comprehension

* 513 * 514 * 527 * * * * 490 * * * * 556 551 * 524 * 463 * 558 * 484 529 564 454 * * * * 502 542 * 521 * 484 * 535 * 602 * * 485 529 * 576 *

Section 2 Structure and Written Expression

Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Congo - DRC (Formerly Zaire) Congo Republic Cote d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Djibouti Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia, The Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Reunion Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Section 1 Listening Comprehension

* 52 * 50 * 52 * * * * 49 * * * * 55 54 * 50 * 46 * 54 * 46 52 55 45 * * * * 50 53 * 52 * 48 * 51 * 59 * * 49 52 * 55 *

AFRICA

Geographic Region and Native Country

Number of Examinees

* 53 * 54 * 55 * * * * 50 * * * * 57 55 * 54 * 47 * 58 * 50 55 59 46 * * * * 51 57 * 54 * 49 * 57 * 61 * * 50 53 * 61 *

Total Score Mean

Section 3 Reading Comprehension

* 49 * 50 * 51 * * * * 48 * * * * 55 56 * 54 * 46 * 55 * 49 51 56 44 * * * * 49 53 * 51 * 48 * 52 * 61 * * 47 53 * 57 *

Section 1 Listening Comprehension

11 57 1 44 7 726 8 4 19 0 124 12 9 3 3 149 521 4 41 15 39 1 68 1 45 38 38 108 16 4 14 8 30 209 5 116 0 164 0 39 6 47 5 28 126 181 5 111 18

Number of Examinees

Geographic Region and Native Country

Section 2 Structure and Written Expression

(Based on 147,933 examinees who took the test between July 2005 and June 2006.)3

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azores Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark England Estonia Faroe Islands Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Greenland Hungary Iceland Ireland Isle of Man Italy Kosovo Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg

(continued)

16

䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳䊳

163 0 3 149 4 33 0 759 281 66 188 598 0 1 67 23 427 595 321 432 55 24 0 2 199

59 * * 57 * 63 * 62 58 54 62 55 * * 60 * 56 62 61 52 59 * * * 57

57 * * 56 * 61 * 60 56 55 61 55 * * 59 * 56 57 60 50 56 * * * 53

55 * * 55 * 58 * 58 57 55 60 54 * * 57 * 57 57 59 50 57 * * * 54

570 * * 561 * 607 * 600 571 546 611 550 * * 587 * 562 588 600 507 573 * * * 548

30 358 171 108 5,585 316 14

54 55 56 53 53 54 *

52 53 55 52 54 51 *

51 51 53 51 54 52 *

523 530 544 518 533 523 *

MIDDLE EAST Algeria Bahrain Egypt Gaza Strip Iran Iraq Israel

Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Morocco Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Sudan Syria United Arab Emirates West Bank Yemen

56 * 57 50 52 52 52 53 53 55 55 * 55

53 * 56 47 53 49 47 49 51 54 52 * 51

51 * 52 47 51 49 46 49 50 52 50 * 49

532 * 551 482 518 497 484 504 512 536 524 * 518

7 3 0 22 10 3 1 0 42 1 0 11 0 4 121 1 1 1 5 0 0 0

* * * * * * * * 54 * * * * * 57 * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * 52 * * * * * 54 * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * 49 * * * * * 51 * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * 516 * * * * * 538 * * * * * * *

Total Score Mean

168 22 204 54 301 291 734 1,943 54 440 30 8 141

Section 1 Listening Comprehension

Section 3 Reading Comprehension

Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of) Madeira Islands Malta Moldova Monaco Netherlands Northern Ireland Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Scotland Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City Wales Yugoslavia

Section 2 Structure and Written Expression

EUROPE (cont’d)

Geographic Region and Native Country

Number of Examinees

Total Score Mean

Section 3 Reading Comprehension

Section 2 Structure and Written Expression

Section 1 Listening Comprehension

Geographic Region and Native Country

Number of Examinees

Table 21 (continued)

PACIFIC ISLANDS American Samoa Australia Cook Islands Micronesia, Federated States of Fiji French Polynesia Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Caledonia New Zealand Niue Island Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tahiti Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

1. Because of the unreliability of statistics based on small samples, means are not reported for subgroups of less than 30. 2. Because of changes in region and/or country boundaries, certain countries may have been added or deleted since the previous table was published. 3. Includes 774 students whose native country could not be determined or who reported English as their native language.

Table 22 presents the overall percentile ranks of TWE® (Test of Written English™) scores. In 2005–06, the TWE test was administered with TOEFL pBT on all test dates. The TWE test is holistically scored using

a criterion-referenced 6-point score scale. Further information can be found in the Test of Written English Guide.

Table 22. Percentile Ranks for TWE Scores (Based on 146,383 examinees who took the test between July 2005 and June 2006.)

TWE Score

Percentile Rank

6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.0

100 98 93 83 57 31 16 6 3 1

Mean S.D.

17

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