toefl, ielts toefl, ielts, gre

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The Listening section consists of 6 passages, 3–5 minutes in length and questions .... IELTS. < >. > Cambridge. 1964.

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Power and Water University of Technology (PWUT) Department of Electrical Engineering Faculty of Engineering

‫ﻴﻠًﺎ‬‫أَﺻ‬‫ﻜْﺮَةً و‬‫ ﺑ‬‫ﻚ‬‫ﺑ‬‫ ر‬‫ﻢ‬‫اذْﻛُﺮِ اﺳ‬‫و‬ ... And, remember the name of your God at the dawn and in the evening!

‫و ﻧﺎم ﭘﺮوردﮔﺎرت را ﺑﺎﻣﺪادان و ﺷﺎﻣﮕﺎﻫﺎن ﻳﺎد ﻛُﻦ‬ (25 ‫ آﻳﻪ‬،‫)ﺳﻮره اﻧﺴﺎن‬

‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر آزﻣﻮنﻫﺎي ﺑﻴﻦاﻟﻤﻠﻠﻲ زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ‬

TOEFL, IELTS, GRE ‫ ﻟَﻜُﻢ‬‫ﺘَﺠِﺐ‬‫ﻲ أَﺳ‬‫ﻮﻧ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ اد‬‫ﻜُﻢ‬‫ﺑ‬‫ﻗَﺎلَ ر‬‫و‬ "‫و ﭘﺮوردﮔﺎرﺗﺎن ﻓﺮﻣﻮد "ﻣﺮا )ﺑﺎ ﺧﻠﻮص دل( ﺑﺨﻮاﻧﻴﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺷﻤﺎ را اﺟﺎﺑﺖ ﻛﻨﻢ‬ (60 ‫ آﻳﻪ‬،‫)ﺳﻮره ﻏﺎﻓﺮ‬

‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ و ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﻀﻲ ﺷﻌﺒﺎنزاده‬ [email protected] [email protected]

1 ©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh adeh http://mortezash.blogfa.com/

‫‪TOEFL‬‬ ‫‪.::[email protected]::.‬‬

‫‪ TOEFL‬ﻳﻜﻲ از ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮن ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﻠﻠﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻪي )‪ ETS (Educational Testing Service‬ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﺪف‬ ‫اﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮن ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ آزﻣﻮندﻫﻨﺪه ﺑﺮ اﺳﺎس ﻣﻬﺎرتﻫﺎي ﭼﻬﺎرﮔﺎﻧﻪي ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن‪ ،‬ﮔﻮش دادن‪ ،‬ﺳﺨﻦ ﮔﻔﺘﻦ و ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫اﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮن در ﺣﺎل ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﻪ دو ﺷﻜﻞ ‪ PBT‬و ‪ iBT‬ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ اﻟﺒﺘﻪ آزﻣﻮن ‪ CBT‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮور در ﺳﺮاﺳﺮ دﻧﻴﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ‪iBT‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ و آزﻣﻮن ‪ PBT‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺻﻮرت ﺑﻪ ﺗﺪرﻳﺞ ﻣﻨﺴﻮخ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.::[email protected]::. .::[email protected]::. .::[email protected]::.‬‬

‫)‪Paper Based TOEFL or (PBT‬‬ ‫داراي ‪ 4‬ﺑﺨﺶ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬اﻣﺘﻴﺎز اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن از ‪ 310‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 677‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻧﻤﺮه ‪ 3‬ﺑﺨﺶ آن ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺷﺪه و ﻧﻤﺮه ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬ﺑﺮاي اﻛﺜﺮ داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻫﺎي دﻧﻴﺎ ‪ 550‬ﺣﺪ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ وﻟﻲ ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ دﻧﺒﺎل ﺑﻮرسﺗﺤﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺳﻌﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻي ‪ 600‬داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺣﺘﻲ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ از داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻫﺎ ﺣﺪ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ‪ 620‬ﻫﻢ ﺑﺮاي اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻛﺮدهاﻧﺪ )ﻣﺜﻞ ‪.(Cambridge‬‬ ‫●‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ‪Listening‬‬

‫ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺴﻴﺎري از اﻳﺮاﻧﻴﺎن اﻳﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺳﺨﺖﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن اﺳﺖ و داراي ‪ ۵٠‬ﺳﺆال ﺷﻨﻴﺪاري ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ دو ﺑﺨﺶ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﺎت ﻛﻮﺗﺎه‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ‪ 20‬ﺳﺆال ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ و دو ﻧﻔﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ و ﻳﻚ ﺳﺆال ﻣﻄﺮح ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻮاﻗﻊ ﺻﺤﺒﺖﻫﺎي ﻧﻔﺮ دوم ﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﭼﺮا ﻛﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺟﻮاب در ﺻﺤﺒﺖﻫﺎي ﻧﻔﺮ دوم ﭘﻨﻬﺎن ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺷﻤﺎ در اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻛﺎﻏﺬي ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫﺎ را روي ورﻗﻪ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺑﻴﻨﻴﺪ و اﻳﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﻛﻤﻚ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﭘﺨﺶ ﺳﺆال ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫﺎ را ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺨﻮاﻧﻴﺪ و ﺣﺘّﻲ در ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ‪ 2‬ﺗﺎ ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪ را ﺣﺬف‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺮ دو ﺳﺆال در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ‪ 12‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ وﺟﻮد دارد ﻛﻪ در اﻳﻦ ﻣﺪ‪‬ت ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ را در ﭘﺎﺳﺨﻨﺎﻣﻪ ﭘ‪‬ﺮﻛﻨﻴﺪ و ﺧﻮد را‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي ﺳﺆال ﺑﻌﺪي ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮاي آﻣﺎدﮔﻲ در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ آﺷﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻤﻼت ﻣﺤﺎورهاي روزﻣﺮه ﻣﻌﺮوف ) ﻧﻪ ‪ idiom‬ﻫﺎي ﺧﺎص و ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد( ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﻣﻔﻴﺪ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﮔﻮشﻧﻤﻮدن ﻣﺪاوم ﺑﻪ ‪ listening‬ﻫﺎي آزﻣﻮنﻫﺎي ﻗﺒﻠﻲ ﻣﻲﺗﻮان ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪ ‪ %70‬و ﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ در اﻳﻦ زﻣﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻂ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﺎت ﺑﻠﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ‪ 30‬ﺳﺆال ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺮي از ﺳﺆاﻻت ‪ 2‬ﻧﻔﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ در ﺣﺪود ‪ 1‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﻛﺮده و ‪ 4‬اﻟﻲ ‪ 5‬ﺳﺆال ﻣﻄﺮح ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ در‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺸﻲ از ﺳﺆاﻻت ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﻧﻔﺮ در ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺣﺪود زﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺳﭙﺲ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺪاد ﺳﺆال را ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺟﻮاب دﻫﻴﺪ‪ .‬در اﺑﺘﺪاي ﻫﺮ ﺳﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪود ﻳﻚ ﺗﺎ ﺳﻪ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ زﻣﺎن ﺻﺮف ﭘﺨﺶ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪاي از آن ﺑﺨﺶ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻴﺪ در اﻳﻦ ﻣﺪ‪‬ت ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫﺎي ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺆاﻻت را ﻣﺮور ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﺗﺎ وﻗﺘﻲ ﺳﺆال ﭘﺨﺶ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺘﺮ ﺳﺆال را ﺟﻮاب دﻫﻴﺪ اﻟﺒﺘﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻛﺎر ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ وﻟﻲ در اﻳﺮان‪ ،‬ﻛﺴﻲ ﺳﺮ ﺟﻠﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﻮي اﻳﻦ ﻛﺎر را ﻧﻤﻲﮔﻴﺮد‪ .‬ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻬﺎرت در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ وﻗﺖ ﺧﻮد را ﺑﺎ ﮔﻮش ﻛﺮدن ﺑﻪ ‪ CNN ،VOA‬و ﻣﺎﻫﻮاره و ﺑﻪ وﻳﮋه ﻓﻴﻠﻢ دﻳﺪن ﺗﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ و ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺳﺆاﻻت ﺗﺎﻓﻞ را ﻣﺪام ﮔﻮش ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻮع ﻛﻨﻜﻮر اﺳﺖ و ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺴﺖﻫﺎي آن ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ آﺷﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻤﺮه‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮي ﻛﺴﺐ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺼﻮص ﻛﻪ اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن واﻗﻌﺎً ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ زﺑﺎن ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ ﺧﻮب اﺳﺖ ﭼﺮا ﻛﻪ ﻛﺴﻲ ﻛﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ زﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﻧﺪارد ﺣﺘّﻲ اﮔﺮ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻫﻢ ﻛﺎر ﻛﻨﺪ ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ در ﻣﺪ‪‬ت ﻛﻮﺗﺎه ﻧﻤﺮه ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ از اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎت ﺑﮕﻴﺮد وﻟﻲ در اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن اﻳﻦ ﻛﺎر‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻧﻲ اﺳﺖ‪ .‬در ﺑﺨﺶ ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﺎت ﻛﻮﺗﺎه‪ ،‬ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﺆال ﻛﻪ ﺣﺪود ‪ 5‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 7‬ﺳﺆال ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎرات ‪ idiomatic‬اﺧﺘﺼﺎص ﭘﻴﺪا ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻤﺎً اﻳﻦ ﻋﺒﺎرات را ﻛﻪ در آﺧﺮ ﻛﺘﺎبﻫﺎي ﺗﺎﻓﻞ وﺟﻮد دارد ﺣﻔﻆ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪ .‬اﮔﺮ ﻛﺴﻲ ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﺪ در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ از ‪ 50‬ﺳﺆال ﺑﻪ ‪ 42‬ﺳﺆال ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻧﻤﺮهي ﺑﺎﻻي ‪ 600‬ﻛﺎر ﺳﺎدهاي ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد‪.‬‬

‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh‬‬ ‫‪http://mortezash.blogfa.com/‬‬

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‫ﺑﺨﺶ ‪Reading‬‬

‫در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ‪ 50‬ﺳﺆال وﺟﻮد دارد ﻛﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﺮاي اﻳﻦ ﺗﻌﺪاد ﺳﺆال ‪ 5‬ﻣﺘﻦ وﺟﻮد دارد ﻛﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻣﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 9‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 11‬ﺳﺆال دارد‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺆال او‪‬ل ﻫﺮ ﻣﺘﻦ داراي اﻳﻦ ﻣﻀﻤﻮن اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﻦ در ﭼﻪ ﻣﻮرد ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻳﺎ اﺳﻢ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﻦ را ﻛﺪام ﻣﻮرد اﻧﺘﺨﺎب‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ؟ اﻳﻦ ﺳﺆال ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻫﺮ ﻣﺘﻦ آﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﺆاﻟﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ در آن ﺑﺨﺶ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ داده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﭼﺮا ﻛﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺆاﻻت دﻳﮕﺮ ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع آن ﻣﺘﻦ آﺷﻨﺎ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﺎي ﺗﺎﻓﻞ در ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دادن ﺑﻪ ﺑﻘﻴﻪ ﺳﺆاﻻت اﺧﺘﻼف اﺳﺖ‪ :‬ﺑﻌﻀﻲﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻴﺪه دارﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ او‪‬ل ﻣﺘﻦ را ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻲ در ﺣﺪود ‪ 2‬ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ ‪ 3‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﺨﻮاﻧﻨﺪ و ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﺆاﻻت را ﺑﺨﻮاﻧﻨﺪ و ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﺮﮔﺮدﻧﺪ‬ ‫و ﺟﻮاب را ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮي ﭘﻴﺪا ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﮔﺮوه دو‪‬م ﻋﻘﻴﺪه دارﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ او‪‬ل ﺳﺆال را ﺧﻮاﻧﺪه و ﺑﻌﺪ ﺟﻮاب را در ﻣﺘﻦ ﭘﻴﺪا ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬اﻟﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻻزم ﺑﻪ ذﻛﺮ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺳﺆاﻻت ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ در ﻣﺘﻦ وﺟﻮد دارﻧﺪ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻣﺜﻼً ﺳﺆال ﭼﻬﺎرم در ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف دو‪‬م و ﺳﺆال ﻫﺸﺘﻢ در ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫ﺳﻮ‪‬م ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫●‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ‪Structure‬‬

‫اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ راﺣﺖﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺗﺎﻓﻞ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻳﻜﻲ از ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻞ راﺣﺖ ﺑﻮدن ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ورﻗﻪاي ﻧﻴﺰ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ اﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ‪ 40‬ﺳﺆال ﺑﺎ‬ ‫‪ 25‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ زﻣﺎن و دو ﺑﺨﺶ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ او‪‬ل ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ‪ 15‬ﺳﺆال ﭼﻬﺎرﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪاي ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ را اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ دو‪‬م ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ‪ 25‬ﺳﺆال اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ در اﻳﻦ ﺳﺆاﻻت در ﻳﻚ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ‪ 4 ،‬ﺑﺨﺶ آن ﺑﺎ ﻛﺸﻴﺪن ﺧﻂ در زﻳﺮ آن ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪاي ﻛﻪ ﻏﻠﻂ اﺳﺖ را اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪاي ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻏﻠﻂ ﺑﻮدن ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺷﺪه را ﭘﻴﺪا ﻛﺮد ﻛﻪ ﻛﻤﻲ دﻗّﺖ در اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﻻزم اﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﻪ راﺣﺘﻲ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻴﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺮ روي ﺗﺴﺖﻫﺎي اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﻪ ‪ 38‬ﺳﺆال از ‪ 40‬ﺳﺆال ﭘﺎﺳﺦ داده و ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﻮد را در اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻳﻦ اﺻﻼً ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ زﺑﺎن ﻛﺴﻲ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﻧﺪارد و ﻫﺮﻛﺴﻲ ﺑﻪ راﺣﺘﻲ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻣﻬﻢ دﺳﺖ ﭘﻴﺪا ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫●‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ‪Writing‬‬

‫اﻳﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺣﺘّﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ زﺑﺎن ﺧﻮﺑﻲ دارﻧﺪ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﭼﺮا ﻛﻪ ﻛﺴﻲ ﻛﻪ در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻤﺮه ﺧﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﻋﻼوه ﺑﺮ ﺗﺴﻠّﻂ ﺑﻪ زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻧﺸﺎي ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﻤﺮه اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ از ‪ 0‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 6‬ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ وﻟﻲ اﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﺮه‬ ‫در ﻧﻤﺮهي ﻛﻞ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻫﺎ ﺑﺮاي اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺳﻘﻔﻲ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻧﻤﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬وﻟﻲ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ‪ 4/5 ، 4‬و ﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ‪ 5‬را ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﺣﺪاﻗﻞِ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮل‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻲﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻧﻤﺮه ‪ 4/5‬ﺧﻮب و ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎً ﺳﺎده اﺳﺖ وﻟﻲ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻧﻤﺮه ‪ 5‬و ‪ 5/5‬ﻛﺎر ﭼﻨﺪان ﺳﺎدهاي ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮاي دﻛﺘﺮا اﻗﺪام ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ اﻫﻤﻴ‪‬ﺖ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮي دارد ﭼﺮا ﻛﻪ اﺳﺎﺗﻴﺪ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ ﻣﻲدﻫﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ داﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﺎر ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻼوه ﺑﺮ ﻣﻬﺎرت ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﻪ ﺧﻮب‪ ،‬ﻣﻬﺎرت ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺮاي ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻻت ﻋﻠﻤﻲ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻌﺪادي ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ دارﻧﺪ و ﻧﻤﺮه ﺧﻮﺑﻲ در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻛﺴﺐ ﻧﻤﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺷﻚ اﺳﺎﺗﻴﺪ را ﺑﺮاﻧﮕﻴﺰﻧﺪ و ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ اﺳﺎﺗﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮر ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ آﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺗﺸﺎن را ﺧﻮدﺷﺎن ﻧﻨﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ!‬ ‫‪.::[email protected]::. .::[email protected]::. .::[email protected]::.‬‬

‫دوﺳﺖ دارم ﺑﻨﺪﮔﻲ را ﺑﺎ ﻫﻤﻪ ﺷﺮﻣﻨﺪﮔﻲﻫﺎ‬

‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh‬‬ ‫‪http://mortezash.blogfa.com/‬‬

‫)‪Internet Based TOEFL or (iBT‬‬

‫ﺗﻔﺎوت ﻋﻤﺪهي آزﻣﻮن ‪ iBT‬ﺑﺎ ‪ ،PBT‬اﻓﺰوده ﺷﺪن ﺑﺨﺶ ‪ Speaking‬و ﺣﺬف ‪ Structure‬از آن اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ ‪ ETS‬اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ اﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮن را رﻓﺘﻪ رﻓﺘﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ‪ PBT‬ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺷﻴﻮهي ﺳﻨﺠﺶ در اﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮن واﻗﻌﻲﺗﺮ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ و ﻫﺮ ‪ 4‬ﻣﻬﺎرت زﺑﺎن در آن ﻣﻮرد آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻗﺮار ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮد‪ .‬در ﺣﺎل ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻲ داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻫﺎ ﻫﺮ دو اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ‪ PBT‬و ‪ iBT‬را‬ ‫ﻣﻲﭘﺬﻳﺮﻧﺪ اﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ دﻧﺒﺎل درﻳﺎﻓﺖ )‪ Teacher Assistantship (TA‬ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﺗﺎ در آزﻣﻮن ﻧﻮع‬ ‫‪ iBT‬ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ )ﺑﻪ دﻟﻴﻞ دارا ﺑﻮدن ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ‪.(Speaking‬‬ ‫در اﺑﺘﺪاي ﻇﻬﻮر اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ‪ iBT‬ﺗﺼﻮر داﻧﺶآﻣﻮﺧﺘﮕﺎن ﺑﺮ اﻳﻦ ﺑﺎور ﺑﻮد ﻛﻪ اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن از ﻟﺤﺎظ ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺳﺨﺖﺗﺮ اﺳﺖ‪ ،‬اﻣ‪‬ﺎ اﻣﺮوزه‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺗﻮان ﻣﺰﻳﺖﻫﺎي ﻓﺮاواﻧﻲ ﻫﻤﭽﻮن زﻣﺎنﻫﺎي ﻣﺘﻌﺪ‪‬د ﺛﺒﺖﻧﺎم‪ ،‬ﻣﺮاﻛﺰ آزﻣﻮن ﻣﺘﻌﺪ‪‬د در ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎي ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ و ﻛﻮﺗﺎهﺑﻮدن زﻣﺎن‬ ‫آﻣﺎدهﺷﺪن ﻧﻤﺮات و ﮔﺰارش ﺑﻪ داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﺳﻔﺎرش ﺷﺪه را دﻳﺪ‪ .‬در اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻣﺠﺎل ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺎﻧﻮر از ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖﻫﺎي ﻓﺮدي اﻣﻜﺎنﭘﺬﻳﺮ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ و اﻳﻦ ﻧﻮع روش آزﻣﻮن ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖﻫﺎي ﺧﻮد را در ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ آزﻣﻮن ﺑﺎ ﺗﻨﻮع اراﺋﻪ دﻫﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮ از ﺗﺎﻓﻞورﻗﻪاي ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫اﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮن از ‪ 4‬ﺑﺨﺶ ‪ 30‬ﻧﻤﺮهاي ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ و ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ‪ 4‬ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺑﻪ درازا ﻣﻲﻛﺸﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺮه اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن از ‪ 120‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ و ﻧﻤﺮه ﺑﺎﻻي ‪ 100‬در اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن واﻗﻌﺎً ﻧﻤﺮه ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ﻧﻤﺮهي ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﺮاي ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻲ ﭘﺬﻳﺮش ‪ 85‬اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﻠﻲ ﻣﻲﺗﻮان اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ‪ iBT‬را در دو ﻧﻮع ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻛﺮد‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (1‬ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ ‪ Reading‬آن ‪ long format‬و ﺑﺨﺶ ‪ Listening‬آن ‪ short format‬اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (2‬ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ ‪ Reading‬آن ‪ short format‬و ﺑﺨﺶ ‪ Listening‬آن ‪ long format‬اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫آزﻣﻮندﻫﻨﺪهﻫﺎ ﺑﺼﻮرت ﺗﺼﺎدﻓﻲ‪ ،‬در ﻳﻚ زﻣﺎن‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻲ از اﻧﻮاع ﻓﻮق را ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮر ﺷﺎﻧﺴﻲ و ﺗﺼﺎدﻓﻲ در اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪه ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫از ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻤﺮهدﻫﻲ ﺗﻔﺎوﺗﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ آﻧﻬﺎ دﻳﺪه ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮد زﻳﺮا درﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮع ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻲ از ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎ را ﺑﺼﻮرت ‪ long format‬دارد‪.‬‬ ‫● ﺑﺨﺶ ‪Reading‬‬

‫ در ﻧﻮع ‪ Long Format‬ﺳﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ وﺟﻮد دارد )‪ 5‬ﻣﺘﻦ(‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ اول ﻳﻚ ﻣﺘﻦ در ﻣﺪت زﻣﺎن ‪ 20‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ و دو ﺑﺨﺶ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻫﺮ ﻛﺪام ‪ 2‬ﻣﺘﻦ و زﻣﺎن ‪ 40‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﻠﻲ ﻫﺮ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ‪ 12‬ﺳﺆال اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫آزﻣﻮندﻫﻨﺪه ﭘﺲ از ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دادن ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆاﻻت ﻣﺘﻦ ‪ 2‬و ‪) 3‬ﺑﺨﺶ دو‪‬م( در ﻃﻮل زﻣﺎن ‪ 40‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆاﻻت ﻣﺘﻦﻫﺎي‬ ‫‪ 4‬و ‪) 5‬ﺑﺨﺶ ﺳﻮ‪‬م( ﻧﻴﺰ در ‪ 40‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﮔﻮﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺟ‪‬ﻪ ﻛﺮد ﻛﻪ ‪ 2‬ﻣﺘﻦ از اﻳﻦ ‪ 5‬ﻣﺘﻦ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻧﺸﺪه و در ﻧﻤﺮهدﻫﻲ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻧﺪارد و ‪ ETS‬ﺟﻬﺖ آﻣﺎرﮔﻴﺮي ﺧﻮد‪ ،‬اﻳﻦ‬ ‫‪ 2‬ﻣﺘﻦ را اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﺮده اﺳﺖ اﻣ‪‬ﺎ از آﻧﺠﺎ ﻛﻪ آزﻣﻮندﻫﻨﺪﮔﺎن در ﻃﻮل اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻧﻤﻲداﻧﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺪام ‪ 2‬ﻣﺘﻦ از ‪ 5‬ﻣﺘﻦ داده ﺷﺪه‪،‬‬ ‫ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻟﺬا ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺗﻤﺎم ﺗﻼش ﺧﻮد را ﺑﺮاي ﭘﺎﺳﺦﮔﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻲ ﺳﺆاﻻت داده ﺷﺪه ﺑﻨﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻧﻮع ‪ Short Format‬دو ﺑﺨﺶ اﺳﺖ )‪ 3‬ﻣﺘﻦ(‪:‬‬ ‫او‪‬ﻟﻴﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻧﻮع ‪ Long Format‬ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در زﻣﺎن ‪ 20‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺟﻮاب داده ﺷﻮد و ﻣﺘﻦﻫﺎي ‪ 2‬و ‪) 3‬ﺑﺨﺶ دو‪‬م( ﻧﻴﺰ در‬ ‫‪ 40‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫در اﻳﻦ ﻧﻮع آزﻣﻮن ﺗﻤﺎم ﻣﺘﻦﻫﺎ و ﺳﺆاﻻت آﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻬﺎرت ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ دراﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ اﺑﺘﺪا ﺑﺎﻳﺪ داﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﻐﺎت را اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ داد )ﻋﻤﺪﺗﺎً ﺑﺎ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﻛﺘﺎبﻫﺎي ﻟﻐﺖ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻲ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻓﻞ( و در اداﻣﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ اﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎت در ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻣﺘﻦﺧﻮاﻧﻲ را ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺖ ﻛﺮد‪.‬ﻻزم ﺑﻪ ذﻛﺮ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ راﻳﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh‬‬ ‫‪http://mortezash.blogfa.com/‬‬

‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺗﺮ از ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن ﺑﺮ ﺑﺮﮔﻪ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد ﭼﺮا ﻛﻪ ﺗﻨﺪﺧﻮاﻧﻲ ﺑﺮﺻﻔﺤﻪ راﻳﺎﻧﻪ در ﻣﺪ‪‬ت زﻣﺎن ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻬﻤ‪‬ﻲ در ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴ‪‬ﺖ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل ﻣﻬﺎرت ﺗﻨﺪﺧﻮاﻧﻲ ﻣﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺎ ‪ 300‬ﻛﻠﻤﻪ در ﻣﺪت زﻣﺎن ﺣﺪوداً ‪ 2‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﺎ اﺣﺘﺴﺎب درك‬ ‫‪50‬درﺻﺪي ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ اﺳﺖ‪ .‬در ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎدت ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ در ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ و ﺗﻜﺮار ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺘﻦﻫﺎي ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ و ﺗﻜﺮار ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪه ﻟﻐﺎت ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻬﺎرت داوﻃﻠﺐ را اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ داد‪.‬‬ ‫●‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ‪Listening‬‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﺷﻨﻴﺪاري اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﺎت ﺑﻠﻨﺪ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ و ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﺎت ﻛﻮﺗﺎه‪ ‬دو ﻧﻮع دﻳﮕﺮ در آن وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ از ﻟﺤﺎظ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭘﺨﺶﺷﺪن از دو ﻧﻮع دﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﺨﺖﺗﺮ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬اﻟﺒﺘﻪ اﮔﺮ داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺧﻮد را ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ ﺷﻴﻮه اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫دﻫﺪ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﻲ ﻧﺨﻮاﻫﺪ داﺷﺖ و ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮان ﮔﻔﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮر ﻛﻠﻲ اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن از اﻧﻮاع دﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﺨﺖﺗﺮ اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫در ﺑﺴﻴﺎري از ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ آﻣﺎدهﺳﺎزي ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ‪ iBT‬ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﻪ داوﻃﻠﺒﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ در ﺿﻤﻦ ﮔﻮشدادن ﺑﻪ ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﺎت از‬ ‫ﺷﻨﻴﺪهﻫﺎي ﺧﻮد ﻧﺖﺑﺮداري ﻛﻨﻨﺪ وﻟﻴﻜﻦ ﻧﻜﺘﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺄﻣﻞ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﺿﻤﻦ ﮔﻮشدادن ﺑﻪ دﻗّﺖ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫را ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﺑﺴﭙﺎرد ﭼﺮا ﻛﻪ ﻣﻜﺚﻛﺮدن ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻲ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر ﻧﺖﺑﺮداري ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬اﻣﻜﺎن ﻓﻬﻤﻴﺪن ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻗﺐ را ﻛﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﻧﻤﻮد اﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮان ﺑﺎ ﻧﺖﺑﺮداري از ﻛﻠﻤﺎت ﻛﻠﻴﺪي و ﻳﺎ ﻋﻼﻣﺎت اﺧﺘﺼﺎري ﺑﺮاي ﭘﺎﺳﺦﮔﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆاﻻت اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻧﻤﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫در ﺳﺆاﻻت اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﺮ درك داوﻃﻠﺐ از ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ در ﺗﻮان ﭘﺎﺳﺨﮕﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆاﻻت اﺳﺖ و اﺳﺎﻣﻲ ﺧﺎص و ﻳﺎ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺷﻴﻪاي ﻣﺪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﻤﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺴﺖﻫﺎي ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻣﻲﺗﻮان دﺳﺖ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ )و ﺣﺘّﻲ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎي دﻳﮕﺮ( ﺣﻮل و ﺣﻮش ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﻲ ﻫﻤﭽﻮن اﻃّﻼﻋﺎت در ﻣﻮرد ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت راﻳﺞ در ﻣﺤﻴﻂ داﻧﺸﮕﺎه‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي داﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﺎن و ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻣﻌﻤﻮل و ﺳﺎده در ﻛﻼسﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻫﻤﭽﻮن‪ :‬ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬زﻣﻴﻦﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‪،‬ﮔﻴﺎهﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ و ﻏﻴﺮه‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻮن اﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎت دﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ و ﺗﻜﺮار ﮔﻮشدادن ﺑﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﻫﺎ و ﻳﺎدﮔﻴﺮي ﻟﻐﺎت ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺮ روي ﻣﺘﻦ ﺷﻨﻴﺪه ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ‬ ‫راﺣﺘﻲ ﻣﻲﺗﻮان ﺣﺘﻲ ﻧﻤﺮه ﻛﺎﻣﻞ را ﺑﺪﺳﺖ آورد ﭼﺮا ﻛﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦﻫﺎ در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ از اﻋﻤﺎل ﺳﻠﻴﻘﻪ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎن ﻣﺼﻮن ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪت زﻣﺎن اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ‪ 40‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫●‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ‪Speaking‬‬

‫ﭘﺲ از اﺳﺘﺮاﺣﺖ ‪ 10‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺑﺨﺶ ﺧﻮاﻧﺪﻧﻲ و ﺷﻨﻴﺪﻧﻲ از ﺷﻤﺎ درﺧﻮاﺳﺖ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﺎﺳﺦﮔﻮﻳﻲ اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺎزﮔﺮدﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ در ﻫﺮ ﺑﺨﺶ دو ﺳﺆال ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻄﺮح ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ در ﺑﺨﺶ او‪‬ل ﻳﻚ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ داده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ در ﺳﺆال او‪‬ل ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻲ از رﺧﺪادﻫﺎي ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ و ﺳﺆال دو‪‬م‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺪي ﺑﺮ رد و ﻳﺎ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ از ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد‪ .‬در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ‪ 15‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ زﻣﺎن داده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﺗﺎ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ‬ ‫ﺧﻮد را ﻣﺮور ﻧﻤﻮده و ﭘﺲ از اﺗﻤﺎم ‪ 45‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ در ﻣﻮرد آن ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪ .‬زﻣﺎن ﺳﻨﺞ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ راﻳﺎﻧﻪ زﻣﺎن را دﻗﻴﻘﺎً ﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎن ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ داد‪.‬‬ ‫ در ﺑﺨﺶ دو‪‬م اﺑﺘﺪا ﻋﻨﻮان ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت ﺳﺆال از ﻫﺪﻓﻦ ﭘﺨﺶ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﺳﭙﺲ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺼﻮرت ﺧﻮاﻧﺪﻧﻲ روي ﺻﻔﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ‪ 45‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ زﻣﺎن دارﻳﺪ ﺗﺎ آن را ﺑﺨﻮاﻧﻴﺪ در اﻳﻦ زﻣﺎن ﺷﻤﺎ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻴﺪ ﻧﻜﺎت را ﺑﺮ ﺑﺮﮔﻪاي ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ داده‬ ‫ﺷﺪه ﻳﺎدداﺷﺖ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪ .‬در ارﺗﺒﺎط ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع ﮔﻔﺘﮕﻮﻳﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ دو ﻧﻔﺮ )در ﺳﺆال او‪‬ل( و ﻳﻚ ﺳﺨﻨﺮاﻧﻲ در ﻛﻼس‬ ‫‪30‬‬ ‫درس)در ﺳﺆال دو‪‬م( از ﻫﺪﻓﻦ ﻧﻴﺰ ﭘﺨﺶ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ از آن‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﺳﺆال از اﻳﻦ دو ﻣﻮرد ﭘﺮﺳﻴﺪه ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ زﻣﺎن ﺑﺮاي ﻓﻜﺮ ﻛﺮدن و ‪ 60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﺻﺤﺒﺖﻛﺮدن وﻗﺖ دارﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ در ﺑﺨﺶ ﺳﻮ‪‬م ﻳﻚ ﮔﻔﺘﮕﻮ ﻣﺎﺑﻴﻦ دوﻧﻔﺮ )در ﺳﺆال او‪‬ل( و ﻳﻚ ﺳﺨﻨﺮاﻧﻲ در ﻛﻼس درس)در ﺳﺆال دو‪‬م( از ﻫﺪﻓﻦ ﭘﺨﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮد و ﻳﻚ ﺳﺆال در ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﺎت و ﺳﺨﻨﺮاﻧﻲ ﭘﺮﺳﻴﺪه ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻴﺰ ‪ 20‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﻓﻜﺮ ﻛﺮدن‬ ‫و ‪ 60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﺻﺤﺒﺖﻛﺮدن وﻗﺖ دارﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh‬‬ ‫‪http://mortezash.blogfa.com/‬‬

‫ﻧﻜﺘﻪ ﻣﻬﻤﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺧﻮد ﺑﺮﮔﺰارﻛﻨﻨﺪه اﻣﺘﺤﺎن )‪ (ETS‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﻫﻤﻮاره ﺑﺮاي اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ داﺷﺘﻪ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﺪ در‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ او‪‬ل ﭘﺎﺳﺨﻲ "ﻣﻨﺴﺠﻢ" و "واﺿﺢ" از ﺧﻮد اراﺋﻪ دﻫﺪ در ﺿﻤﻦ ﺑﺮاي ﻗﺴﻤﺖﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺘﻦ و ﮔﻔﺘﮕﻮ و ﻳﺎ ﺳﺨﻨﺮاﻧﻲ در‬ ‫ﻛﻼس درس ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮارد ﻣﻬﻢ و ﻛﻠﻴﺪي در ﺿﻤﻦ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ اﺷﺎره ﻧﻤﻮد‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﻣﺮور در ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦﻫﺎي اراﺋﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺮاي اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮان رﺳﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺧﻼف ﺗﺼﻮر ﺑﺴﻴﺎري از داوﻃﻠﺒﺎن ﻧﻤﺮات ﺑﺎﻻ ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻀﻤﻮن‬ ‫اﺻﻠﻲ را ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﮔﺮاﻣﺮي ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮر واﺿﺢ اراﺋﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ و ﻧﻴﺎزي ﺑﻪ دارا ﺑﻮدن ﻟﻬﺠﻪ ﻏﻠﻴﻆ اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻬﺎرت ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ در اﺑﺘﺪا داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از ﺗﺴﻠّﻂ ﺑﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ اراﺋﻪ ﻧﻤﻮدن ﭘﺎﺳﺦﻫﺎي ﺧﻮد از ﻟﺤﺎظ ﮔﺮاﻣﺮي اﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻛﻨﺪ ﭼﺮا ﻛﻪ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ از ﻣﻬﺎرتﻫﺎي ﮔﺮاﻣﺮي داوﻃﻠﺐ در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬در اداﻣﻪ داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺿﺒﻂ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮدن ﭘﺎﺳﺦﻫﺎي ﺧﻮد ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ و ﮔﻮشدادن ﺑﻪ آﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﻘﺎط ﻗﻮت و ﺿﻌﻒ ﺧﻮد را درﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ و در ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ زﻣﺎنﺑﻨﺪي ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻠّﻂ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺘﻪ دﻳﮕﺮ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ اراﺋﻪ ﺷﺪه در ﮔﻔﺘﮕﻮ و ﻳﺎ ﺳﺨﻨﺮاﻧﻲ را ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ و ﺑﺎ ﺑﻴﺎن ﺧﻮد در زﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺷﺪه اراﺋﻪ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬اﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻧﻜﺎت ﻣﻬﻢ در اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ ﻗﺮار دارﻧﺪ و ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮان ﺑﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ در ﻣﺪت زﻣﺎن ‪ 60‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ اﺷﺎره ﻛﺮد وﻟﻴﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻨﺎً ﻧﻤﺮات ﺧﻮب زﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﻣﻀﻤﻮن ﻛﻠﻲ را ﺑﺎ دﻗّﺖ و ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻟﻐﺎت ﺟﺪﻳﺪي ﻛﻪ در ذﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻮد دارد ﺑﻴﺎن ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻬﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻟﻐﺎت ﺑﻬﺘﺮ و اراﺋﻪ ﺟﻤﻼت ﻗﻮي ﻧﻤﺮه ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮي را ﺑﻪ ارﻣﻐﺎن ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ آورد‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺖﺑﺮداري در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ در ﺿﻤﻦ ﮔﻮشدادن ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﻛﻤﻚ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺰاﻳﻲ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع ﺿﺮوري اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ در ﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﭘﺎﺳﺦﮔﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆاﻻت داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻣﻴﻜﺮوﻓﻮن )ﻛﻪ ﺣﺘﻤﺎً ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﺰارﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎن آزﻣﻮن ﻧﻴﺰ راﻫﻨﻤﺎﻳﻲﻫﺎي ﻻزﻣﻪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ(‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺻﺪاي واﺿﺢ و رﺳﺎ ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﻛﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ از ﺿﺒﻂ ﺷﺪن‬ ‫ﺻﺪاي ﺧﻮد اﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎن ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﭼﺮا ﻛﻪ ﺑﻮدهاﻧﺪ ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﺻﺤﺒﺖﻛﺮدن ﺑﺎ ﺻﺪاي آرام ‪ ،‬ﺻﺪاﻳﺸﺎن ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻧﺸﺪه و‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺮه ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﻧﮕﺮﻓﺘﻪاﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫●‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ‪writing‬‬

‫در ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن دو ﻗﺴﻤﺖ وﺟﻮد دارد‪:‬‬ ‫درﺳﺆال او‪‬ل اﺑﺘﺪا ﺑﺮاي داوﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﺘﻨﻲ ‪ 200‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 300‬ﻛﻠﻤﻪاي ﺑﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ راﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﭘﺪﻳﺪار ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ داوﻃﻠﺐ ‪ 3‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ زﻣﺎن ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ آن دارد‪ .‬در اﻳﻦ زﻣﺎن داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺳﻌﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع و ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻛﻠﻲ را ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﺑﺴﭙﺎرد ﻛﻪ ﻧﻴﺎزي ﺑﻪ ﻧُﺖﺑﺮداري‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ زﻳﺮا در ﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﺗﺎﻳﭗ ﻣﺘﻦ دوﺑﺎره اﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻧﻴﺰ در ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﺳﭙﺲ ﻳﻚ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻫﺪﻓﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺒﻲ در ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ و‬ ‫ﻳﺎ رد ﻣﺘﻦ اراﺋﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺷﻨﻴﺪه ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬در اﻳﻦ زﻣﺎن داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﺘﻤﺎً ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻣﻬﻢ را ﻧُﺖﺑﺮداري ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ از آن ﺳﺆاﻟﻲ در راﺑﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع ﭘﺮﺳﻴﺪه ﺷﺪه و داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺧﻮد ﺑﺎ ﺗﻠﻔﻴﻖ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻣﺘﻦ داده ﺷﺪه و ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺷﻨﻴﺪه ﺷﺪه‪،‬‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري ﻣﺴﺘﺪل اراﺋﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫زﻣﺎن ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ‪ 20‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﻮده و ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﺎوي ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‪ 200-150‬ﻟﻐﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺆال دو‪‬م اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻫﻤﭽﻮن ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ورﻗﻪاي ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺆال ﺑﺎ ﻣﻀﻤﻮن ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ اراﺋﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺘﻦ ‪ 5‬ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاﻓﻲ ﺑﺎ رﻋﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫اﺻﻮل ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﻲ اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫زﻣﺎن ﭘﺎﺳﺦﮔﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺘﻦ ‪ 30‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ و ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ﺣﺎوي ‪ 300‬ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫در ﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﻫﺮ دو ﻣﺘﻦ ﺗﻌﺪاد ﻛﻠﻤﺎت ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه در ﺑﺎﻻي ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻧﺸﺎن داده ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫در ﺻﻮرﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ زﻣﺎن ﭼﻨﺪاﻧﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﺷﺮﻛﺖ در اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻧﺪارﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ در ﻛﻼسﻫﺎي ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﻪ وﻗﺖ ﺧﻮد را ﺗﻠﻒ ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻬﺎرت‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﺧﻮد را ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺨﺶ ﺗﻜﻠﻢ اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮاي اﻳﻨﻜﻪ در ﺧﺎرج از ﻛﺸﻮر ﺑﻪ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﺮ ﻧﺨﻮرﻳﺪ‪ ،‬اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ دﻫﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ از اﻣﺘﺤﺎن‬ ‫اﮔﺮ وﻗﺖ ﻛﺮدﻳﺪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻛﻼسﻫﺎ ﺑﺮوﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺷﻤﺎ ﺻﺮﻓﺎً ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﻮل ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ در اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻣﻄﺮح ﻣﻲﺷﻮد در ﻃﻲ‬ ‫زﻣﺎنﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﺷﺪ ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ و ﻧﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‪ .‬اﮔﺮ ﭼﻪ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ‪ iBT‬ﮔﺴﺘﺮدهﺗﺮ از اﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎت دﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻲرﺳﺪ وﻟﻴﻜﻦ اﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮن ﻧﻴﺰ ﻫﻤﭽﻮن ﻫﻤﻪ اﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎت داراي ﻓﺮﻣﺖ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﺮار ﺑﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺧﻮد اﻣﺘﺤﺎن و اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫از ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺴﺖﻫﺎ ﻣﻲﺗﻮان ﺑﺮ آن ﻣﺴﻠﻂ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh‬‬ ‫‪http://mortezash.blogfa.com/‬‬

‫اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻮع اﻣﺘﺤﺎن در اﻳﺮان اﺳﺖ‪ ،‬زﻳﺮا‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﺛﺒﺖﻧﺎم آن ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ دارد‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻛﺎرﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺻﺎدر ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫ در ﺻﻮرت ﻋﺪمﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ در اﻣﺘﺤﺎن‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻴﺪ ﺑﺮاي اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻣﺠﺪ‪‬د ﺧﻮد را آﻣﺎده ﻧﻤﻮده و دوﺑﺎره ﺛﺒﺖﻧﺎم ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ دﻧﺒﺎل ﻛﻤﻚﻣﺎﻟﻲ)‪" (Scholarship‬ﺣﻞﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﺎ )‪ "Teacher Assistant (TA‬ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺮه ﺧﻮب در ﺑﺨﺶ ﺗﻜﻠّﻢ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﺷﺎﻧﺲ ﺧﻮد را ﺑﺮاي درﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻛﻤﻚﻣﺎﻟﻲ اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ دﻫﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ در ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري ﻣﻬﺎرت دارﻧﺪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ اﻣﺘﻴﺎز ﻛﻞ ﺧﻮد را در اﻣﺘﺤﺎن اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ دﻫﻨﺪ ﭼﻮن ﻧﻤﺮه اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫در ﻧﻤﺮهﻛﻞ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬

‫‪.::[email protected]::. .::[email protected]::. .::[email protected]::.‬‬

‫)‪Computer Based TOEFL or (CBT‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﺟ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬ﺑﻌﺪ از ﭘﻴﺪاﻳﺶ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ‪ ، iBT‬اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ‪ CBT‬ﺣﺬف و ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ‪ PBT‬و ‪ iBT‬ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺷﺒﺨﺘﺎﻧﻪ در ﺣﺎل ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﻫﺮ دوي اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎنﻫﺎ در اﻳﺮان ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﺷﺒﻴﻪ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ورﻗﻪاي ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﺎوت ﻛﻪ ﭘﺸﺖ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬ﺗﻔﺎوتﻫﺎ و ﺷﺒﺎﻫﺖﻫﺎي‬ ‫آن ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻨﺪ از‪:‬‬ ‫‬ ‫‬ ‫‬

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‫در اﻳﺮان ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن در د‪‬ﺑﻲ )‪ (Dubai‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫در ﺑﺨﺶ ﺷﻨﻴﺪاري ﺷﻤﺎ ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻴﺪ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺗﺎﻓﻞورﻗﻪ اي ﺳﺆاﻻت را ﺑﺒﻴﻨﻴﺪ و ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺷﻨﻴﺪن ﺳﺆاﻻت روي ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬در اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن زﻣﺎن در دﺳﺖ ﺷﻤﺎﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺷﻤﺎ ﻳﻚ زﻣﺎن ﻛﻠﻲ در اﺧﺘﻴﺎر دارﻳﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻴﺪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺆال را در‬ ‫‪ 10‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ و ﻳﻚ ﺳﺆال را در ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دﻫﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ در ﺑﺨﺶ ﺷﻨﻴﺪاري ﺗﺎﻓﻞورﻗﻪاي اﻳﻦ ﻛﺎر اﻣﻜﺎن ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺆاﻻت اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻲ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﻛﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆال او‪‬ل ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻣﻲدﻫﻴﺪ اﮔﺮ ﻏﻠﻂ ﺟﻮاب دﻫﻴﺪ ﺳﺆال‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﺎدهﺗﺮ و اﻣﺘﻴﺎز آن ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺎﻳﭗ ﺷﻮد‪ .‬اﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ اﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻً ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري را روي‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻏﺬ ﺟﻮاب دﻫﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﻧﺎﻣﻪ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن در ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ اﻣﺘﺤﺎنورﻗﻪاي ﻛﻪ ‪ 40‬روز ﻃﻮل ﻣﻲ ﻛﺸﺪ‪ ،‬ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻊﺗﺮ ﺻﺎدر ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺮه ﻣﺎﻛﺰﻳﻤﻢ آن ‪ 300‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ‪ 250‬ﻣﻌﺎدل ‪ 600‬اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻗﺒﻠﻲ اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻫﺪﻓﻦ در اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن روز ﺑﻬﺘﺮي ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺨﺶ ﺷﻨﻴﺪاري دارﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ اﻣﺘﺤﺎنورﻗﻪاي ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻴﭻ ﻛﺪام از آنﻫﺎ ﻧﻤﺮهي ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮي آزﻣﻮن ﺗﺎﻓﻞ از ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎي زﻳﺮ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (١‬ﺑﺨﺶ ﺷﻨﻴﺪاري‬ ‫‪ (٢‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر‬ ‫‪ (٣‬درك ﻣﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫‪ (۴‬ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري‬

‫‪ 30 -50‬ﭘﺮﺳﺶ‬ ‫‪ 20 -25‬ﭘﺮﺳﺶ‬ ‫‪ 44 -60‬ﭘﺮﺳﺶ‬ ‫‪ 1‬اﻧﺸﺎء‬

‫)‪ 40 -60‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ(‬ ‫)‪ 15 -20‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ(‬ ‫)‪ 70 -90‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ(‬ ‫)‪ 30‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ(‬

‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh‬‬ ‫‪http://mortezash.blogfa.com/‬‬

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‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﺷﻨﻴﺪاري‪ :‬ﺑﺮﺧﻼف آزﻣﻮن ﻛﺘﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺮاي ﺷﻨﻴﺪن از ﮔﻮﺷﻲ )‪ (headphone‬اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴـﻦ در‬ ‫آزﻣـﻮن ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮي ﻋﻼوه ﺑﺮ ﺻـﺪاﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻨﻮﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﺗﺼﻮﻳــﺮ ﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻤـﺎﻳﺶ در ﻣﻲآﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮاه ﻫﺮ ﭘﺮﺳﺶ‬ ‫ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫﺎﻳﻲ در ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ داده ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺠﺎي ﺣﺮوف )‪ ،(A,B,C,D‬ﻛﻨﺎر ﻫﺮ ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺑﻴﻀﻲ دﻳﺪه ﻣﻲﺷﻮد و‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ روي ﭘﺎﺳﺦ)ﻫﺎي( ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻛﻠﻴﻚ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫در آزﻣﻮن ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮي ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﻴﺶ از ﻳﻚ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ وﺟﻮد دارد در ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﭼﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ را ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﻪ دو ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ او‪‬ل ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﺎت ﻛﻮﺗﺎﻫﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ اﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻛﻤﻲ از ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ﻛﺘﺒﻲ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲﺗﺮ اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫در ﻗﺴﻤﺖ دو‪‬م ﻫﻢ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﻪﻫﺎ و ﺳﺨﻨﺮاﻧﻲﻫﺎي ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲﺗﺮي روﺑﺮو ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر‪ :‬اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ آزﻣﻮن ﺗﺎﻓﻞﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮي‪ ،‬درﺳﺖ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺗﺎﻓﻞﻛﺘﺒﻲ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﺎوت ﻛﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺠﺎي ﻋﻼﻣﺖ زدن ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺪاد روي ﻛﺎﻏﺬ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺎوس روي ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻛﻠﻴﻚ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫درك ﻣﻄﻠﺐ‪ :‬در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺷﻤﺎ اﺑﺘﺪا ﻣﺘﻨﻲ را ﻣﻲﺧﻮاﻧﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲﺗﺮ از آن اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻤﺎم آن در ﻳﻚ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ دﻳﺪه ﺷﻮد ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ ﺷﻤﺎ ﻣﺠﺒﻮر ﺧﻮاﻫﻴﺪ ﺑﻮد از "ﻧﻮار ﻣﺮور" ﺑﺮاي دﻳﺪن )ﻳﺎ ﻣﺮور( ﺑﻘﻴﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬ ‫)ﺗﺎ زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ ﻣﺮور ﻣﺘﻦ را ﺗﻤﺎم ﻧﻜﺮده ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﭘﺮﺳﺶﻫﺎ را در اﺧﺘﻴﺎر ﺷﻤﺎ ﻧﻤﻲﮔﺬارد(‪ .‬در اﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ روي‬ ‫ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪ ‪ Proceed‬ﻛﻠﻴﻚ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺣﺎل ﺷﻤﺎ ﻣﺘﻦ را در ﺳﻤﺖ ﭼﭗ و ﭘﺮﺳﺶ را در ﺳﻤﺖ راﺳﺖ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺧﻮاﻫﻴﺪ‬ ‫دﻳﺪ‪ .‬در اﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻴﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻛﻠﻴﻚ روي ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪ ‪ Previous‬ﺑﻪ ﭘﺮﺳﺶ ﻗﺒﻠﻲ ﺑﺮﮔﺮدﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري‪ :‬اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺟ‪‬ﺪا از رﺗﺒﻪ ﻛﻠﻲ ﺷﻤﺎ ﮔﺰارش ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري در ﺣﺎل ﺣﺎﺿﺮ در آزﻣﻮن ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮي ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ﮔﻨﺠﺎﻧﺪه ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‪ .‬اﻳﻦ اﻧﺸﺎء را ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺗﻮان ﺑﺎ ﻗﻠﻢ روي‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﭘﺎﺳﺦﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﻮﺷﺖ و ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺗﻮان ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎً در ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺗﺎﻳﭗ ﻧﻤﻮد‪ .‬در اﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻴﺪ از ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫‪ cut ،paste ،delete‬و‪ ...‬اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫‪.::[email protected]::. .::[email protected]::. .::[email protected]::.‬‬

‫‪Summary of PBT‬‬

‫‪Task‬‬

‫‪Description‬‬ ‫‪Approx. time‬‬ ‫‪Reading‬‬ ‫‪5 passages, 50 questions‬‬ ‫‪30-40 minutes‬‬ ‫‪Listening‬‬ ‫‪20 Short questions or 30 Long questions‬‬ ‫‪55 minutes‬‬ ‫)‪Structure 15 questions(Part-1) or 25 questions(Part-2‬‬ ‫‪25 minutes‬‬ ‫‪Writing‬‬ ‫‪1 Essay‬‬ ‫‪30 minutes‬‬

‫‪Summary of iBT‬‬

‫‪Description‬‬ ‫‪Approx. time‬‬ ‫‪3–5 passages, each containing 12–14 questions 60–100 minutes‬‬ ‫‪6–9 passages, each containing 5–6 questions‬‬ ‫‪40–90 minutes‬‬ ‫‬‫‪10 minutes‬‬ ‫‪6 tasks and 6 questions‬‬ ‫‪20 minutes‬‬ ‫‪2 tasks and 2 questions‬‬ ‫‪55 minutes‬‬

‫‪Task‬‬ ‫‪Reading‬‬ ‫‪Listening‬‬ ‫‪BREAK‬‬ ‫‪Speaking‬‬ ‫‪Writing‬‬

‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh‬‬ ‫‪http://mortezash.blogfa.com/‬‬

TOEFL .::[email protected]::.

The Test of English as a Foreign Language (or TOEFL, pronounced "toe-full") evaluates the ability of an individual to use and understand English in an academic setting. The TOEFL test is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Service (ETS) and is administered worldwide. The test was first administered in 1964 and has since been taken by more than 23 million students. It sometimes is an admission requirement for non-native English speakers at many Englishspeaking colleges and universities. Additionally, institutions such as government agencies, licensing bodies, businesses, or scholarship programs may require this test. A TOEFL score is valid for two years and then will no longer be officially reported since a candidate's language proficiency could have significantly changed since the date of the test. Colleges and universities usually consider only the most recent TOEFL score. .::[email protected]::. .::[email protected]::. .::[email protected]::.

● Internet-based Test (iBT) Since its introduction in late 2005, the Internet-Based Test (iBT) has progressively replaced both the Computer-Based (CBT) and Paper-Based (PBT) tests, although paper-based testing is still used in select areas. The iBT has been introduced in phases, with the United States, Canada, France, Germany, and Italy in 2005 and the rest of the world in 2006, with test centers added regularly. The CBT was discontinued in September 2006 and these scores are no longer valid. Although initially, the demand for test seats was higher than availability, and candidates had to wait for months, it is now possible to take the test within one to four weeks in most countries. The four-hour test consists of four sections, each measuring one of the basic language skills (while some tasks require integrating multiple skills) and all tasks focus on language used in an academic, higher-education environment. Note-taking is allowed during the iBT. The test cannot be taken more than once a week. 1. Reading The Reading section consists of 3–5 passages, each approximately 700 words in length and questions about the passages. The passages are on academic topics; they are the kind of material that might be found in an undergraduate university textbook. Passages require understanding of rhetorical functions such as cause-effect, comparecontrast and argumentation. Students answer questions about main ideas, details, inferences, essential information, sentence insertion, vocabulary, rhetorical purpose and overall ideas. New types of questions in the iBT require filling out tables or completing summaries. Prior knowledge of the subject under discussion is not necessary to come to the correct answer. 9 ©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh http://mortezash.blogfa.com/

2. Listening The Listening section consists of 6 passages, 3–5 minutes in length and questions about the passages. These passages include 2 student conversations and 4 academic lectures or discussions. A conversation involves 2 speakers, a student and either a professor or a campus service provider. A lecture is a self-contained portion of an academic lecture, which may involve student participation and does not assume specialized background knowledge in the subject area. Each conversation and lecture stimulus is heard only once. Test takers may take notes while they listen and they may refer to their notes when they answer the questions. Each conversation is associated with 5 questions and each lecture with 6. The questions are meant to measure the ability to understand main ideas, important details, implications, relationships between ideas, organization of information, speaker purpose and speaker attitude. 3. Speaking The Speaking section consists of 6 tasks, 2 independent tasks and 4 integrated tasks. In the 2 independent tasks, test takers answer opinion questions on familiar topics. They are evaluated on their ability to speak spontaneously and convey their ideas clearly and coherently. In 2 of the integrated tasks, test takers read a short passage, listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and answer a question by combining appropriate information from the text and the talk. In the 2 remaining integrated tasks, test takers listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and then respond to a question about what they heard. In the integrated tasks, test takers are evaluated on their ability to appropriately synthesize and effectively convey information from the reading and listening material. Test takers may take notes as they read and listen and may use their notes to help prepare their responses. Test takers are given a short preparation time before they have to begin speaking. 4. Writing The Writing section measures a test taker's ability to write in an academic setting and consists of 2 tasks, 1 integrated task and 1 independent task. In the integrated task, test takers read a passage on an academic topic and then listen to a speaker discuss the same topic. The test taker will then write a summary about the important points in the listening passage and explain how these relate to the key points of the reading passage. In the independent task, test takers must write an essay that states, explains and supports their opinion on an issue, supporting their opinions or choices, rather than simply listing personal preferences or choices.

10 ©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh http://mortezash.blogfa.com/

Summary of iBT Task

Description Approx. time READING 3–5 passages, each containing 12–14 questions 60–100 minutes LISTENING 6–9 passages, each containing 5–6 questions 60–90 minutes BREAK 10 minutes SPEAKING 6 tasks and 6 questions 20 minutes WRITING 2 tasks and 2 questions 55 minutes

It should be noted that one of the sections of the test will include extra, uncounted material. ETS includes extra material in order to pilot test questions for future test forms. When testtakers are given a longer section, they should give equal effort to all of the questions because they do not know which question will count and which will be considered extra. For example, if there are four reading passages instead of three, then three of those passages will count and one of the passages will not be counted. Any of the four passages could be the uncounted one. .::[email protected]::. .::[email protected]::. .::[email protected]::.

● Paper-based Test (PBT) In areas where the internet-based test is not available, a paper-based test (PBT) is given. Test takers must register in advance either online or by using the registration form provided in the Supplemental Paper TOEFL Bulletin. They should register in advance of the given deadlines to ensure a place because the test centers have limited seating and may fill up early. Tests are administered on fixed dates 6 times each year. The test is 3 hours long and all test sections can be taken on the same day. Students can take the test as many times as they wish. However, colleges and universities usually consider only the most recent score. 1. Listening (30–40 minutes) The Listening section consists of 3 parts. The first one contains 30 questions about short conversations. The second part has 8 questions about longer conversations. The last part asks 12 questions about lectures or talks. 2. Structure and Written Expression (25 minutes) The Structure and Written Expression section has 15 exercises of completing sentences correctly and 25 exercises of identifying errors. 3. Reading Comprehension (55 minutes) The Reading Comprehension section has 50 questions about reading passages. 4. Writing (30 minutes) The Writing section is one essay with 250–300 words in average.

11 ©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh http://mortezash.blogfa.com/

 Test scores  Internet-based Test (iBT)  



The iBT version of the TOEFL test is scored on a scale of 0 to 120 points. Each of the four sections (Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing) receives a scaled score from 0 to 30. The scaled scores from the four sections are added together to determine the total score. Each speaking question is initially given a score of 0 to 4, and each writing question is initially given a score of 0 to 5. These scores are converted to scaled scores of 0 to 30.

 Paper-based Test (PBT) 



The final PBT score ranges between 310 and 677 and is based on three sub scores: Listening (31–68), Structure (31–68), and Reading (31–67). Unlike the CBT, the score of the Writing section (referred to as the Test of Written English, TWE) is not part of the final score; instead, it is reported separately on a scale of 0–6. The score test takers receive on the Listening, Structure and Reading parts of the TOEFL test is not the percentage of correct answers. The score is converted to take into account the fact that some tests are more difficult than others. The converted scores correct these differences. Therefore, the converted score is a more accurate reflection of the ability than the correct answer score is.

Most colleges use TOEFL scores as only one factor in their admission process. A sampling of required TOEFL admissions scores shows that a total score of 74.2 for undergraduate admissions and 82.6 for graduate admissions may be required. It is recommended that students check with their prospective institutions directly to understand TOEFL admissions requirements. ETS has released tables to convert between iBT, CBT and PBT scores. .::[email protected]::. .::[email protected]::. .::[email protected]::.

َ‫ﺘَﻔَﻜَّﺮُون‬‫مٍ ﻳ‬‫ ﻟَّﻘَﻮ‬‫ﺎت‬‫ﻳ‬Ĥَ‫ ﻟ‬‫ﻚ‬‫ﻲ ذَﻟ‬‫ إِنَّ ﻓ‬‫ّﻨْﻪ‬‫ﺎ ﻣ‬‫ﻴﻌ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ضِ ﺟ‬‫ﻲ اﻟْﺄَر‬‫ﺎ ﻓ‬‫ ﻣ‬‫ و‬‫ات‬‫ﺎو‬‫ّﻤ‬‫ﻲ اﻟﺴ‬‫ّﺎ ﻓ‬‫ﺨَّﺮَ ﻟَﻜُﻢ ﻣ‬‫ ﺳ‬‫و‬ And He has subjected to you whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth – all from Him. Indeed in that are signs for a people who give thought.

‫او آﻧﭽﻪ در آﺳﻤﺎﻧﻬﺎ و آﻧﭽﻪ در زﻣﻴﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻫﻤﻪ را از ﺳﻮي ﺧﻮدش ﻣﺴﺨّﺮ و رام ﺷﻤﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ؛‬ !‫ﻲ( اﺳﺖ ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ اﻧﺪﻳﺸﻪ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬‫ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎي )ﻣﻬﻤ‬،‫در اﻳﻦ‬ (13 ‫ آﻳﻪ‬،‫)ﺳﻮره ﺟﺎﺛﻴﻪ‬

12 ©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh http://mortezash.blogfa.com/

‫‪IELTS‬‬ ‫‪.::[email protected]::.‬‬

‫ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر آزﻣﻮن ‪ IELTS‬ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪاي ﻛﻠﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ آزﻣﻮنﻫﺎي ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﻠﻠﻲ ‪ IELTS‬و ‪TOEFL‬‬ ‫داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﻢ ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮر ﻛﻪ در ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﺑﻴﺎن ﺷﺪ آزﻣﻮن ‪ TOEFL‬را ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻪ اﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎﻳﻲ ‪ ETS‬ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ اﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪IELTS‬‬ ‫در واﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎر ﻣﺸﺘﺮك داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ‪ British Council ،Cambridge‬و ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻪ اﺳﺘﺮاﻟﻴﺎﻳﻲ ‪ IDP Education Pty Ltd‬اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻧﺨﺴﺘﻴﻦ آزﻣﻮن ﺗﺎﻓﻞ در ﺳﺎل ‪ 1964‬ﻣﻴﻼدي ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﺷﺪ اﻣﺎ آﻳﻠﺘﺲ در ﻣﻘﺎم ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺗﺮ ﺑﻮده و در ﺳﺎل ‪1989‬‬ ‫اﺑﺪاع ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﺎﻓﻞ آزﻣﻮﻧﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮاﻧﺎﻳﻲ داوﻃﻠﺐ را در درك و ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ اﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻲﺳﻨﺠﺪ اﻣ‪‬ﺎ در آزﻣﻮن آﻳﻠﺘﺲ‪،‬‬ ‫اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان زﺑﺎن ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﻠﻠﻲ ﺳﻨﺠﻴﺪه ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻣﺜﺎل در اﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮن‪ ،‬در ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﻣﻬﺎرت‪ ‬ﺷﻨﻴﺪن‬ ‫از ﻟﻬﺠﻪﻫﺎي ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد و ﻧﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻳﻚ ﻟﻬﺠﻪ ﺧﺎص‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻮارد دﻳﮕﺮي ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮت ﺑﻪ ﻛﺸﻮرﻫﺎي ﻛﺎﻧﺎدا و اﺳﺘﺮاﻟﻴﺎ آزﻣﻮن آﻳﻠﺘﺲ ﺿﺮوري اﺳﺖ و ﺑﺮاي درﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻮرﺳﻴﻪﻫﺎي ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪ ،‬اﺳﺘﺨﺪام در ﻣﺮاﻛﺰ دوﻟﺘﻲ و ﻳﺎ ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻫﺎي ﺑﺎزرﮔﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻛﺴﺐ ﺣﺪﻧﺼﺎب اﻣﺘﻴﺎز در ﺗﺎﻓﻞ‬ ‫از ﺷﻤﺎ ﺧﻮاﺳﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ وب ﺳﺎﻳﺖ رﺳﻤﻲ ‪ ،ETS‬ﺷﺶ ﻫﺰار ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻪ در ‪ 110‬ﻛﺸﻮر دﻧﻴﺎ و ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎً ﺗﻤﺎم داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻫﺎي اﻧﮕﻠﺴﺘﺎن‪ ،‬اﺳﺘﺮاﻟﻴﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻮزﻳﻠﻨﺪ و ﻛﺎﻧﺎدا ﺑﺮاي ﭘﺬﻳﺮش‪ ،‬اﻋﻄﺎي ﺑﻮرس ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻠﻲ و ﻓﺎرغ اﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻧﻤﺮات ﺗﺎﻓﻞ را ﻣﻼك ﻗﺮار ﻣﻲدﻫﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫رﺳﻤﻲ آﻳﻠﺘﺲ ﻫﻢ‪ ،‬آﻣﺎر و ارﻗﺎم ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﻲ را در ﺧﺼﻮص ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﻴﺖ آﻳﻠﺘﺲ ذﻛﺮ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮر ﻛﻠﻲ ﻧﻤﺮات آﻳﻠﺘﺲ از ‪ 0‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 9‬درﺟﻪﺑﻨﺪي ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ و ﺑﺮاي ورود ﺑﻪ اﻏﻠﺐ داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻫﺎ ﻧﻤﺮه آﻳﻠﺘﺲ ﺷﻤﺎ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬ ‫در ﺣﺪود ‪ 5/5‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 7‬ﺑﺎﺷﺪ اﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮر ﻛﻪ در ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﺨﺴﺖ اﺷﺎره ﺷﺪ ﺗﻔﺎوت آزﻣﻮنﻫﺎي ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ در ﻧﺤﻮه ﺑﺮﮔﺰاري‬ ‫آنﻫﺎ اﺳﺖ‪ .‬اﺑﺘﺪا آزﻣﻮن ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ﺑﻪﺻﻮرت ﻛﺎﻏﺬي ﺑﻮد و داوﻃﻠﺒﺎن ﺟﻮاب ﭘﺮﺳﺶﻫﺎ را ﺑﺎ ﻣﺪاد روي روي ﭘﺎﺳﺨﻨﺎﻣﻪ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻲزدﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺖ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮژي‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮي ﻫﻢ راﻳﺞ ﺷﺪ اﻣ‪‬ﺎ اﻣﺮوز ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرتﻫﺎي ﻛﺎﻏﺬي و‬ ‫اﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺘﻲ ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬ﻣﻘﻴﺎس ﻧﻤﺮه در ﻫﺮ ﻛﺪام از اﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮنﻫﺎ ﻣﺘﻔﺎوت اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻫﺮ ﻛﺪام از آزﻣﻮنﻫﺎي آﻳﻠﺘﺲ و ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ﻣﺪت دو ﺳﺎل اﻋﺘﺒﺎر دارﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ در اﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮنﻫﺎ ﻛﺴﺐ ﺣﺪ ﻧﺼﺎب ﻧﻤﺮه ﺑﺮاي ورود ﺑﻪ داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻈﺮ ﺷﺮط اﺳﺖ و ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻲ و ردي ﭼﻨﺪان‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺮح ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻲ داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻫﺎي ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻫﺮ ﻛﺪام ﻣﻌﻴﺎر و اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺧﻮد را ﺑﺮاي ﮔﺰﻳﻨﺶ داﻧﺸﺠﻮ دارا ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ و‬ ‫ﺑﺮ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺎس ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺪاﻧﻴﺪ داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻈﺮﺗﺎن ﭼﻪ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ﻧﻤﺮهاي را ﺑﺮاي ورود و ﺛﺒﺖ ﻧﺎم ﻣﻲﭘﺬﻳﺮد‪.‬‬ ‫ آﻳﻠﺘﺲ ﺑﻪ دو دﺳﺘﻪ ‪) General‬ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ( و ‪) Academic‬داﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﻲ( ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢﺑﻨﺪي ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬آﻳﻠﺘﺲ ‪Academic‬‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻞ در داﻧﺸﮕﺎه را دارﻧﺪ و ﻳﺎ اﻓﺮادي ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﺎن و ﭘﺮﺳﺘﺎران ﻛﻪ ﻗﺼﺪ ﻛﺎر ﻳﺎ‬ ‫اداﻣﻪ ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻞ در رﺷﺘﻪ ﺧﻮد در ﻳﻚ ﻛﺸﻮر اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ زﺑﺎن را دارﻧﺪ‪ .‬آﻳﻠﺘﺲ ‪ General‬وﻳﮋه ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮان و ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﻃﻲ ﻛﺮدن دورهﻫﺎي ﻏﻴﺮ داﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻛﺸﻮر اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ زﺑﺎن ﺳﻔﺮ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻻزم ﺑﻪ ذﻛﺮ اﺳﺖ آزﻣﻮنﻫﺎى داﺧﻠﻰ ‪ TOLIMO‬و ‪ MCHE‬و آزﻣﻮنﻫﺎى زﺑﺎن دﻛﺘﺮاى داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻫﺎى داﺧﻞ ﻛﺸﻮر ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر آزﻣﻮن ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ و اﺟﺮا ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫از آﻧﺠﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ از ﻛﺸﻮرﻫﺎى اروﭘﺎﺋﻰ و آﺳﻴﺎﻳﻰ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺪرك ‪ IELTS‬را ﻣﻰﭘﺬﻳﺮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬا ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺿﻴﺎن ﺷﺮﻛﺖ در آزﻣﻮن رﺳﻤﻰ‬ ‫‪ IELTS‬اﻳﺮان‪ ،‬رو ﺑﻪ اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻛﺜﺮ داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻫﺎى دﻧﻴﺎ )ﺑﺨﺼﻮص ﻛﺸﻮرﻫﺎى اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻰ زﺑﺎن( اراﺋﻪ ﻣﺪرك ‪ IELTS‬را ﺑﻌﻨﻮان ﻳﻜﻰ از ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺷﺮوط ﭘﺬﻳﺮش‬ ‫داﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﺎن ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻟﻴﺴﺎﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻮقﻟﻴﺴﺎﻧﺲ و دﻛﺘﺮا ﻗﻴﺪ ﻛﺮدهاﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ‪ IELTS‬در دو ﻧﻮع ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ‪ Academic‬و ‪ General Training‬ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ‪ Academic‬ﺗﻮاﻧﺎﻳﻲ اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ داوﻃﻠﺒﺎﻧﻲ را ﻣﻲﺳﻨﺠﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺼﺪ دارﻧﺪ ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻼت ﺧﻮد را در ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻛﺎرﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻻ در‬ ‫ﻳﻚ داﻧﺸﮕﺎه اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ زﺑﺎن اداﻣﻪ دﻫﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﻜﻲ از ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﻃﻬﺎي ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺘﻪﺷﺪن در اﻳﻦ داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻫﺎ ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ آوردن ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻮل از ﻧﻤﺮه اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻮع ‪ General Training‬آزﻣﻮن آﻳﻠﺘﺲ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت داوﻃﻠﺒﺎن را در ﺳﻄﺤﻲ وﺳﻴﻊﺗﺮ و در ﺑﺴﺘﺮي ﻋﻠﻤﻲ – اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﻲﺳﻨﺠﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫آزﻣﻮن ‪ General Training‬ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺼﺪ دارﻧﺪ ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻼت ﭘﻴﺶداﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﻲ ﺧﻮد را در ﻛﺸﻮري اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫زﺑﺎن ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﺎن ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﻨﺪ و ﻳﺎ ﺑﻪﻣﻨﻈﻮر ﮔﺬراﻧﺪن دورهﻫﺎي ﻛﻮﺗﺎهﻣﺪ‪‬ت ﻛﺎري و ﻳﺎ دﺳﺖﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ ﺑﻪﻓﺮﺻﺖﻫﺎي ﺷﻐﻠﻲ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺳﻔﺮ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮرﻫﺎ را دارﻧﺪ ﺑﻪﻋﻼوه ﻛﺎرﻧﺎﻣﻪ اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﺪارﻛﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ در ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﭘﺮوﻧﺪهﻫﺎي ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮت ﻛﺸﻮرﻫﺎي‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺮاﻟﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﻮزﻟﻨﺪ و ﻛﺎﻧﺎدا از ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺿﻴﺎن ﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫در اﻣﺘﺤﺎن آﻳﻠﺘﺲ ﺗﻮاﻧﺎﻳﻲﻫﺎي ﺷﻨﻴﺪن‪ ،‬ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ و ﺻﺤﺒﺖﻛﺮدن در ﭼﻬﺎر ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺟﺪاﮔﺎﻧﻪ ﺳﻨﺠﻴﺪه ﻣﻲﺷﻮد در ﺣﺎﻟﻴﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻧﺎﻳﻲ ﺷﻨﻴﺪاري و ﺻﺤﺒﺖﻛﺮدن داوﻃﻠﺒﺎن اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ‪ Academic‬و ‪ General Training‬ﺑﻪ روش ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﻲ ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮد‪ ،‬ﻫﺮ ﻳﻚ از اﻳﻦ دو ﮔﺮوه ﺳﺆاﻻت ﺟﺪاﮔﺎﻧﻪاي در ﻗﺴﻤﺖﻫﺎي ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن و ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ درﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺖ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﻧﻮع‬ ‫اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺑﺮ ﻋﻬﺪه ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﻮده و ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎن ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﺛﺒﺖﻧﺎم ﺧﻮد ﻧﻮع اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻈﺮ را در ﻓﺮم ﺛﺒﺖﻧﺎم ﻗﻴﺪ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ او‪‬ل ﻫﺮ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن در ﻳﻚ روز ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ ،‬اﻣﺎ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻣﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ در ﻃﻮل ﻳﻚﻫﻔﺘﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ و ﻳﺎ ﻳﻚ ﻫﻔﺘﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫از اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﺷﻮد‪ .‬داوﻃﻠﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ از ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎي دﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺮﮔﺰاري اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺑﻪ ﺗﻬﺮان ﻣﻲآﻳﻨﺪ در اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ ﻗﺮار ﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ داﺷﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻳﻦ دﺳﺘﻪ از داوﻃﻠﺒﺎن ﺑﺮاي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ درﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﺛﺒﺖﻧﺎم ﻧﺎم ﺧﻮد را در ﻟﻴﺴﺘﻲ ﺟﺪاﮔﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻪﺛﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﻨﺪ و ﻣﺴﺌﻮل ﺛﺒﺖ ﻧﺎم را در ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﺑﮕﺬارﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫آزﻣﻮن ‪ ،IELTS‬ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ ﺷﺪه ﻛﻪ ﻗﺎدر اﺳﺖ ﻣﻴﺰان ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت داوﻃﻠﺒﺎن در ﺳﻄﻮح ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ از زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ را ﺳﻨﺠﻴﺪه و‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ‪ IELTS‬ﻃﺒﻘﻪﺑﻨﺪي ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎن در اﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮن ﺑﻪ ﻃﻴﻒ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﻲ از ﺳﺆاﻻت ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﺳﺎده ﺗﺎ ﺑﺴﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻣﻲدﻫﻨﺪ و در ﭘﺎﻳﺎن ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻤﺮهاي ﻛﻪ از ﻫﺮﻳﻚ از ﭼﻬﺎرﺑﺨﺶ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ درﻳﺎﻓﺖﻛﺮدهاﻧﺪ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻣﺎﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﺎآﺷﻨﺎي‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻪ زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﻧﻤﺮه ‪ ،0‬ﺗﺎ ﺳﻄﺢ آﺷﻨﺎي ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻪ زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﻧﻤﺮه ‪ ،9‬ﻃﺒﻘﻪﺑﻨﺪي ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ‪ 2‬ﻫﻔﺘﻪ ﭘﺲ از ﭘﺎﻳﺎن ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ آﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺷﺨﺼﺎً ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺿﻲ درﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﮔﺮدد و‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻻن دﻓﺘﺮ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن‪ ،‬اﺟﺎزه ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺲ ﻳﺎ ﭘﺴﺖ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﻜﻲ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ را ﺑﻪ اﻃﻼع داوﻃﻠﺒﺎن ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺮه ﻫﺮ ﭼﻬﺎر ﺑﺨﺶ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺑﻪﻃﻮر ﺟﺪاﮔﺎﻧﻪ در ﻛﺎرﻧﺎﻣﻪ درج ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﮔﺮدﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻼوه ﻣﻴﺎﻧﮕﻴﻨﻲ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻲ و ﮔﺮدﺷﺪه از اﻳﻦ ﭼﻬﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻧﻤﺮهﻛﻠﻲ در اﺧﺘﻴﺎر داوﻃﻠﺐ ﻗﺮار ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‪ .‬اﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﺮه ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ و ﻫﻤﻴﻨﻄﻮر ﻧﻤﺮهﻫﺎي ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎي ﺷﻨﻴﺪاري و‬ ‫ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن ﺑﺎ اﻋﺸﺎر ‪ 0/5‬و ﻧﻤﺮه ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎي ﻣﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ و ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪون اﻋﺸﺎر و ﺑﻪﺻﻮرت اﻋﺪاد ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﮔﺰارش ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻳﻚ ﻗﺎﻧﻮن ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺗﺎ دو ﺳﺎل ﭘﺲ از ﺑﺮﮔﺰاري اﻣﺘﺤﺎن اﻋﺘﺒﺎر دارﻧﺪ‪ .‬در ﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ ﺑﺘﻮان اﺛﺒﺎت ﻛﺮد ﻛﻪ‬ ‫داوﻃﻠﺐ ﭘﺲ از ﺑﺮﮔﺰاري اﻣﺘﺤﺎن در ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ﺧﻮد و ﺑﻬﺒﻮد داﻧﺶ ﺧﻮد در زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ ﻛﻮﺷﺎ ﺑﻮده‪ ،‬ﻣﻲﺗﻮان از ﻛﺎرﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺣﺘّﻲ ﺑﻴﺶ از اﻳﻦ ﻣﻬﻠﺖ دوﺳﺎﻟﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻛﺮد‪.‬‬

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‫● اﻧﻮاع آزﻣﻮن آﻳﻠﺘﺲ و ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎي ﻣﻮرد ﺳﻨﺠﺶ‬ ‫* ﺗﻮﺟ‪‬ﻪ‪ :‬آزﻣﻮن ﺷﻨﻴﺪاري و ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﻛﺮدن ‪ General Training‬و ‪ Academic‬ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫آزﻣﻮن ‪General Training‬‬ ‫●‬

‫‪General Training Reading‬‬

‫ﺳﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي ﭘﺎﺳﺦدادن ﺑﻪ ‪ 40‬ﺳﺆال اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﻪ داوﻃﻠﺒﺎن ‪ 60‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﻓﺮﺻﺖ داده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬ﺳﺆاﻻت و ﻣﺘﻦﻫﺎ در‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﺪود ‪ 2000‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 2700‬ﻛﻠﻤﻪ و در ﻳﻚ دﻓﺘﺮﭼﻪ ﺑﻪ داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ داده ﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ از ﺳﭙﺮي ﺷﺪن‬ ‫ﻳﻚﺳﺎﻋﺖ اﻳﻦ دﻓﺘﺮﭼﻪ ﺑﻪﻫﻤﺮاه ﭘﺎﺳﺨﻨﺎﻣﻪ از داوﻃﻠﺐ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪﺷﺪ‪ .‬در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﺮﺧﻼف ﻗﺴﻤﺖ او‪‬ل اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺑﻪ‬ ‫داوﻃﻠﺐ ﻓﺮﺻﺘﻲ ﺑﺮاي اﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﭘﺎﺳﺦﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦﻧﺎﻣﻪ داده ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮن ﺑﻪﻛﺎر ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪﺷﺪه در دﻓﺘﺮﭼﻪ ﺳﺆاﻻت از ﻣﺠﻠﻪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺟﺰوات‪ ،‬ﻛﺘﺎبﻫﺎ و روزﻧﺎﻣﻪﻫﺎ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ و ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﻫﻤﻪ آﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاﻧﻨﺪه ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ او‪‬ل ﺑﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ و ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖﻫﺎي اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺗﻤﺮﻛﺰ دارد‪ .‬اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺘﻮﻧﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮوادات اﺑﺘﺪاﻳﻲ و روزﻣﺮه‬ ‫اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺗﻌﻠّﻖ داﺷﺘﻪ و ﻧﮕﺮﺷﻲ ﺑﻪﺳﻤﺖ ﺟﻤﻊآوري‪ ،‬ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ و ﺗﻬﻴﻪ اﻃّﻼﻋﺎت در اﻳﻨﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت دارد‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ در ﺑﺨﺶ دو‪‬م ﺑﻪ ﺟﺰوات آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ و اﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎت رﻓﺎﻫﻲ اﺳﺖ‪ .‬اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺘﻮﻧﻲ اﺧﺘﺼﺎص داده ﺷﺪه ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪهﺗﺮي در آﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪﻛﺎر ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻦ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎً ﺑﻠﻨﺪﺗﺮي در ﺑﺨﺶ ﺳﻮ‪‬م در اﻧﺘﻈﺎر داوﻃﻠﺒﺎن ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد ﻛﻪ از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ آن ﺗﻮاﻧﺎﻳﻲ ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن ﻧﺜﺮﻫﺎي ﺑﻠﻨﺪ در‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎن ﺳﻨﺠﻴﺪه ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن ﻧﺜﺮﻫﺎي ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪه ﻣﺪ ﻧﻈﺮ اﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ درك ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ اﺳﺘﺪﻻﻟﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫●‬

‫‪General Training Writing‬‬

‫ﺑﺮاي اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ از اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻳﻚﺳﺎﻋﺖ زﻣﺎن در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‪ .‬در ﻃﻮل اﻳﻦ زﻣﺎن ﺑﻪ داوﻃﻠﺒﺎن دو ﻣﻮﺿﻮع ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ داده ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎن در اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺑﻴﺴﺖدﻗﻴﻘﻪ او‪‬ل را ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﺳﺆال او‪‬ل اﺧﺘﺼﺎص‬ ‫دﻫﻨﺪ و ﭼﻬﻞ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﺎﻗﻲﻣﺎﻧﺪه را ﺻﺮف ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆال دو‪‬م ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆال او‪‬ل ﻻزم اﺳﺖ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ در ‪ 150‬ﻛﻠﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‪ .‬ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ﺗﻌﺪاد ﻛﻠﻤﺎت ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻮﺿﻮع دوم ‪ 250‬ﻛﻠﻤﻪ اﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ از اﻳﻦ ﻣﻴﺰان ﻛﻠﻤﻪ داﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻧﻤﺮه ﻛﺎﻣﻞ داده ﻧﺨﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫در ﻣﻮﺿﻮع او‪‬ل از داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺧﻮاﺳﺘﻪ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻧﺎﻣﻪاي ﺑﻪ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺒﻲ ﻓﺮﺿﻲ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ و در ﻧﺎﻣﻪاش ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪاي را ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ داده ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﻲ را ﺷﺮح دﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮع دو‪‬م در ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺆال از داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺧﻮاﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﻋﻘﻴﺪه ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﺧﻮد را ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﺑﻴﺎن‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫آزﻣﻮن ‪Academic‬‬ ‫●‬

‫‪Academic Reading‬‬

‫ﺑﺮاي ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دادن ﺑﻪ ‪ 40‬ﺳﺆال اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﻪ داوﻃﻠﺒﺎن ‪ 60‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﻓﺮﺻﺖ داده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬ﺳﺆاﻻت و ﻣﺘﻦﻫﺎ در ﺳﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺪود ‪ 2000‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 2700‬ﻛﻠﻤﻪ و در ﻳﻚ دﻓﺘﺮﭼﻪ ﺑﻪ داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ داده ﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ از ﺳﭙﺮي ﺷﺪن ﻳﻚﺳﺎﻋﺖ اﻳﻦ‬ ‫دﻓﺘﺮﭼﻪ ﺑﻪﻫﻤﺮاه ﭘﺎﺳﺨﻨﺎﻣﻪ از داوﻃﻠﺐ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪﺷﺪ‪ .‬در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﺮﺧﻼف ﻗﺴﻤﺖ او‪‬ل اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺑﻪ داوﻃﻠﺐ ﻓﺮﺻﺘﻲ ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﭘﺎﺳﺦﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦﻧﺎﻣﻪ داده ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬

‫‪15‬‬ ‫‪©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh‬‬ ‫‪http://mortezash.blogfa.com/‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﻮن ﺑﻪﻛﺎر ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪﺷﺪه در دﻓﺘﺮﭼﻪ ﺳﺆاﻻت از ﻣﺠﻠﻪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺟﺰوات و ﻛﺘﺎبﻫﺎ و روزﻧﺎﻣﻪﻫﺎ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ و ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﻫﻤﻪ آﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاﻧﻨﺪه ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ﻳﻜﻲ از اﻳﻦ ﺳﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ اﺳﺘﺪﻻﻟﻲ ﻇﺮﻳﻒ اﺳﺖ و ﻳﻚ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﺘﻮاي ﻏﻴﺮ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري و ﻫﻤﺮاه ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮدار ﻳﺎ ﺷﻜﻞ اﺧﺘﺼﺎص دارد‪ .‬در ﺻﻮرﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺣﺎوي ﻟﻐﺎت ﺗﺨﺼﺼﻲ و ﻓﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬واژهﻧﺎﻣﻪاي ﻛﻮﺗﺎه ﻧﻴﺰ ﻫﻤﺮاه ﻣﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ آﻣﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺎزدﻫﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﺑﺮاي ﭘﺎﺳﺦﮔﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆاﻻت ﻫﺮ ﻣﺘﻦ‪ ،‬اﺑﺘﺪا ﻣﺪت ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ ‪ 5‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ را ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺑﭙﺮدازﻳﺪ‪ .‬در اﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎت ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ‪ ،‬اﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﻌﻲﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع اﺻﻠﻲ ﻫﺮ ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف را درﻳﺎﺑﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﭘﺎﺳﺨﮕﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆاﻻت ﻣﻲداﻧﻴﺪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺳﺆال اﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻً در ﻛﺪام ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف اﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ دﻗّﺖ داﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺳﻮالﻫﺎ ﻫﻤﺎن ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ در ﻣﺘﻦ آﻣﺪه اﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻣﺜﻼً ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺳﺆال ‪ 4‬را ﻗﺒﻞ از ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺳﺆال‬ ‫‪ 5‬در ﻣﺘﻦ ﺧﻮاﻫﻴﺪ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫در ﺑﺨﺶ ‪ Reading‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﻘﺶ ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﻣﻬ‪‬ﻤﻲ دارد و ﺗﻨﻬﺎ راه ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺮدن ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ‪ 1‬ﻣﺎه ﻗﺒﻞ از آزﻣﻮن ‪ Reading‬ﻫﺎي آزﻣﻮنﻫﺎي ‪ IELTS‬را ﺑﺎ زﻣﺎنﺑﻨﺪي اﻣﺘﺤﺎن واﻗﻌﻲ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫●‬

‫‪Academic Writing‬‬

‫ﺑﺮاي اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ از اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻳﻚﺳﺎﻋﺖ زﻣﺎن در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‪ .‬در ﻃﻮل اﻳﻦ ﻣﺪ‪‬ت ﺑﻪ داوﻃﻠﺒﺎن دو ﻣﻮﺿﻮع ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ داده ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎن در اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺑﻴﺴﺖدﻗﻴﻘﻪ او‪‬ل را ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﺳﺆال او‪‬ل اﺧﺘﺼﺎص‬ ‫داده و ﭼﻬﻞ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﺎﻗﻲﻣﺎﻧﺪه را ﺻﺮف ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆال دو‪‬م ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆال او‪‬ل ﻻزم اﺳﺖ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ در ‪ 150‬ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‪ .‬ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ﺗﻌﺪاد ﻛﻠﻤﺎت ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻮﺿﻮع دو‪‬م ‪ 250‬ﻛﻠﻤﻪ اﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ از اﻳﻦ ﻣﻴﺰان ﻛﻠﻤﻪ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻧﻤﺮه‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ داده ﻧﺨﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫در ﻣﻮﺿﻮع او‪‬ل ﺑﻪ داوﻃﻠﺐ ﻳﻚ ﺟﺪول ﻳﺎ ﻧﻤﻮدار داده ﺷﺪه و از او ﺧﻮاﺳﺘﻪ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ اﻃّﻼﻋﺎت ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶداده ﺷﺪه در‬ ‫ﺟﺪول را ﺑﺎ ﺟﻤﻼت ﺧﻮد ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ دﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮع دو‪‬م در ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺆال از داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺧﻮاﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻳﺎ ﻋﻘﻴﺪه ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﺧﻮد را ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎن ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫●‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ‪Listening‬‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ‪ Listening‬ﺧﻮد از ﭼﻬﺎر ‪ section‬ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬در ﻫﺮ ﻳﻚ از ‪section‬ﻫﺎ ﺣﺪود ‪ 10‬ﺳﺆال وﺟﻮد دارد و زﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ‪ Listening‬ﺣﺪود ‪ 20‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 30‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫در ﺣﻴﻦ ﭘﺨﺶ ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﺎت و ﻣﺘﻮن‪ ،‬ﻫﻴﭻ ﻓﺮﺻﺘﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن ﺳﺆال ﻧﺪارﻳﺪ‪ .‬اﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ از آﻏﺎز ﻫﺮ ‪ section‬ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺪ‪‬ت زﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻛﻮﺗﺎﻫﻲ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪه ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﺎﺗﻲ اراﺋﻪ ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﺎت آﺷﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ و در اﻳﻦ ﻣﺪ‪‬ت ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن ﺳﺆالﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﭙﺮدازﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺳﺆاﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ از آﻏﺎز ﻣﺘﻦ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺧﻮاﻧﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ اﺣﺘﻤﺎل زﻳﺎد ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺧﻮاﻫﻴﺪ داد ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن ﺳﺆاﻻت‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﻣﻬﻢ اﺳﺖ‪ .‬در ﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن ﺳﺆاﻻت ﺣﺘﻤﺎً دور ﻛﻠﻤﺎت ﻛﻠﻴﺪي آن ﺳﺆال ﺧﻂ ﺑﻜﺸﻴﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﭘﺨﺶ ﻣﻜﺎﻟﻤﻪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺾ ﺷﻨﻴﺪن ﻛﻠﻤﺎت ﻛﻠﻴﺪي آﻣﺎده ﺷﻨﻴﺪن ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ دﻟﻴﻞ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆال در ﺣﻴﻦ ﺷﻨﻴﺪن ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺷﻮد ﺑﺨﺸﻲ از ﻣﺘﻦ را ﮔﻮش ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﭘﺎﺳﺦ را ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﺻﻪﺗﺮﻳﻦ و ﺳﺎدهﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ)ﻣﺜﻼً اﮔﺮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ‪ morning today‬ﺑﻮده اﺳﺖ و ﺑﺮاﻳﺘﺎن ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﻓﺎرﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎدهﺗﺮ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺎرﺳﻲ ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ اﻣﺮوز ﺻﺒﺢ(‪ .‬در اﻧﺘﻬﺎي ﻫﺮ ‪ section‬ﻣﺪت ‪ 30‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﻓﺮﺻﺖ دارﻳﺪ ﻛﻪ در اﻳﻦ ﻣﺪ‪‬ت ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﺻﻼح ﭘﺎﺳﺦﻫﺎي ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﭙﺮدازﻳﺪ )ﻣﺜﻼ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻣﺮوز ﺻﺒﺢ ﺑﻪ ‪ .(morning today‬در ﺗﻤﺎم اﻳﻦ ﻣﺪ‪‬ت ﺷﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺳﺦﻫﺎ را در ﺑﺮﮔﻪ ﺳﺆال )ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻋﻨﻮان ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮد( ﻣﻲﻧﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ ﻫﺮﮔﺰ از ﭘﺎكﻛﻦ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬

‫‪16‬‬ ‫‪©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh‬‬ ‫‪http://mortezash.blogfa.com/‬‬

‫ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ و ﺟﻬﺖ اﺻﻼح ﭘﺎﺳﺦﻫﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻗﺒﻠﻲ را ﺧﻂ ﺑﺰﻧﻴﺪ ﺗﺎ در زﻣﺎن ﺻﺮﻓﻪﺟﻮﻳﻲ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪ .‬در ﭘﺎﻳﺎن ﺑﺨﺶ ‪Listening‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪت ‪ 10‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ زﻣﺎن ﺑﺮاي وارد ﻛﺮدن ﺟﻮابﻫﺎ از ﺑﺮﮔﻪ ﺳﺆال ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺨﻨﺎﻣﻪ دارﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫●‬

‫ﺑﺨﺶ ‪Speaking‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ داوﻃﻠﺒﺎن ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ 11‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 14‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﻪﻃﻮل ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ اﻧﺠﺎﻣﻴﺪ‪ .‬در ﻃﻮل اﻳﻦ زﻣﺎن داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆاﻻت ﻣﻄﺮح ﺷﺪه از ﺳﻮي‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪﮔﺮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ داد‪ .‬اﻳﻦ ﻣﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ ﺑﺮ روي ﻧﻮار ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫در ﺑﺨﺶ او‪‬ل ﻣﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ‪ ،‬داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆاﻻت ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ و ﺷﺨﺼﻲ در ﻣﻮرد ﻣﺤﻞزﻧﺪﮔﻲ‪ ،‬وﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺧﺎﻧﻮادﮔﻲ‪ ،‬ﺷﻐﻠﻲ و ﻫﻤﻴﻨﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻳﻘﺶ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ داد‪ .‬اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ‪ 4‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 5‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﻪﻃﻮل ﻣﻲاﻧﺠﺎﻣﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫در ﺑﺨﺶ دو‪‬م ﺑﻪ داوﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮ روي ﻳﻚ ﻛﺎرت ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪهاﺳﺖ‪ ،‬داده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد و از وي ﺧﻮاﺳﺘﻪ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪت دو دﻗﻴﻘﻪ در ﻣﻮرد آن ﻣﻮﺿﻮع ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﻛﺮده و ﻧﻈﺮ و ﻋﻘﻴﺪه ﺧﻮد را اﻇﻬﺎر ﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬داوﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﭘﻴﺶ از ﺷﺮوع‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪت ﻳﻚ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ در ﻣﻮرد ﻣﺤﻮرﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ در ﻣﻮرد آﻧﻬﺎ ﺻﺤﺒﺖﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﻛﺮد ﻓﻜﺮ ﻛﺮده و ﻳﺎدداﺷﺖ ﺑﺮدارد‪ .‬ﭘﺲ از‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺗﻤﻪ دو دﻗﻴﻘﻪ داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ دو ﺳﺆال ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻧﻲ در راﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ داد‪.‬‬ ‫در ﺑﺨﺶ ﺳﻮ‪‬م داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺤﺜﻲ ﭼﻬﺎر ﺗﺎ ﭘﻨﺞدﻗﻴﻘﻪاي ﺑﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪﮔﺮ وارد ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺤﻮر آن ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺚ در ﻛﺎرت ﻣﺮﺑﻮط اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫☼ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻧﻜﺎت ﻣﻬﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (1‬ﺳﺆالﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺎن ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻲ ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪاﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ ﭘﻴﺶ ﻣﻲرود ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻣﺜﺎل ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺳﺆال ‪ 4‬ﻗﻄﻌﺎً ﻗﺒﻞ از ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺳﺆال ‪5‬‬ ‫ﺷﻨﻴﺪه ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ اﮔﺮ ﻣﺜﻼً ﻣﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺷﻨﻴﺪن ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺳﺆال ‪ 4‬ﻫﺴﺘﻴﺪ و ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺳﺆال ‪ 5‬را ﻣﻲﺷﻨﻮﻳﺪ ﺑﺪاﻧﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎً ﺳﺆال ‪ 4‬را‬ ‫از دﺳﺖ دادهاﻳﺪ و ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺎً ﺣﻮاس ﺧﻮد را ﻣﺘﻮﺟ‪‬ﻪ ﺳﺆالﻫﺎي ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (2‬در ﺳﺆاﻻﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻻزم اﺳﺖ ﺟﺪوﻟﻲ را ﭘ‪‬ﺮ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﭘﺨﺶ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺣﺘﻤﺎً ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﭘ‪‬ﺮﺷﺪن اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ﺟﺪول را ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺎره‬ ‫ﺳﺆاﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ در ﻫﺮ ﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺟﺪول ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ دﺳﺖ آورﻳﺪ )ﭼﭗ ﺑﻪ راﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ‪.(... ،‬‬ ‫‪ (3‬ﻏﻠﻂ اﻣﻼﻳﻲ و ﮔﺮاﻣﺮي ﺑﺎﻋﺚ از دﺳﺖ دادن ﻧﻤﺮه ﺳﺆال ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬ﻏﻠﻄﻬﺎي اﻣﻼﻳﻲ ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮاﻣﺮي ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻮاردي ﻫﻤﭽﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﺪم ﻗﺮاردادن ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ)در ﺻﻮرت ﻟﺰوم(‪ ،‬ﺣﺮوف ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ)در ﺻﻮرت ﻟﺰوم(‪ ،‬ﺷﺮوع اﺳﺎﻣﻲ ﺧﺎص ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮف ﻛﻮﭼﻚ)ﻣﺜﻼً ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ‬ ‫‪ iran‬ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎي ‪ ،(Iran‬ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (4‬در ﺻﻮرﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺳﺆال اﺳﻢ ﺧﺎص ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ‪ spell‬ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ )اﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻً ﺳﺮﻳﻊ( ﻣﮕﺮ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ اﺳﻢ ﺧﺎص‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﻣﻲ ﻣﻌﺮوف‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﻣﺜﻼً ‪.(Oxford Street‬‬ ‫‪ (5‬در ﻣﻮاردي ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ذﻛﺮ ﺷﻤﺎره ﭘﻼك ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺟﻬﺖ اﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎن ﻫﻤﻪ ﺣﺮوف ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﺣﺮف ﺑﺰرگ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (6‬اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از اﺷﻜﺎل ﻣﺨﻔﻒ در ﺻﻮرﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﻦاﻟﻤﻠﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ)ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ‪ (FBI‬ﻣﺎﻧﻌﻲ ﻧﺪارد و ﺣﺘّﻲ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (7‬در ﺳﺆاﻻﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺤﺪودﻳﺖ ﺗﻌﺪاد ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻗﺮار داده ﺷﺪه اﮔﺮ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﺪودﻳﺖ رﻋﺎﻳﺖ ﻧﺸﻮد ﻧﻤﺮه ﺳﺆال را از دﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻮاﻫﻴﺪ داد ﺣﺘﻲ اﮔﺮ ﭘﺎﺳﺨﺘﺎن درﺳﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪th‬‬ ‫‪th‬‬ ‫)ﻣﺜﻼً اﮔﺮ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ دو ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎي ‪ 24 of June‬ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ ‪.( June 24‬‬ ‫‪ (8‬در ﺻﻮرﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺳﺆاﻟﻲ ﻋﺪدي اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ واﺣﺪ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ دارد‪ ،‬واﺣﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫)ﻣﺜﻼً ‪ $56‬ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎي ‪ 56‬ﻳﺎ ‪ 100cm‬ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎي ‪.(100‬‬ ‫‪ (9‬در ﻣﻮرد اﻋﺪاد ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻲ )‪) (Ordinal Numbers‬او‪‬ل‪ ،‬دو‪‬م‪ (... ،‬ﻣﺸﺨﺺﻧﻤﻮدن ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻲ ﺑﻮدن ﻋﺪد‪ ،‬ﻣﻬﻢ اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫)ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ‪ 5th floor‬ﻳﺎ ‪ fifth floor‬ﺑﺠﺎي ‪.(five floor‬‬ ‫‪ (10‬اﮔﺮ در ﺳﺆال از ﺷﻤﺎ ‪ Day‬ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺧﻮاﺳﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻳﻚ روز ﻣﺜﻼً ‪the day before ،Sunday ،tomorrow‬‬ ‫‪ ... ،yesterday‬اﺳﺖ اﻣ‪‬ﺎ اﮔﺮ در ﻣﻮرد ‪ Date‬ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺳﺆال ﺷﻮد ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﺼﻮرت ﻳﻚ ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ‪ June 24th‬ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد‪.‬‬

‫‪17‬‬ ‫‪©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh‬‬ ‫‪http://mortezash.blogfa.com/‬‬

‫ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ و‬1 ‫ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬1hr 50min later ‫( دﻗّﺖ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﻣﺜﻼً ﻋﺒﺎرت‬Duration) ‫تﻫﺎ‬‫( و ﻣﺪ‬Time) ‫( در ﻣﺸﺨﺺﻧﻤﻮدن زﻣﺎنﻫﺎ‬11 .‫ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻳﻚ و ﭘﻨﺠﺎه دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬1:50 ‫ و ﻋﺒﺎرت‬،‫ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻳﻚ و ﺳﻲ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬1.50 ‫ ﻋﺒﺎرت‬،‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ دﻳﺮﺗﺮ‬50 ‫م ﻏﻠﻂ اﺳﺖ( درﺿﻤﻦ‬‫ ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺴﺮ دو ﺳﻮ‬2/3 ‫( در ﻣﻮرد ﻛﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﻻزم اﺳﺖ ﺣﺘﻤﺎً ﺻﻮرت ﻛﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ از ﻣﺨﺮج ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻣﺜﻼً ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ‬12 .( 0/7 ‫ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎي‬0.7 ) ‫در ﻣﻮرد اﻋﺪاد اﻋﺸﺎري ﺣﺘﻤﺎً از ﻧﻘﻄﻪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬ IELTS ‫☼ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻧﻤﺮهدﻫﻰ و ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫ ﻧﻤﺮه ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮﻳﻚ‬4 ) ‫ ﻧﻤﺮه ﻣﺘﻔﺎوت اﺳﺖ‬5 ‫ ﻓﺮم اﻋﻼم ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬.‫ ﻫﻔﺘﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﻣﺘﺤﺎن اﻋﻼم ﻣﻰﺷﻮد‬2 ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺣﺪود‬ .(‫ ﻧﻤﺮه ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬4 ‫ ﺑﺨﺶ آزﻣﻮن اﺳﺖ و ﻳﻚ ﻧﻤﺮه ﻛﻞ ﻛﻪ اﻟﺰاﻣﺎً ﻣﻌﺪل آن‬4‫از‬ .‫ را ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻰﺷﻮد‬9 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬0 ‫ از‬IELTS ‫اﻣﺘﻴﺎز ﻧﻤﺮات اﻣﺘﺤﺎن‬ ‫ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮم آن‬9 ‫ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮم آن اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ داوﻃﻠﺐ ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﺗﻮاﻧﻤﻨﺪى اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻰ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ و اﻣﺘﻴﺎز‬1 ‫اﻣﺘﻴﺎز‬ .‫اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ داوﻃﻠﺐ داراى ﺗﻮاﻧﻤﻨﺪى ﺑﻜﺎرﮔﻴﺮى زﺑﺎن ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻳﻚ ﻓﺮد اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻰ زﺑﺎن ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻞﻛﺮده ﻣﻰﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ .‫ ﻣﻬﺎرت ﻓﻮق ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ و اﻋﻼم ﻣﻰﮔﺮدد‬4 ‫ﻫﺮﻳﻚ از ﻣﻬﺎرتﻫﺎى ﭼﻬﺎرﮔﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻄﻮر ﺟﺪاﮔﺎﻧﻪ اﻣﺘﻴﺎزدﻫﻰ ﺷﺪه و در ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻣﻌﺪل از‬

IELTS .::[email protected]::.

IELTS (pronounced /aɪ.ɛlts/) or 'International English Language Testing System', is an international standardized test of English language proficiency. It is jointly managed by University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations, the British Council and IDP Education Pty Ltd, and was established in 1989. There are two versions of the IELTS: 1) Academic Version 2) General Training Version. 



The Academic Version is intended for those who want to enroll in universities and other institutions of higher education and for professionals such as medical doctors and nurses who want to study or practice in an English-speaking country. The General Training Version is intended for those planning to undertake non-academic training or to gain work experience, or for immigration purposes.

It is generally acknowledged that the reading and writing tests for the Academic Version are more difficult than those for the General Training Version, due to the differences in the level of intellectual and academic rigor between the two versions. IELTS is accepted by most Australian, British, Canadian, Irish, New Zealand and South African academic institutions, over 2000 academic institutions in the United States, and various professional organizations. It is also a requirement for immigration to Australia and Canada. An IELTS result or Test Report Form (TRF) is valid for two years. 18 ©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh http://mortezash.blogfa.com/

The IELTS incorporates the following features:   



A variety of accents and writing styles presented in text materials in order to minimize linguistic bias. IELTS tests the ability to listen, read, write and speak in English. Band scores used for each language sub-skill (Listening, Reading, Writing, and Speaking). The Band Scale ranges from 0 ("Did not attempt the test") to 9 ("Expert User"). The speaking module - a key component of IELTS - is conducted in the form of a one-to-one interview with an examiner. The examiner assesses the candidate as he or she is speaking, but the speaking session is also recorded for monitoring as well as remarking in case of an appeal against the banding given.

 IELTS test structure

All candidates must complete four Modules - Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking to obtain a band score, which is shown on the IELTS Test Report Form (TRF).  All candidates take the same Listening and Speaking Modules, while the Reading and Writing Modules differ depending on whether the candidate is taking the Academic or General Training Versions of the Test. The total test duration is around 2 hours and 45 minutes for Listening, Reading and Writing modules. 

Listening: 40 minutes, 30 minutes for which a recording is played centrally and additional 10 minutes for transferring answers onto the OMR answer sheet.  Reading: 60 minutes.  Writing: 60 minutes.

(N.B.: No additional time is given for transfer of answers in Reading and Writing modules) 

The first three modules - Listening, Reading and Writing (always in that order) - are completed in one day, and in fact are taken with no break in between.  The Speaking Module may be taken, at the discretion of the test center, in the period seven days before or after the other Modules. The tests are designed to cover the full range of ability from non-user to expert user. .::[email protected]::.

‫ﺔِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺣ‬‫ﻦ ر‬‫ﻟَﺎ ﺗَﻘْﻨَﻄُﻮا ﻣ‬ Do not despair of the mercy of Allah

‫از رﺣﻤﺖ ﺧﺪا ﻧﻮﻣﻴﺪ ﻣﺸﻮﻳﺪ‬ (53 ،‫)زﻣﺮ‬

19 ©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh http://mortezash.blogfa.com/

 Band scale

IELTS is scored on a nine-band scale, with each band corresponding to a specified competence in English. Overall Band Scores are reported to the nearest half band. The following rounding convention applies: if the average across the four skills ends in 0.25, it is rounded up to the next half band, and if it ends in 0.75, it is rounded up to the next whole band. The nine bands are described as follows: 9: Expert User

Has fully operational command of the language: appropriate, accurate and fluent with complete understanding. 8: Very Good User

Has fully operational command of the language with only occasional unsystematic inaccuracies and inappropriacies. Misunderstandings may occur in unfamiliar situations. Handles complex detailed argumentation well. 7: Good User

Has operational command of the language, though with occasional inaccuracies, inappropriacies and misunderstandings in some situations. Generally handles complex language well and understands detailed reasoning. 6: Competent User

Has generally effective command of the language despite some inaccuracies, inappropriacies and misunderstandings. Can use and understand fairly complex language, particularly in familiar situations. 5: Modest user

Has partial command of the language, coping with overall meaning in most situations, though is likely to make many mistakes. Should be able to handle basic communication in own field. 4: Limited User

Basic competence is limited to familiar situations. Have frequent problems in using complex language. 3: Extremely Limited User

Conveys and understands only general meaning in very familiar situations. 2: Intermittent User

No real communication is possible except for the most basic information using isolated words or short formulae in familiar situations and to meet immediate needs. 1: Non User

Essentially has no ability to use the language beyond possibly a few isolated words. 0: Did not attempt the test

No assessable information provided at all. 20 ©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh http://mortezash.blogfa.com/

‫‪GRE‬‬ ‫‪.::[email protected]::.‬‬

‫‪GRE General‬‬ ‫داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻫﺎي اﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ و ﺑﺮﺧﻲ از داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻫﺎي ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﻣﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻛﺸﻮرﻫﺎي دﻳﮕﺮ )ﻋﻤﺪﺗﺎً ﻛﺎﻧﺎدا( ﻧﻤﺮهي اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن را ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻳﻜﻲ از‬ ‫ﻣﺪارك‪ ‬درﺧﻮاﺳﺖ‪ ‬ﭘﺬﻳﺮش در ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ از ﻛﺎرﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻻزم ﻣﻲداﻧﻨﺪ‪ .‬اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺑﻪ دو ﺻﻮرت ورﻗﻪاي و ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮي ﺑﺮﮔﺰار‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﺗﺎ اﻣﺮوز ﻧﻮع ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮي آن در اﻳﺮان ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬ﻧﻮع ورﻗﻪاي ﺳﺎﻟﻲ دو ﺑﺎر در اﻳﺮان ﺑﺮﮔﺰار ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ زﻣﺎنﻫﺎي‬ ‫آن ﺣﺪوداً ‪ 4‬آﺑﺎن و ‪ 17‬ﺑﻬﻤﻦ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺪاد ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻛﻨﻨﺪه در اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن داراي ﻣﺤﺪودﻳﺖ ﻧﺒﻮده و ﺛﺒﺖ ﻧﺎم در اﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﻫﻢ از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻪ ‪ ETS‬و ﻫﻢ از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﺎزﻣﺎن ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﻳﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺮاﻛﺰ ﺑﺮﮔﺰارﻛﻨﻨﺪه اﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮن اﻧﺠﺎم ﭘﺬﻳﺮد‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺮهي اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺑﺮاي داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻫﺎ ﻣﻬﻢ اﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﻀﺎً داﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﺎن ﺑﺎ رزوﻣﻪﻫﺎي ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﻗﻮي ﺑﺎ داﺷﺘﻦ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻤﺮه ‪ GRE‬ﻛﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻧﺲ ﺧﻮد را ﺑﺮاي ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﭘﺬﻳﺮش از دﺳﺖ ﻣﻲدﻫﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﻮع ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ‪ GRE‬ورﻗﻪاي ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫•‬

‫‪) Quantitative‬رﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت( )‪(800‬‬

‫•‬

‫‪) Verbal‬واژه( )‪(800‬‬

‫•‬

‫‪) Analytical Writing‬ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري( )‪.(6‬‬

‫‪:Quantitative‬‬ ‫در اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ورﻗﻪاي ‪ 2‬ﺳﺮي ﺳﺆال ‪30‬ﺗﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺨﺶ رﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺟﻮاب دﻫﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ اﮔﺮ ‪ 2‬ﻳﺎ ﺣﺘّﻲ در ﺑﺮﺧﻲ اﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎت ﺗﺎ ‪ 4‬ﻏﻠﻂ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ ﻧﻤﺮه ﺷﻤﺎ ‪ 800‬ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد‪ .‬ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﻛﻪ در اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن اﻣﻜﺎن اﺷﺘﺒﺎه را اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺳﺆاﻻت‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮداري اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻤﻮدار داده ﺷﺪه و از ﺷﻤﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﺆال ﭘﺮﺳﻴﺪه ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ دﻗّﺖ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮي ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ‬ ‫)ﺧﻴﻠﻲ از ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎن‪ ،‬ﺳﺆاﻻت ﻧﻤﻮداري را ﺑﻌﺪ از ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺳﺆاﻻت ﺟﻮاب ﻣﻲدﻫﻨﺪ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ رﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﺳﺎده و ﭼﻴﺰي ﺑﻴﺶ از ﻛﺘﺎبﻫﺎي دﺑﻴﺮﺳﺘﺎن ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪ .‬ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﻳﻚ داﻧﺶ آﻣﻮز ﺧﻮب ﺳﻮ‪‬م راﻫﻨﻤﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ راﺣﺘﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆاﻻت آن ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﻤﺮه اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ از ‪ 800‬ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ‪ %80‬از اﻓﺮادي ﻛﻪ در اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ اﻳﻦ ﻧﻤﺮه را ﻛﺴﺐ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ دﻧﺒﺎل ﺑﻮرسﻫﺎي ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻧﻤﺮه ﻛﻤﺘﺮ از‬ ‫‪ 800‬ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻫﻢ ﺑﺎ دﻗّﺖ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻟﺬا ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺣﺘﻤﺎً ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬ﺣﺘﻤﺎً ﭼﻨﺪ دوره از اﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻠﻲ را ﺑﺰﻧﻴﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮع ﺳﺆاﻻت آﺷﻨﺎ ﺷﻮﻳﺪ و ﺗﻌﺪاد اﺷﺘﺒﺎﻫﺎت ﺧﻮد را ﻛﺎﻫﺶ دﻫﻴﺪ و ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺗﺴﺖزﻧﻲ ﺧﻮد را‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺒﺮﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻻزم ﺑﻪ ذﻛﺮ اﺳﺖ در ﺑﺴﻴﺎري از داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻤﺮه ‪ GRE‬ﺑﺮاي آﻧﻬﺎ اﻫﻤﻴ‪‬ﺖ دارد‪ ،‬ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺠﻤﻮع ﻧﻤﺮه رﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت و‬ ‫واژه ﺣﺪ ﻧﺴﺎﺑﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ‪ 1250 ،1200 ،1100‬و ﺣﺘّﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ‪ 1350‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﭘﺲ ﺳﻌﻲ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ رﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎت‬ ‫را از دﺳﺖ ﻧﺪﻫﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪:Verbal‬‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎم اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺶ واژه آن اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻪ داﻧﺶ ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻲ از داﻳﺮه ﻟﻐﺎت ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪهاي دارد ﻛﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﺎً ﻣﻌﻨﻲ ﻓﺎرﺳﻲ آن ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮش ﻣﺎ ﻧﺨﻮرده اﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺳﺆاﻻت اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ‪ 5‬ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪ اي اﺳﺖ و ﻧﻤﺮه ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ﻧﺪارد‪.‬‬ ‫ دوﺳﺘﺎن‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻴﺰ دور از دﺳﺘﺮس ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪ .‬وﻟﻲ ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎن ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎً زﻳﺎدي دارد‪.‬‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ دو ﺳﺮي ﺳﺆال ‪38‬ﺗﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﺴﺐ ﻧﻤﺮه ﺑﺎﻻي ‪ 400‬از ‪ 800‬در اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن واﻗﻌﺎً ﺧﻮب اﺳﺖ و ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺐ ﻣﺠﻤﻮع ‪ 1200‬ﺣﺘﻲ در ‪ 10‬داﻧﺸﮕﺎه او‪‬ل اﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺷﺎﻧﺲ دارﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪21‬‬ ‫‪©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh‬‬ ‫‪http://mortezash.blogfa.com/‬‬

‫ﻫﺮ ﻛﺪام از اﻳﻦ ‪ 38‬ﺳﻮال در ‪ 4‬ﻓﺮم زﻳﺮ ﺑﻴﺎن ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﻣﺘﺮادف و ﻣﺘﻀﺎد‪ :‬در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از ‪ 5‬ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ را ﻛﻪ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ داده ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ را ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﺑﺰﻧﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫ﺟﺎي ﺧﺎﻟﻲ‪ :‬ﻳﻚ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎً ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪه داده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد و ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ دو ﺟﺎي ﺧﺎﻟﻲ را ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫﺎ ﭘ‪‬ﺮ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻟﻐﺎت‪ :‬دو ﻟﻐﺖ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ )ﻛﺘﺎب‪ ،‬دﻓﺘﺮ( داده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬در ‪ 5‬ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺷﺒﻴﻪﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪ را ﻛﻪ ارﺗﺒﺎط آﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﻔﺖ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ را ﭘﻴﺪا ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن‪ :‬در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ دو ﻳﺎ ﺳﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎً ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪه داده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﻪ آﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆاﻻت ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دﻫﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪:Analytical Writing‬‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ دو اﻧﺸﺎ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻧﺸﺎي او‪‬ل داراي ‪ 45‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ و دو‪‬ﻣﻲ داراي ‪ 30‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ زﻣﺎن اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫در ﺑﺨﺶ او‪‬ل ﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ دو ﻣﻮﺿﻮع داده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮاﺗﺐ از ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻞﺗﺮ اﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻳﻜﻲ را ﺑﻪ دﻟﺨﻮاه اﻧﺘﺨﺎب‬ ‫ﻛﺮده و ﺑﺮاي آن ﺑﻨﻮﻳﺴﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ دﻗﻴﻖ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع‪ ،‬ﮔﺮاﻣﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎً ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪه‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺪاد ﻟﻐﺎت و ‪ ..‬در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﺮ روي ﻧﻤﺮه ﺷﻤﺎ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺰاﻳﻲ دارﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﻤﺮه اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻴﺰ از ‪ 6‬ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﻧﻤﺮه ‪ 4‬واﻗﻌﺎً ﺧﻮب اﺳﺖ و ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ آن از ﻣﻌﺎدل ﺗﺎﻓﻞ آن ﺳﺨﺖﺗﺮ ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫در ﺑﺨﺶ دو‪‬م‪ ،‬در ﺣﺪود ﭼﻨﺪ ﺧﻂ ﻳﻚ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻲ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ داده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪ .‬اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع ﻇﺎﻫﺮاً ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲرﺳﺪ وﻟﻲ در اﺻﻞ‬ ‫اﻳﻨﻄﻮر ﻧﻴﺴﺖ و داراي اﺷﻜﺎﻻﺗﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ آﻧﻬﺎ را ﺑﺎز ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﻚ ﻣ‪‬ﮋده ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﺧﻮب اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ از آﻧﺠﺎﻳﻲﻛﻪ ﻣﺎ اﻳﺮاﻧﻲﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻳﺎد ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪاﻳﻢ از ﻳﻚ ﻛﺎر ﺧﻮب ﻓﻘﻂ ﺟﻨﺒﻪﻫﺎي ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻣﻨﻔﻲ آن را ﭘﻴﺪا ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﻟﺬا ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻋﺘﺮاف ﻛﺮد ﻛﻪ در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺟﺰو‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻫﺎي ﻣﻮﻓﻖ ﻫﺴﺘﻴﻢ‪ .‬اﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﭘﻴﺪاﻛﺮدن ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎي ﻣﻨﻔﻲ آن ﻧﻴﺰ ﻛﺎر ﺳﺨﺘﻲ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫☼ ﻧﻜﺘﻪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﻣﻬﻢ‪ :‬دوﺳﺘﺎن‪ ،‬ﻛُﻼً ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﻳﻚ اﻧﺸﺎي ﺧﻮب اﺣﺘﻴﺎج ﺑﻪ ﺣﺮّاﻓﻲ زﻳﺎد دارد ﻛﻪ در ﺗﺎﻓﻞ اﻳﻦ ﻛﺎر ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﺧﻮب اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺷﻤﺎ ﻫﺮ ﭼﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻴﺪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع را ﺑﺸﻜﺎﻓﻴﺪ و ﺑﺎ دﻻﻳﻞ ﻣﺘﻔﺎوت ﻋﻘﻴﺪه ﺧﻮد را ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﻣﺜﻼً اﮔﺮ در ﺗﺎﻓﻞ ﺑﺎ دﻻﻳﻞ ﺧﻮد‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺳﻴﮕﺎرﻛﺸﻴﺪن ﺧﻮب اﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺷﻤﺎ ﻧﻤﺮه را ﺧﻮاﻫﻴﺪ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ وﻟﻲ در اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ از اﻫﻤﻴ‪‬ﺖ وﻳﮋهاي‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮردار اﺳﺖ و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ دﻗّﺖ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع را ﺑﺸﻜﺎﻓﻴﺪ در ﻏﻴﺮ اﻳﻦ ﺻﻮرت ﻧﻤﺮهاي ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ از ‪ 3.5‬ﺑﻪ دﺳﺖ ﻧﻤﻲآورﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎز ﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮاي دﻛﺘﺮا ﺑﻪ دﻧﺒﺎل ﺑﻮرسﺗﺤﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﻲﮔﺮدﻧﺪ اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ اﻳﻦ اﻣﺘﺤﺎن را ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﻣﻮازي ﺑﺎ ﺗﺎﻓﻞ )آﻳﻠﺘﺲ( ﻣﻲﺧﻮاﻧﻨﺪ و زﻣﺎن ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎً ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ در اﺧﺘﻴﺎر دارﻧﺪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ روي‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري ‪ GRE‬و ﺑﺨﺶ ﺟﺎيﺧﺎﻟﻲ و ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن ‪ Verbal‬ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪﮔﺬاري ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫در اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري‪ ،‬ﺳﺆاﻻت رﻳﺎﺿﻲ و واژه در ﻳﻚ دﻓﺘﺮﭼﻪ داده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﻳﻜﻲ در ﻣﻴﺎن ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫)ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺨﺶ او‪‬ل واژه و ﺑﻌﺪ رﻳﺎﺿﻲ و ﻣﺠﺪداً ﺑﺨﺶ ﺳﻮ‪‬م واژه و ﺑﺨﺶ آﺧﺮ رﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ ﻗﺎﻧﻮن اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﻛﻪ از ﺳﻮي ‪ ETS‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺷﺪه‪ ،‬ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻫﺮ ﺑﺨﺶ را در زﻣﺎن ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ آن ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﺎن ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪ و ﺣﻖ ﺑﺎزﮔﺸﺖ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺐ و ﻳﺎ رﻓﺘﻦ ﺟﻠﻮﺗﺮ را ﻧﺪارﻳﺪ ﮔﺮﭼﻪ در ﺣﻮزهﻫﺎي اﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﻲ در اﻳﺮان ﻧﻴﺰ ﻛﻢ و ﺑﻴﺶ اﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻧﻮن اﺟﺮا ﻣﻲﺷﻮد اﻣ‪‬ﺎ در ﺑﺮﺧﻲ از‬ ‫ﺣﻮزهﻫﺎي اﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﻲ ﺳﺨﺖﮔﻴﺮيﻫﺎي ﻣﺮاﻗﺒﻴﻦ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ‪ .‬اﻳﻦ را ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺣﺎل ﻫﻴﭻ وﻗﺖ ﺗﻘﻠﺐ و‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮنﺷﻜﻨﻲ ﻛﺎر درﺳﺖ و ﭘﺴﻨﺪﻳﺪهاي ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪.‬‬

‫‪22‬‬ ‫‪©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh‬‬ ‫‪http://mortezash.blogfa.com/‬‬

Graduate Record Examination .::[email protected]::.

The Graduate Record Examination or GRE is a commercially-run standardized test that is an admission requirement for many graduate schools in the United States and in other English-speaking countries. Created and administered by Educational Testing Service (or ETS) in 1949, the exam measures verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, critical thinking, and analytical writing skills that have been acquired over a long period of time and that are not related to any specific field of study. In the United States, Canada, and many other countries, the GRE General Test is offered as a computer-based exam administered by select qualified testing centers; however, paper-based exams are offered in areas of the world where computer-based testing is not available. In the graduate school admissions process, the level of emphasis that is placed upon GRE scores varies widely between schools and between departments within schools. The importance of a GRE score can range from being a mere admission formality to an important selection factor. Critics of the GRE have argued that the exam format is so rigid that it effectively tests only how well a student can conform to a standardized test taking procedure. ETS responded by announcing plans in 2006 to radically redesign the test structure starting in the fall of 2007; however, the company has since announced, "Plans for launching an entirely new test all at once were dropped, and ETS decided to introduce new question types and improvements gradually over time." The new questions have been gradually introduced since November 2007. In the United States and Canada, the cost of the general test is $160 as of March 2010, although ETS will reduce the fee under certain circumstances. They are promoting financial aid to those GRE applicants who prove economic hardship. ETS erases all test records that are older than 5 years, although graduate program policies on the admittance of scores older than 5 years will vary.

 Structure The exam consists of four sections. The first section is a writing section, while the other three are multiple-choice style. One of the multiple choice style exams will test verbal skills, another will test quantitative skills and a third exam will be an experimental section that is not included in the reported score. Test takers do not know which of the three multiple-choice sections the experimental section is. The entire test procedure takes about 4 hours. 1) Verbal section

The verbal section consists of analogies, completions, and reading comprehension passages. Multiple-choice response sections are graded on a scale of 200-800, in 10-point increments. This section primarily tests vocabulary, and average scores in this section are substantially lower than those in the quantitative section. In a typical examination, this section may consist of 30 questions, and 30 minutes may be allotted for it.

23 ©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh http://mortezash.blogfa.com/

2) Quantitative section

The quantitative section, the other multiple-choice section, consists of problem solving and quantitative comparison questions that test high-school level mathematics. Multiple-choice response sections are graded on a scale of 200-800, in 10-point increments. In a typical examination, this section may consist of 28 questions, and test takers may be given 45 minutes to complete the section. This section typically includes 14 quantitative comparison questions, 10 discrete quantitative questions (multiple-choice) and 4 data interpretation questions. 3) Analytical Writing section

The analytical writing section consists of two different essays, an "issue task" and an "argument task". The writing section is graded on a scale of 0-6, in half-point increments. The essays are written on a computer using a word processing program specifically designed by ETS. The program allows only basic computer functions and does not contain a spellchecker or other advanced features. Each essay is scored by at least two readers on a six-point holistic scale. If the two scores are within one point, the average of the scores is taken. If the two scores differ by more than a point, a third reader examines the response.  Issue task

The test taker will be able to choose between two topics upon which to write an essay. The time allowed for this essay is 45 minutes. Issue topics are selected from a pool of questions.  Argument task

The test taker will be given an "argument" and will be asked to write an essay that critiques the argument. Test takers are asked to consider the argument's logic and to make suggestions about how to improve the logic of the argument. The time allotted for this essay is 30 minutes. Arguments are selected from a pool of topics. 4) Experimental section

The experimental section, which can be either a verbal, quantitative, or analytical writing task, contains new questions that ETS is considering for future use. Although the experimental section does not count toward the test-takers score, it is unidentified and appears identical to the real (scored) part of the test. As test takers have no clear way of knowing which section is experimental, they are forced to complete this section. This section does not appear on all GRE examinations.  Scoring  Computerized adaptive testing

The common (Verbal and Quantitative) multiple-choice portions of the exam currently use Computer-Adaptive Testing (CAT) methods that automatically change the difficulty of questions as the test taker proceeds with the exam, depending on the number of correct or incorrect answers that are given. The test taker is not allowed to go back and change the answers to previous questions, and some type of answer must be given before the next question is presented. 24 ©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh http://mortezash.blogfa.com/

The first question that is given in a multiple-choice section is considered to be an "average level" question that half of the GRE test takers will answer correctly. If the question is answered correctly, then subsequent questions become more difficult. If the question is answered incorrectly, then subsequent questions become easier, until a question is answered correctly. This approach to administration yields scores that are of similar accuracy while using approximately half as many items. However, this effect is moderated with the GRE because it has a fixed length; true CATs are variable length, where the test will stop itself once it has zeroed in on a candidate's ability level. The actual scoring of the test is done with Item Response Theory (IRT). While CAT is associated with IRT, IRT is actually used to score non-CAT exams. The GRE subject tests, which are administered in the traditional paper-and-pencil format, use the same IRT scoring algorithm. The difference that CAT provides is that items are dynamically selected so that the test taker only sees items of appropriate difficulty. Besides the psychometric benefits, this has the added benefit of not wasting the examinee's time by administering items that are far too hard or easy. This occurs in fixedform testing. An examinee can miss one or more questions on a multiple-choice section and still receive a perfect score of 800. Likewise, even if no question is answered correctly, ‘200’ is the lowest score possible.  Scaled score percentiles

The percentiles of the current test are as follows: Scaled score 800 780 760 740 720 700 680 660 640 620 600 580 560 540 520 500 480 460 440 420 400 380 360 340 320 300 280 260 240 220 200 mean

Verbal Reasoning % 99 99 99 99 98 97 96 94 92 89 86 82 77 72 67 62 57 52 46 40 35 29 24 19 13 8 5 2 1 0 0 457

25 ©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh http://mortezash.blogfa.com/

Quantitative Reasoning % 94 89 85 80 75 71 66 62 57 52 48 44 39 35 31 28 24 21 18 16 13 11 9 7 6 4 3 2 1 0 0 586

Analytical Writing score 6 5.5 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 mean

Writing % 98 92 81 63 41 23 10 3 1 0 0 0 3.9

☼ N.B. : Comparisons for Intended Graduate Major are "limited to those who earned their college degrees up to two years prior to the test date." ☼ N.B. : ETS provides no score data for "non-traditional" students who have been out of school more than two years, although its own report "RR-99-16" indicated that 22% of all test takers in 1996 were over the age of 30.

● GRE Subject Tests In addition to the General Test, there are also eight GRE Subject Tests testing knowledge in the specific areas of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Literature in English, Mathematics, Physics, and Psychology. .::[email protected]::.

.::[email protected]il.com::.

.::[email protected]::.

GMAT (Graduate Management Aptitude Test) .::[email protected]::.

.‫آزﻣﻮن ﺗﺨﺼﺼﻲ ﺑﺮاي رﺷﺘﻪﻫﺎي ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺘﻲ و ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺪاري و ﺑــﺎﻧﻜﻲ و اﻗﺘﺼﺎد اﺳﺖ‬

TOLIMO and MCHE .::[email protected]::.

‫اﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮن ﻳﻚ آزﻣﻮن ﺳﻄﺢ زﺑﺎن اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻌﺎوﻧﺖ داﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﻲ وزارت ﻋﻠﻮم اﻳﺮان ﺑﺮﮔﺰارﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ و ﺑﺮاي ﺧﺎرج ازﻛﺸــﻮر ﻧﺎﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ﺑﺮاي داﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﺎن ﺑﻪ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ اﻋﺰام ﺷﺨﺼﻲ و ﺑﻮرﺳـﻴﻪ ﺧﺎرج از ﻛﺸﻮر و دﻛﺘﺮاي داﺧﻞ ﻣﻮرد ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ وزارت ﻋﻠﻮم و‬ .‫وزارت ﺑﻬﺪاﺷﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻋـﻨﻮان ﻧﻤﺮه ﺳﻄﺢ زﺑﺎن ﻣﺤﺴﻮب ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬ ‫ و آزﻣﻮنﻫﺎى زﺑﺎن دﻛﺘﺮاى داﻧﺸﮕﺎهﻫﺎى داﺧﻞ ﻛﺸﻮر ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬MCHE ‫ و‬TOLIMO ‫ﻻزم ﺑﻪ ذﻛﺮ اﺳﺖ آزﻣﻮنﻫﺎى داﺧﻠﻰ‬ .‫ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ و اﺟﺮا ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬TOEFL ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﺗﺴﺖ‬

26 ©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh http://mortezash.blogfa.com/

 References and Some Useful Websites: Websites 1) http://www.applyabroad.org 2) http://www.ets.org 3) http://www.usnews.com 4) http://college.openlearningcenter.com 5) http://www.english-test.net test.net 6) http://www.webometrics.info 7) http://gredownloads.blogspot.com 8) http://picture-dictionary.blogspot.com dictionary.blogspot.com 9) http://killthegre.blogspot.com egre.blogspot.com 10) http://www.number2.com 11) http://www.englishteacherjohn.com 12) http://www.testpreppractice.net 13) http://www.crack-gre-test--prep.com 14) http://www.irantalent.com 15) http://www.americanrhetoric.com .::[email protected]::.

‫ن ُو ًدّا‬ ِ ‫ِين آ َم ُنوا َو َع‬ َ ‫ح‬ َ ِ‫حات‬ َ ِ ‫صا ل‬ َ ‫إِنﱠ الﱠذ‬ ْ ‫الر‬ ْ َ‫سي‬ ‫ملُوا ال ﱠ‬ ُ ‫م‬ ‫م ﱠ‬ ُ ‫ل لَ ُھ‬ ُ ‫ج َع‬ … those who believe and do righteous deeds, the Merciful will assign for them love. ‫كسانى كه ايمان آورده و كارھاى شايسته كرده اند‬ ‫به زودى ]خداى[ رحمان براى آنان محبتى ]در دلھا[ قرار ميدھد‬

(٩٦ ‫ آيه‬،‫)سوره مريم‬

[email protected] [email protected]

.::[email protected]::.

27 ©2009 PWUT, Courtesy of Morteza Shabanzadeh adeh http://mortezash.blogfa.com/