Topographic characteristics after Descemet - PLOS

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

Topographic characteristics after Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty and Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty Takahiko Hayashi1,2,3,4*, Takefumi Yamaguchi5, Kentaro Yuda1,2, Naoko Kato4, Yoshiyuki Satake5, Jun Shimazaki5

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1 Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan, 2 Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan, 3 Department of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan, 4 Department of Ophthalmology, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan, 5 Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Dental College, Ichikawa General Hospital, Chiba, Japan * [email protected]

Abstract OPEN ACCESS

Purpose

Citation: Hayashi T, Yamaguchi T, Yuda K, Kato N, Satake Y, Shimazaki J (2017) Topographic characteristics after Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty and Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. PLoS ONE 12 (11): e0188832. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0188832

To investigate the topographic characteristics of the posterior corneal surface after Descemet’s endothelial membrane keratoplasty (DMEK) and Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and their effects on postoperative visual acuity.

Editor: Michele Madigan, Save Sight Institute, AUSTRALIA

Nineteen eyes of 19 patients after DMEK, 23 eyes of 23 patients after DSAEK, and 18 eyes of 18 control subjects were retrospectively analyzed. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), aberration factors (higher-order aberrations [HOAs], spherical aberrations [SAs], and coma aberrations [Comas] at 6.0 mm) were evaluated preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. The posterior refractive pattern of the topography map was classified into 5 grades (0–5) (posterior color grade) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Correlations between BSCVA and some factors (abbreviation factors, posterior color grade) were analyzed.

Received: June 11, 2017 Accepted: November 14, 2017 Published: November 30, 2017 Copyright: © 2017 Hayashi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability Statement: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Methods

Results BSCVA was significantly better after DMEK than after DSAEK (P < 0.001). Posterior HOAs, SAs, and Comas after each type of endothelial keratoplasty were significantly greater compared to control (P < 0.01). Posterior HOAs, total/anterior/posterior SAs, and posterior color grade were significantly lower in the DMEK group than in the DSAEK group at 3 months (P < 0.024 [posterior HOAs], P = 0.047 [total SA], P < 0.001 [anterior SAs], P = 0.021 [posterior SAs], and P < 0.001 [posterior color grade]) and 6 months postoperatively (P = 0.034 [posterior HOAs], P < 0.001 [total SAs], P < 0.001 [anterior SAs], P = 0.013 [posterior SAs], and

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188832 November 30, 2017

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Topographic change after corneal endothelial keratoplasty

P = 0.004 [posterior color grade]). BSCVA was significantly correlated with HOAs, SAs, and posterior color grade (P < 0.001 for all except anterior HOAs [P = 0.004]).

Conclusions High posterior color grades were associated with larger aberration factors and had a negative effect on visual function after endothelial keratoplasty. Rapid improvement of visual function after DMEK may be attributed to less change at the posterior surface.

Introduction In recent times, there have been rapid advances in the surgical techniques used for endothelial keratoplasty (EK), and Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) are now performed worldwide.[1–3] In comparison with penetrating keratoplasty, DSAEK and DMEK have advantages in terms of causing less astigmatism, having a lower risk of rejection, and allowing rapid visual recovery. However, recent studies suggest that best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) is generally better after DMEK than after DSAEK, probably because of less interface haze, folds in the donor disc, disc decentration, and problems related to thickness.[4–9] As with DSAEK, we sometimes encounter patients with poor visual acuity of around 20/ 40–20/25 after DMEK despite excellent corneal clarity. Few studies have investigated the mechanisms determining quality of vision after DMEK.[4, 5] The reasons for poor visual acuity after EK (DMEK or DSAEK) are reported to be forward scattering,[5] corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs), and interface haze.[6] Paradoxically, EK replaces the corneal endothelium, which presumably alters the curvature of the posterior corneal surface. However, HOAs of the anterior corneal surface have a greater influence on HOAs of the total cornea and visual acuity after EK.[7,8] The influence of HOAs on visual acuity is still poorly understood in eyes after DMEK. Wavefront analyses to quantify lower-order aberrations and HOAs have explained the decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in normal eyes [10] and in eyes with a number of disorders.[11–14] Our group has recently demonstrated elevated HOAs of the posterior cornea caused by an irregular surface in various diseases of the corneal surface[15–18] and found a significant correlation between corneal HOAs and visual acuity in patients. We have also noticed a characteristic irregular topography and increased irregular astigmatism at the posterior corneal surface in eyes with relatively poor visual acuity after DMEK (Fig 1). We hypothesized that corneal HOAs of the posterior surface might contribute to poor visual acuity after EK. The aims of this study were to measure corneal HOAs after DSAEK and DMEK, to compare them with those in normal eyes, and to evaluate the relationship between corneal HOAs and visual acuity after EK. Further, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that classified the topographic patterns of the posterior corneal surface into 6 grades that have a correlation with postoperative visual acuity and are easy to categorize.

Patients and methods This retrospective study followed the ethical standards of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the institutional review board at Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital (approval number_28_3_1). Our Institutional Review Board waived the requirement for informed consent for this retrospective study. Patient data were anonymized before access and/or analysis.

PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188832 November 30, 2017

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Topographic change after corneal endothelial keratoplasty

Fig 1. A patient with poor visual acuity and high posterior color grade 3 months after DMEK. (A) Slit-lamp photograph shows high transparency 3 months after DMEK. (B) Pachymetry after DMEK shows that the central corneal thickness is about 480 μm, which is considerably thinner than a healthy cornea. (C) Posterior map using AS-OCT after DMEK. Three months postoperatively, AS-OCT shows rapid improvement in corneal edema after DMEK. However, despite the clear cornea after DMEK, the visual acuity is 20/40. In this case, the posterior color grade is relatively high (grade 2). The figure demonstrates the characteristically irregular topography and increased irregular astigmatism at the posterior corneal surface in eyes with relatively poor visual acuity after DMEK. Abbreviations: AS-OCT, anterior segment optical coherence tomography; DMEK, Descemet’s endothelial membrane keratoplasty. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188832.g001

Patients The study included 19 eyes undergoing DMEK (4 men, 15 women, mean age 72.2 ± 8.2 years) and 23 eyes undergoing DSAEK (5 men, 18 women, mean age 73.7 ± 5.9 years). The disorders in each group included Fuchs’ endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD, n = 4 in the DMEK group, n = 6 in the DSAEK group), bullous keratopathy (BK) caused by argon laser iridotomy (ALI, n = 8 in the DMEK group, n = 10 in the DSAEK group), and pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK, n = 7 in each group). The control group comprised 18 age-matched patients with normal phakic eyes (6 men, 12 women, mean age 74.8 ± 6.7 years) with no history of ocular disease or surgery. We excluded patients with pre-existing conditions limiting visual acuity, including macular degeneration, diabetic cystoid macular edema, retinal vein occlusion with cystoid macular edema, amblyopia, and end-stage glaucomatous optic atrophy. Table 1 shows the preoperative demographic and clinical characteristics of the DSAEK, DMEK, and control groups. Although both groups of patients were treated around the same time, the type of surgery was selected based on some factors such as patient social background. For example, we selected DSAEK for those patients who dislike the rebubbling procedure. Because Asian Table 1. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics before surgery. Control

DMEK

DSAEK

P*

Eyes (n)

18

19

23

Sex (male/female)

6/12

4/15

5/18

0.644*

Age

74.8

72.2

73.6

0.462†

P† DMEK vs CT

P† DSAEK vs CT

P† DMEK vs DSAEK

Eye (R/L)

14/4

13/6

14/9

0.513*

BSCVA (logMAR)

-0.03

1.01 ± 0.55††

1.28 ± 0.43††

< 0.001

< 0.001

< 0.001

NS

CCT

527± 27

714 ± 99††

759 ± 130††

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