Tunnelling and Underground Space Construction for

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Young-Taek Park, Soon-Wook Choi, Soo-Ho Chang, Gyu-Jin Bae, Yong-Ki Baek. 3. .... Sang-Woo Lee, Da-Woon Jeong, Sung-Won Lee, Seok-Won Lee.

ISBN 978-89-97776-59-7 (95530)


Tunnelling and Underground Space Construction for Sustainable Development 4BOH)XBO,JNt$IVOHTJL:PPt4FPLXPO+FPOt*OO+PPO1BSL


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Tunnelling and Underground Space Construction for Sustainable Development Copyright © 2013 by CIR PUBLISHING CO. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage retrieval system, without permission from the publishers.

Tunnelling and Underground Space Construction for Sustainable Development ˀGKim, Yoo, Jeon, Park (eds) 2013 CIR Publishing Co., ISBN 978-89-97776-59-7 (95530)

Table of Contents ”‡ˆƒ…‡



‘†‡”‰”‘—†ˆ‘”—•–ƒ‹ƒ„‹Ž‹–› In-Mo Lee


‡–—”›‘ˆ”‘‰”‡••‹†‡”‰”‘—†’ƒ…‡‡•‹‰ Raymond L. Sterling


‘‹Ž‘†‹–‹‘‹‰ˆ‘”Š‹‡Ž†—‡ŽŽ‹‰ Daniele Peila


†‡”‰”‘—†’ƒ…‡ƒ†”„ƒ‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–‹‡‘—Ž In-Keun Lee


—–—”‡—‡Ž•„‡–™‡‡ƒ‹Žƒ†Š‹ƒƒ†‡‹‰Š„‘”‹‰”‡ƒ•ǣš’‡…–‡†‡‡ˆ‹–•ƒ† ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡• Yun Bai, Yanlong Zheng


1. Mechanized Tunnelling / Tunnel Construction Mechatronics –—†›‘ƒ…Ǧˆ‹ŽŽ‡†›…Š”‘‘—• ”‘—–‹‰‹ˆˆ—•‹‘ƒ† –•‹”…—ˆ‡”‡–‹ƒŽ”‡••—”‡ ‹•–”‹„—–‹‘‘ˆŠ‹‡Ž†—‡Ž Xinjiang Wei, Jie Hong, Gang Wei, Zhi Ding


Š‡‘”‡–‹…ƒŽ–—†›‘Š‹‡Ž†—‡Ž‡‰‡–›…Š”‘‘—• ”‘—–‹‰‘Ǧ‡™–‘‹ƒ Ž—‹†• ‹ˆˆ—•‹‘Š‡‘”› Gang Wei, Jie Hong, Xinjiang Wei


‘‹Ž‘†‹–‹‘‹‰‘ˆŽƒ›•ǣƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”› ‡ƒ•‹„‹Ž‹–›–—†› A. Picchio, A. Boscaro


ƒ”–Š”‡••—”‡ƒŽƒ…‡†ƒ…Š‹‡‘†‡Ž‡•‹‰ƒ†ƒŽ‹†ƒ–‹‘‡•–•‘‘‹Ž‘†‹–‹‘‹‰ ˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹‘ƒ†ƒ”–Š”‡••—”‡”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘ H.T. Jiang, Q.M. Gong, Z. Li


’’”‘ƒ…Š–‘—‡”‹…ƒŽ‹—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆŠ‹‡Ž†—‡Ž‹‰ƒ† –•˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹‘„›‘’ƒ”‹•‘™‹–Š ‹‡Ž†ƒ–ƒ A. Afshani, H. Dobashi, S. Konishi, K. Komiya, H. Akagi


‡‘–‡…Š‹…ƒŽ‡•‹‰•’‡…–•‘ˆƒ‡‡’š…ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘”ƒƒ—…Š‹– Gwangha Roh, Hafiz Ahmad, Andrew Drevininkas, Vasantha Wijeyakulasuriya


‡‡…ƒ†‡š’‡”‹‡…‡‹‡‰ƒŠ‹‡Ž†—‡Ž‹Š‹ƒ Jiyun Wang


‘”‹‰ ‹‰ŠǦ’‡‡†ƒ‹Ž™ƒ›—‡Ž•‹ ƒ”†‘…ǦŠ‡’ƒ‹•Šš’‡”‹‡…‡ Thomas Camus, Juan Margareto, Gilbert Fontanille


–—†›‘ƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘‡–Š‘†‘ˆ ‹–‹ƒŽ‹•–”‹„—–‹‘‘ˆš…‡••‘”‡ƒ–‡””‡••—”‡—‡–‘Š‹‡Ž† —‡Ž‘•–”—…–‹‘ Gang Wei

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‹‡Ž†‡•–‘ˆ‘‰‹–—†‹ƒŽ–”‡••‡Žƒšƒ–‹‘Ž‘‰–Š‡Š‹‡Ž†—‡Ž‹‹ƒŒ‹ƒ‰‹˜‡” Shaoming Liao, Yanqing Men


2. Monitoring and Settlement Control ”‘„ƒ„‹Ž‹•–‹…‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’‡–™‡‡Ǧ˜ƒŽ—‡ƒ†Ž‡…–”‹…ƒŽ‡•‹•–‹˜‹–› H. H. Ryu, G. C. Cho, T. M. Oh, G. K. R. Lee


‡‡’‡––Ž‡‡– †—…‡†„›Š‹‡Ž†—‡Ž‹‰‹‘ˆ– ”‘—† Shaoming Liao, Yaoyao Fan


˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ—‡Ž‡•‹‰ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”••‹‰ƒ…ƒŽ›•‹•”‘‰”ƒ Y. J. Kim, S. K Lee, Y. J. Lee


‘’ƒ”ƒ–‹˜‡ƒŽ›•‹•‘ˆƒŽ…—Žƒ–‹‘‡–Š‘†•ˆ‘”–Š‡‡•‹‰‘ˆŠ‘–…”‡–‡‹‹‰•™‹–Š‹‡Ž†‹‰ Ž‡‡–• M. Thewes, A.-L. Hammer Wiese


ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆ–Š‡‘ˆ–‘…”‡Ǧ…‘•‘Ž‹†ƒ–‹‘‘‹‡Ǧ‡’‡†‡–‡ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘•ƒ”‘—†–Š‡—‡Ž š…ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘ Z. Tomanovic


—‹Ž†‹‰–‹ˆˆ‡••ƒ† –• ˆŽ—‡…‡‘—‡ŽŽ‹‰Ǧ‹†—…‡†‡––Ž‡‡–• K.H. Goh, R.P. Farrell, R.J. Mair —‡Žƒ…ƒŽ›•‹•—•‹‰‘‹–‘”‹‰ƒ† ƒ…‡ƒ’’‹‰ƒ–ƒ Kwangho You, Changsu Lee

ͻͺ ͳͲͷ

‡•—Ž–•‘ˆ–Š‡‘–‹—‘—•‡ƒ•—”‡‡–‘ˆ‘ƒ†‹‰‘–Š‡”ƒ‹ƒ‰‡ ƒŽŽ‡”›—‡Ž‹‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡ –”ƒŠ‘˜—‡Ž‹”ƒ‰—‡ ͳͲͻ Jaroslav Pacovský, Jaroslav Chabr, Zbynk Kaisr, Radko Rieger ‡ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‘–”‘Ž‘ˆ’‡”ƒ–‹‰‡–”‘—‡Ž™‹–ŠŽ‹‰Š–‹•–—”„ƒ…‡ ”‘—–‹‰‹Šƒ‰Šƒ‹ ‘ˆ–Žƒ› Liu Jianhang, Wang Rulu, Wang Xiaobing —‡ŽŽ‹‰‹‘ˆ–‘‹Žǣ—‡Ž‘”‹‰ƒ…Š‹‡’‡”ƒ–‹‘ƒ†‘‹Ž‡•’‘•‡ D. Festa, W. Broere, J.W. Bosch

ͳͳ͵ ͳͳ͹

Š”‡‡Ǧ†‹‡•‹‘ƒŽ—‡”‹…ƒŽƒŽ›•‹•‘ˆ ”‘—†‘˜‡‡– †—…‡†„›–Š‡‡‡–”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–‡‡Ž ‹’‡•ˆ‘”†‡”’ƒ••‘•–”—…–‹‘ ͳʹͳ Young-Taek Park, Soon-Wook Choi, Soo-Ho Chang, Gyu-Jin Bae, Yong-Ki Baek

3. Mechanized Tunnelling / Tunnel Construction Mechatronics ‰‹‡‡”‹‰ˆ‘” ‡–‡”‘‰‡‡‘—• ”‘—† Dr.-Ing. E. h. Martin Herrenknecht, Dipl.-Ing. Jens Classen


”‘…‡••‹—Žƒ–‹‘ƒ•ƒˆˆ‹…‹‡–‘‘Žˆ‘”–Š‡Žƒ‹‰‘ˆ‡…Šƒ‹œ‡†—‡Ž‹‰‘‰‹•–‹…• K. Sadri, T. Rahm, J. R. Duhme, M. König, M. Thewes


ƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›‡•–•ˆ‘”—‡ŽŽ‹‰‹‘…ƒ••‡• ‡ƒ•‹„‹Ž‹–›–—†› D. Peila, A. Picchio, A. Chieregato


”‘—†‘†‹–‹‘‹‰ˆ‘”‡…Šƒ‹œ‡†—‡ŽŽ‹‰ǣƒŽ›•‹•‘ˆ–Š‡‘””‡•’‘†‡…‡•‡–™‡‡ ƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›‡•–•ƒ†‡•—Ž–•—”‹‰š…ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘™‹–Š R. Schulkins, A. Altuna, A. Boscaro

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Tunnelling and Underground Space Construction for Sustainable Development ˀGKim, Yoo, Jeon, Park (eds) 2013 CIR Publishing Co., ISBN 978-89-97776-59-7 (95530)

‘… ”ƒ…–—”‹‰Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•„› ‹‰Š’”‡••—”‡ƒ–‡”Œ‡–– ‡‘‡–”‹…ƒ”ƒ‡–‡”• A. K. Prasidhi, T. M. Oh, G. C. Cho


Š‹‡Ž†—‡Ž‹‰Š”‘—‰Š ”ƒ˜‡ŽŽ›‘‹Ž• Y. S. Fang, H. Ju, P. S. Chen, C. Liu


ˆŽ—‡…‡‘ˆƒ‹Ž‘‹† ”‘—–‹‰‘–Š‡—”ˆƒ…‡‡––Ž‡‡–•—”‹‰Š‹‡Ž†—‡ŽŽ‹‰ Ju-Young Oh, Martin Ziegler


‡›Š‹‡Ž†—‡Ž‡…Š‹“—‡’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ—Ž‘™‡””ƒ•‹••‹‘”‘Œ‡…– Li Kweishr, Tao Shu, Chen Yenhsu


‘”‹‰ƒ”‰‡‹ƒ‡–‡”—‡Ž•‹‡”› ƒ”†ǡ„”ƒ•‹˜‡‘… L. Home, S. Smading


4. Geotechnical Site Investigation / Tunnel Maintenance and Management —Ž‡”ƒ„‹Ž‹–›˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹‘‘ˆŠ‹‡Ž†—‡Ž†‡”–Š‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ„‘˜‡š…ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘ Xu Huang, Hongwei Huang


ƒ‹–‡ƒ…‡‘ˆ—‡Ž™‹–Š‹‘”‡ƒ J. H. Choo, T. J. Lee, T. G. Yoon, Y. S. Shin


‡…Šƒ‹…•ƒŽ›•‹•‘ˆƒ‹Ž™ƒ›—‡Žƒ•‡–”—…–—”‡†‡”‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‡†‹–—ƒ–‹‘• Ding Zude, Peng Limin, Shi Chenghua, Huang Juan


ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ••‡„Ž›‡ˆ‹…‹‡…›‘–Š‡‡Šƒ˜‹‘”‘ˆŠ‹‡Ž†—‡Ž‹‘ˆ–‘‹Ž• Dongmei Zhang, Longzhou Ran, Lijiang Gu


‹‡Ž†’’Ž‹…ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ”‡˜‡–‹‘‡…Š‘Ž‘‰›‘ˆ…ƒŽ‡”‡…‹’‹–ƒ–‹‘‹—‡Ž S. H. Yoon, J. H. Lee, H. G. Kim, B. S. Chun


Š‡–ƒ–‡Ǧ‘ˆǦ–Š‡Ǧ”–‘ˆ–”—…–—”ƒŽ •’‡…–‹‘ƒ†ƒ‹–‡ƒ…‡ˆ‘” ›†”ƒ—Ž‹…—‡Ž•‹ƒ‹™ƒ Chia-Han Lee, Fu-Shu Jeng, Tai-Tien Wang, Tsan-Hwei Huang


‡‘–‡…Š‹…ƒŽ ˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‘Žƒ‹‰‘ˆ—„™ƒ›”‘Œ‡…–•‹”„ƒ”‡ƒ• H. Ghodrat, M. Torabi


ƒ•‡–—†›‘ˆ‹–‡ ˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–‹‘ˆ‘”‡Ǧ‡š…ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘”‘—†–Š‡‘ŽŽƒ’•‡†‘ƒ†—‡Ž‹‘”‡ƒ S. Y. Choi, Y. D. Park, D. B. Lee, Y. J. Park, D.Y. Kim


”ƒ…–—”‡Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆ‘…•—†‡”Š‡ƒ”‘ƒ†‹‰ T. Y. Ko, J. Kemeny


5. Conventional Tunnelling –—†›‘‹‹–—’’‘”– ‘”…‡‘ˆŠ‹‡Ž†—‡Žš…ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘ ƒ…‡†‡”Ž‘’‡Ǧ ƒ…‹‰‘•–”—…–‹‘ ‘†‹–‹‘ ͳͻ͸ Mingfeng Lei, Limin Peng, Chenghua Shi ƒ•‡–—†›‘ˆ—‡Ž‡•‹‰ƒ†‘•–”—…–‹‘‹–Š‡‡‡’Ž›—’‡†‘‹Ž ”‘—†™‹–Š ‹‰Š ƒ–‡””‡••—”‡ Young-Chul Hwang, Ja-Don Hwang, Hun-Jae Lee


”‡†‹…–‹˜‡‡–Š‘†ˆ‘”–Š‡‘—†”‡••—”‡’‡…–”—‡˜‡Ž‘ˆ–Š‡Žƒ•–‘‹•‡‹–Š‡—‡Ž S. Ishida, H. Kakigi, M. Shinji


ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆ‘”‡ƒ–‡””‡••—”‡•‘‘—„Ž‡Š‡ŽŽ—‡Ž•ˆ‘”ƒ”‹‘—•”‘••‡…–‹‘• Jae-Ung Yoon, Jeong-Woo Han, Kang-Hyun Kim, Eun-Jung Joo, Jong-Ho Shin


- V -

˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ‡˜‹ƒ–‘”‹… ƒ”†‡‹‰‘†‡Žˆ‘”“—‡‡œ‹‰‘…•‹—‡Ž‹‰ W. Dong, G. Anagnostou ƒ…–‘”•ˆˆ‡…–‹‰Žƒ•–‹‰……—”ƒ…›ƒ† ˆŽ—‡…‡‘ˆ‘…›’‡‘–Š‡‹ˆˆ‹…—Ž–›‘ˆ—‡Ž• š…ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘„›”‹ŽŽ‹‰ƒ†Žƒ•–‹‰ M. Cardu



†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰ƒ†–‹Ž‹œ‹‰ Ǧ•‹–—‘…–”‡••‡•‹‡•‹‰ƒ†—‹Ž†‹‰ƒ”‰‡‘…ƒ˜‡”• E. Grøv


–—†›‘–Š‡ ”‘—†‘ƒ†•…–‹‰‘–Š‡‘…”‡–‡‹‹‰‹—‡Ž Seong-Won, Lee, Do-Hak, Huh, Seon-Hong, Kim, Ki-Lim. Kim, Hyun-Koo Moon


6. Health and Safety in Tunnelling ’’Ž‹‡† …‹†‡–ƒƒ‰‡‡–ˆ‘”‡Ž‡…–‹˜‡”‡˜‡–‹‘ƒ†‡Ž‡ƒ•‡‹ƒˆ‡–›”‹–‹…ƒŽ‹–—ƒ–‹‘• Rudolf Benedik Š‡ˆˆ‡…–•‘ˆ–”‡••ƒ–Š—‡–‘†‡”‰”‘—†š…ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘‘–Š‡ ›†”ƒ—Ž‹…‘†—…–‹˜‹–› Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆ ‘‹–‡†‘…ƒ•• Hyun-Koo Moon, Min Son



‡‘–‡…Š‹…ƒŽ‘–”‘Ž‘ˆ—‡Ž‘”•‹ ‘‰‘‰ P. K. S. Chau


 ƒŽ›•‹•‘‡–‹Žƒ–‹‘Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆ ‡– ƒ™‹–Š‹ˆˆ‡”‡–‹–…Š‰Ž‡ S.C. Lee, H.H. Lee, J.H. Lee, S.H. Lee


”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ‡–Š‘†–‘‡•‹‰ ‹”‡…‡ƒ”‹‘•ˆ‘”‘ƒ†—‡Ž• Zhu He-hua, Yan Zhi-guo


–—†›‘–Š‡–”‡••ƒ–Š•‘ˆ–Š‡‘…ƒ••†—‡–‘–Š‡͵Ǧ†‹‡•‹‘ƒŽ†˜ƒ…‡‘ˆ—‡Ž š…ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘ƒ†—’’‘”– Hyun-Koo Moon, Yong-Beom Seo, Seong-Beom Lim, Min Son


›ƒ‹…Š‡ƒ” –‡”ˆƒ…‡‡Šƒ˜‹‘”•‘ˆ‘…‹•…‘–‹—‹–‹‡•„ƒ•‡†‘š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ‡•—Ž–•ƒ† ‘•–‹–—–‹˜‡‘†‡Ž‹‰ C. W. Kwak, I. J. Park, J. B. Park, J. K. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. S. Choi


7. Conventional Tunnelling ‘†‡Ž‡•–‡•‡ƒ”…Š‘‹‹‰–”‡••Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘ˆŠƒŽŽ‘™—”‹‡†—‡Ž—†‡” •›‡–”‹…ƒŽ”‡••—”‡ Chenghua Shi, Mingfeng Lei, Limin Peng, Cheng Cai


‰‹‡‡”‹‰ –‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ”‹–‹…ƒŽ–”ƒ‹•‹–Š‡ ”‘—†ƒ†ƒ‡™’’”‘ƒ…Š–‘ƒ••‡••–Š‡ —‡Ž–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› S. H. Park


ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ—‡Ž‹ƒ‡–‡”‘–Š‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡…›‘ˆ†˜ƒ…‡”ƒ‹ƒ‰‡™‹–Š‡•’‡…––‘ ƒ…‡–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› S. Zingg, G. Anagnostou


–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›ƒŽ›•‹•‡–Š‘†ˆ‘” ‡ƒ†‹‰ ƒ…‡‘ˆ†‡”™ƒ–‡”—‡Ž Chenghua Shi, Chengyong Cao, Limin Peng, Cheng Cai


ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ—‡ŽŽ‹‰‘ƒ‹Ž‡—’’‘”–‡†”‹†‰‡ C. Yoo, S.R. Hong


—‡”‹…ƒŽƒŽ›•‹•‘ˆƒ‡‡’š…ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘‹”„ƒ”‡ƒ B. Moussai, I. Benabderahmane


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Tunnelling and Underground Space Construction for Sustainable Development ˀGKim, Yoo, Jeon, Park (eds) 2013 CIR Publishing Co., ISBN 978-89-97776-59-7 (95530)

ˆŽ—‡…‡‘ˆ•’‡”‹–›Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‘Žƒ‡ –‡”ˆƒ…‡Š‡ƒ”‡Šƒ˜‹‘” Sang-Woo Lee, Da-Woon Jeong, Sung-Won Lee, Seok-Won Lee


Š‡ ˆŽ—‡…‡‘ˆ–Š‡Š‡ƒ”–”‡‰–Š‘ˆ–Š‡ ”‘—†‘–Š‡–ƒ†Ǧ—’‹‡‘ˆ–Š‡—‡Ž ƒ…‡ R. Schuerch, G. Anagnostou


‡™‘•–”—…–‹‘‡–Š‘†ˆ‘”ŠƒŽŽ‘™—‡Žǡ‡’Žƒ…‹‰–Š‡‘˜‡–‹‘ƒŽš…ƒ˜ƒ–‹‘‡–Š‘†‹ –Š‡‘™–‘™”‡ƒ ͵Ͳͳ Jaeho Choi, Youngjin Sohn, Hyun Cho, Jaeseung Lim

8. Innovations for Lining and Reinforcement –‡‡Ž ‹„”‡‡‹ˆ‘”…‡†’”ƒ›‡†‘…”‡–‡ȋ•Š‘–…”‡–‡Ȍ‡”ˆ‘”ƒ…‡’‡…‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘ǦȀ Gan Cheng Chian


—”ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ••—‡ˆ‘” ”‡…ƒ•–‡‰‡–‹—‡ŽŽ‹‰’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ Benoit de Rivaz, Gan Cheng Chian


–—†›‘–Š‡‡”ˆ‘”ƒ…‡ ’”‘˜‡‡–‘ˆ—‡Ž‡‹ˆ‘”…‡‡–‡–Š‘†•‹‰‡‹ˆ‘”…‡†—„‡ Seung Ho Lee, Young Cheol Hwang, Chang Beom Shin, Young Hwan Ji, Ji Su Jung


’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒŽ—‡‰‹‡‡”‹‰‹‡˜‹•‹‰–Š‡‘…”‡–‡‹‹‰‘ˆ‘‰‡•–‘…—‡Ž•‘ˆ —†„ƒ”ƒ M. Gharouni Nik ‘—„Ž‹‰–Š‡”ƒ…•ǣŠ‡ƒ•‡‘ˆ”…‹•ƒ–‡Ǧ–ƒ„‹‘ƒ‹Ž™ƒ›‹‡ Paolo Zuffi, Giuseppe Furlani ‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–‘ˆ›ƒ‹…š’ƒ•‹‘‘…‘Ž–›•–‡ˆ‘”ƒ’‹† •–ƒŽŽƒ–‹‘ƒ†…–‹˜‡ ‡…Šƒ‹…ƒŽ –‡”Ž‘…‹‰‹‘…• Yun-Young Jeong, Hyong-Min Kang, Sang-Ho Cho, Tae-Un Ha

͵ͳͶ ͵ͳͻ


’–‹‹œƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‘”–ƒ”•ˆ‘”—Žƒ” ƒ’ ”‘—–‹‰ B. -Y. Youn, R. Breitenbücher


ƒ”Ž›Ǧƒ‰‡Š”‹ƒ‰‡‘ˆŠ‘–…”‡–‡™‹–Š Ž›•Š K. Yun, S. Kim, K. Namgoong, K.B Abay


–—†›‘–Š‡‘ƒ†Ǧ„‡ƒ”‹‰‡Šƒ˜‹‘”‘ˆ–‡‡Ž ‹„‡”‡‹ˆ‘”…‡†‘…”‡–‡ȋ Ȍ†‡”‘…ƒŽ‹œ‡† ‘’”‡••‹‘ ͵͵͸ F. Song, R. Breitenbuecher

9. Case Studies for Mega Projects of Tunnels and Underground Construction ‹‹–‡Ž‡‡–ƒ†‹•–‹…–Ž‡‡–ƒŽ›•‹•‘ˆ—””‘—†‹‰‘…ˆ‘”ƒ†‡”‰”‘—† ‘™‡”Š‘—•‡‹–Š‡ ‹ƒŽƒ›ƒ• R. Bhasin, T. Pabst


”‘Œ‡…–‘ˆƒ”‰‡‹ƒ‡–‡”†‡”™ƒ–‡”Š‹‡Ž†—‡Žƒ– ‹ƒ‰›‹‹Š‹ƒ You Guangming, Zhou Zhiyan, Shen Yanfeng


’’‘”–—‹–‹‡•ˆ‘” ‡”•‡†—‡Ž‹‰ Peter van westendorp, Daniëlle de Groot, Mark Vlaanderen Oldenzeel


—‡Ž ‡”•‹‘—†‡”‡ƒ–Šƒ ‹•–‘”‹…‘—‡– Peter van westendorp, Daniëlle de Groot, Mark Vlaanderen Oldenzeel


”‡ƒ–‡–‘ˆ ‹‰Šƒ–‡” ˆŽ‘™‘ˆ‡™……‡••—‡Žˆ‘”——ƒ”ƒ…Š‘™‡”Žƒ–ǯ• ‡Šƒ„‹Ž‹–ƒ–‹‘”‘Œ‡…– Ben-Yuan Hwang, Yung-Sheng Hsiao, Ping-Cheng Hou

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‹††Ž‡ƒŽŽ‘•–”—…–‹‘‡…Š‘Ž‘‰›‹‹‰Ž‡—„‡™‹–Š™‹‹‡• Chen Kai, Yang Liu, Cao Jie, Yang Zhen


‡•‡ƒ”…Š‘–Š‡‡›‡…Š‹…ƒŽ”‘„Ž‡•‘ˆ‹‰†ƒ‘ ‹ƒ‘œŠ‘—ƒ›—„ƒ”‹‡—‡Ž Zhou Fengjun, Shi Guixun, Chen Yeqing, Li Lianquan, Zheng Lei


—–‘Ǧ…‘–”‘ŽŽ‡†”‡••—”‡ƒ† Ž‘™ƒ–‡ ”‘—–‹‰›•–‡ˆ‘”—„•‡ƒ—‡Ž D. Y. Kim, H. S. Lee, S. J. Lee, H. K. Lee, B. K. Sim


10. Risk Management / Sustainable Use of Underground Space –”—…–—”ƒŽ‡Ž‹ƒ„‹Ž‹–›ƒŽ›•‹•‘ˆ—‡Ž ƒ…‡–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›‹‘ˆ– ”‘—† Ehsan Moradabadi, Aliakbar Golshani


‡™‹•ƒƒ‰‡‡–‘ˆ—‡Ž‘•–”—…–‹‘Ǧ—‡Ž—•‹‡••‘–‹—‹–›Žƒ‹‰ Sun-Myung Kim, Yeon Hee Lee, Seong Min Lee


 ”ƒ‡™‘”‘ˆ—‹Ž†‹‰ƒƒ‰‡••‡••‡–™Š‡†‡”–ƒ‹‰ƒŒ‘”†‡”‰”‘—† ‘•–”—…–‹‘”‘Œ‡…–•‹‹‰ƒ’‘”‡ K.H. Goh, D. Wen ‡‹Ǧ“—ƒ–‹–ƒ–‹˜‡‹•ƒŽ›•‹•‘‘…—‡Ž•„›‡…‹•‹‘Ǧƒ‹‰‘‘Ž Young Il Yoo, Jae Joon Song

͵͹ͻ ͵ͺͶ

’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ—‡Ž ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘›•–‡ˆ‘”–Š‡‘‹–‘”‹‰‹ƒ”‰‡—”‘’‡ƒ—„™ƒ› ”‘Œ‡…–• K. Chmelina, K. Rabensteiner


—‡”‹…ƒŽ‹—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ ”‘—†™ƒ–‡”›•–‡‹‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘ƒ‘™Ȁ‹–‡”‡†‹ƒ–‡‡˜‡Ž ƒ†‹‘ƒ…–‹˜‡ƒ•–‡‡’‘•‹–‘”›‹‘—–Š‘”‡ƒ J.-Y. Cheong, S.-Y. Hamm, C.W. Jeong, J. Park


–—†›‘ˆ‹ŽŽƒ”Ǧ”‡‹ˆ‘”…‹‰‡…Š‘Ž‘‰›†‡”‡ƒ–Šš‹•–‹‰–”—…–—”‡•ǣƒ„‘”ƒ–‘”›‡•– H. J. Seo, I. M. Lee ‹•ƒ•–‡””‡˜‡–‹‘‡…Š‘Ž‘‰›ˆ‘””„ƒ Ž‘‘†‹‰•‹‰ƒ‹™ƒ–‡”–‘”ƒ‰‡ƒ˜‡”ƒ† ”ƒ…–‹…ƒŽ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘ D. J. Jo, I. M. Lee, J. H. Lee, Y. W. Jung, S. I. Han



”‡”‡“—‹•‹–‡ƒ••ˆ‘”‘•–”—…–‹‰‘ˆ‡‡’†‡”‰”‘—†‘ƒ†‹‘”‡ƒǣƒ”–ͳǤƒ‡Šƒ‰‡‹ —‡Žƒ††‡”‰”‘—†‘ƒ† ͶͲͷ C. Y. Kim, S. W. Lee, W. K. Yoo, X. M. Zheng, J. H. Kim, S. Jung, S. P. Hong —‡Ž‡‹ˆ‘”…‡‡–Ž–‡”ƒ–‹˜‡•™‹–Š‹’‡‘‘ˆ‡–Š‘†–‘ƒ••–Š‡‘‘” ”‘—††‡”–Š‡ ƒ‹Ž™ƒ›• S. Chang, S. Lee, T. Ha, S. C. Park

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Tunnelling and Underground Space Construction for Sustainable Development ˀGKim, Yoo, Jeon, Park (eds) 2013 CIR Publishing Co., ISBN 978-89-97776-59-7 (95530)

Preface This volume contains the proceedings of International Symposium on Tunnelling and Underground Space Construction for Sustainable Development (TU-SEOUL 2013) held in Seoul from March 18 to 20, 2013, which was organized by the Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association (KTA) under the auspices of the International Tunnelling and Underground Space Association. The symposium received more than 110 abstracts from various countries. After the review and selection process steered by the scientific committee, a total of 90 papers from 20 countries were accepted for presentation at the symposium and for inclusion in this electronic volume of proceedings. In particular, many of the papers contain new information and demonstrate further growth in the significance of our industrial branch. Five keynote papers are presented in the front part of this volume. The topics of the keynote papers are of interest; past progress and lessons learned in tunnelling and underground space construction and more focus on the activities in Seoul; shield machine technologies; and future tunnelling challenges for sustainable development and more focus on the planning in China and neighboring areas. We are delighted that they provide a nice opportunity to review the current status of tunnelling technology and to prospect the future challenges. The published papers are categorized into eight topics among others; mechanized tunnelling, conventional tunnelling, monitoring and settlement control, geotechnical site investigation, health and safety in tunnelling, innovations for lining and reinforcement, case studies for mega projects of tunnels and underground construction, and sustainable use of underground space. Among ninety papers, nineteen papers are on mechanized tunnlling, which implies the current trend of tunnelling industry. Eighteen papers are related to monitoring and safety which are important issues for sustainable development. TU-Seoul 2013 was fortunate to attract a large number of papers. This represents the growing importance and use of underground space in worldwide economic development and the increasing interest and investment in research and development effort in this area.

Editors Sang-Hwan Kim Chungsik Yoo Seokwon Jeon Inn-Joon Park

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Organization INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE Felix Amberg (Switzerlad) Gyu-Jin Bae (Koea) Yun Bai (China) Hyung-Sik Chung (Korea) Soren Degn Eskesen (Denmark) Sung-Wan Hong (Korea) Ivan Hrdina (Czech Republic) Seung-Ryull Kim (Korea) Martin Knights (United Kingdom) In-Mo Lee (Korea) Rick Lovat (Canada) Daniele Peila (Italy) Raymond Sterling (USA) Suchatvee Suwansawat (Thailand) Markus Thewes (Germnay) Olivier Vion (France) Fu-Su Jeng (Taiwan) KOREAN TUNNELLING AND UNDERGROUND SPACE ASSOCIATION President Sang-Duk Lee Symposium Chairman In-Keun Lee ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Co-chairs Chungsik Yoo Sang-Hwan Kim Seung-Ho Lee (Promotion) Kwang-Ho You (Finance) Secretary General Seokwon Jeon Executive Subcommittee Gye-Chun Cho Soo-Ho Chang Yong-Il Kim Sung-Il Koh Jun-Ho Bang Hun-Ki Moon Do-Hyun Park Tae-Young Koh - X -

Tunnelling and Underground Space Construction for Sustainable Development ˀGKim, Yoo, Jeon, Park (eds) 2013 CIR Publishing Co., ISBN 978-89-97776-59-7 (95530)

Jae-Soon Choi Sang-Hyuck Bang Treasurer Subcommittee Gyoung-Hwan Jeong (Chair) Seok-Bue Chang Young-Wan Shin Nam-Gak Cho Tae-Wook Ha Program Subcommittee Myung-Keun Jung (Chair) Chi-Myeon Park Dong-Gyou Kim Hong-Sung Lee Eun-Soo Hong Gwang-Yeom Kim Sang-Yeon Suh Technical Subcommittee Seok-Won Lee (Chair) Myung Sagong Hyu-Soung Shin Sang-Yun Min Sung-Kwon Ahn Publication Subcommittee Inn-Joon Park (Chair) Seong-Won Lee Yong-Joo Lee Joon-Shik Moon Ki-Il Song Chang-Won Kwak Young-Jun Kim Eui-Seob Park Seung-Do Lee Sung-Wook Youn Promotion Subcommittee Eung-Tae Kim (Chair) Nag-Young Kim Chang-Ryong Kim Dong-Hyun Kim Exhibition Subcommittee Hong-Moon Kim (Chair) Do-Seop Lee Sang-Baik Woo Se-Gu Kang

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Acknowledgements The Organizing Committee of International Symposium on Tunnelling and Underground Space Construction for Sustainable Development gratefully acknowledge the financial contributions of: Garford Pty Ltd. NFM Technologies POSCO Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd. Samsung C&T Corporation SK Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd. Daelim Industrial Co., Ltd. Hyundai Development Co. Hyundai Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd. Heesong Geotek Co., Ltd. Lotte Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd. Korea Mould Co., Ltd. Yooshin Engineering Corporation Danwoo Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd. Dodam Engineering & Construction Co. Dohwa Engineering Co., Ltd. Dongah Geological Engineering Co., Ltd. EJTECH Co., Ltd. ESCO Consultants & Engineers Co., Ltd. Hakyong Engineering Co., Ltd. Keangnam Enterprises Co., Ltd. Pyonghwa Geotec Co., Ltd. Pyunghwa Engineering Consultants Co., Ltd. The Robbins Company Ssangyong Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd. Taeyoung Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd. TESO Engineering Co., Ltd. Tuksu Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd. BAU Consultant Co., Ltd. Daejung Consultant Co., Ltd. Dasan Engineering Co., Ltd. Sanha Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd. Bekaert Singapore Pte Ltd. NexGeo Inc. Silkroad T&D Geomonitoring Inc. TS-Techno BasisSoft Inc. Korea Railroad Research Institute CIR Communication Renew System SEKOGEO Co. Ltd. Daewha M&T FOGTEC Brandschutz GmbH & Co. KG Parkor Korea Indus Co., Ltd. LISTEC GmbH

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Tunnelling and Underground Space Construction for Sustainable Development ˀGKim, Yoo, Jeon, Park (eds) 2013 CIR Publishing Co., ISBN 978-89-97776-59-7 (95530)

Tunnelling in Soft Soil: Tunnel Boring Machine Operation and Soil Response D. Festa, W. Broere and J.W. Bosch Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Department of Geoscience and Engineering, Section of Geo-Engineering, Delft, The Netherlands

ABSTRACT: Constructing tunnels in soft soil with the use of Tunnel Boring Machines may induce settlements including soil movements ahead of the face, soil relaxation into the tail void, possible heave due to grouting, long lasting consolidation processes, and potentially several other mechanisms. A considerable amount of the total soil displacements seems correlated with the passage of the TBM-shield. Even so, the TBM-induced soil displacements have so far only been coarsely correlated to the total settlements. This paper attempts to relate the shield geometry and its operation through the soil with the observed soil displacements. The snake-like motion of the shield within the excavated soil profile is one of the key aspects as the erratic advance of the shield appears to induce unevenly distributed ground displacements at the interface with the soil. These displacements are expected to spread through the soil with a similar pattern. A numerical investigation on the TBM kinematics and the associated soil response has been performed based on the monitoring data from the construction of a tunnel in The Hague, The Netherlands, in order to quantify these aspects. Results confirmed that the geometry and the operation of the TBM-shield through the ground influence the amount and distribution of the induced soil displacements. The analysis also highlighted the essential role that the tail-void grouting has not only in filling-in the tail-void but also in compensating the kinematical effects of shield advance. Keywords: tunnels, soft-soil, kinematics, displacements, grouting

1 INTRODUCTION Tunnel Boring Machines (TBMs) are used to construct tunnels in challenging environments (Mair et al. 1996). However, the current soil-settlement predictions are still largely based on the experience gained from previous projects and little correlated with aspects such as the TBM features and its kinematic behaviour. The predictions’ accuracy and reliability are therefore negatively affected. The interaction processes between the TBM, the soil, and the process fluids is a critical aspect to be better understood in order to improve the tunnel-boring’s reliability. This study aims to establish a quantitative correlation between the soil displacements observed during the construction of a TBM-driven tunnel and the specific driving pattern of the TBM. Special attention is given to how the TBM-shield interacts with the cavity excavated by the cutting wheel. The study is based on the monitoring-data from the Hubertus Tunnel, a double-tube road tunnel located in The Hague, The Netherlands. The Hubertus tunnel tubes, northern and southern, are 1666.70 m and 1653.48 m long. The tubes were excavated by a 10 680 mm long slurry-shield TBM, with a front diameter of 10 510 mm, and a rear one of 10 490 mm. A standard radial overcutting of 10 mm was permanently used. The tail-void grouting occurred via the upper four of the six injection openings available. The final lining is formed by 2 m long prefab reinforced-concrete elements, with an external diameter of 10 200 mm. The deepest point of the tunnel axis is located at 27.73 m below surface. The groundwater level may be assumed at +1.0 m above N.A.P. (Dutch Reference System approximately equivalent to the Mean Sea Level). Further details of the Hubertus tunnel project may be found in Festa et al. (2012). 2 SUBSURFACE SOIL DISPLACEMENTS The subsurface soil displacements were monitored with 4 cross sections equipped with extensometers and 4 equipped with inclinometers. The tunnel advances are reported in Tables 1 and 2. Each monitoring section was equipped with 7 boreholes numbered from 1 to 7 from right to left in direction of drive and where either extensometers or inclinometers were installed. Only 5 of the 7 boreholes

were actually instrumented during each passage, chosen as the closest ones to the tunnel being bored. For each cross section, the time span investigated ranged from the moment in which the TBM-face was 25 m before the section, until the face was 50 m after the section. In Figs. 1 and 2. these positions are represented as -25 and +50, respectively. The same holds for Figs. 3 and 4. Table 1. Position of monitoring sections southern alignment [km] Ext.

Section 1 -1+588.16

Section 2 -1+556.51

Section 3 -1+149.01

Section 4 -1+095.42






Table 2. Position of monitoring sections northern alignment [km] Ext.

Section 1 -1+600.57

Section 2 -1+571.24

Section 3 -1+161.58

Section 4 -1+108.04






2.1 Extensometers The vertical movements monitored at the first monitoring section are presented in Figs. 1 and 2. The settlements are expressed in mm. Each graph refers to a single sensor. The initial reference value is assumed when the shield is 25 m before the monitoring section, and data is collected continuously during advance. Vertical lines mark meaningful relative positions of the TBM-shield face with respect to the monitoring section. Two aspects deserve attention. First, the settlement troughs are non-symmetrical with respect to the tunnel axes. Settlements are higher at the left-hand side than at the right-hand one. Second, a marked recovery of the preoccurred settlements is observed during the second passage when the shield tail crosses the monitoring section. A similar recovery is not present during the first passage. The heave is more effective close to the tunnel than at distance. Considering the borehole 3 directly above the second tunnel axis, 75% of the pre-occurred settlements are recovered at the depth of the deepest sensor (2 m above the extrados of the tunnel), while only 25% is recovered at surface level.


Figure 1. Extensometers at monitoring section 1 - first passage – northern tunnel – 2006 (settlements in mm)

Figure 2. Extensometers at monitoring section 1 – second passage – southern tunnel – 2007 (settlements in mm) 2.2 Inclinometers The results of the inclinometers’ readings are summarized in Figs. 3 and 4. The initial reference value is usually taken when the shield face is 25 m before section 1. The displacements are expressed in mm. During the first passage, at the left-hand side of the tunnel a converging trend is observed. The maximum convergence, amounting to 17 mm, is observed at the depth of the first sensor in borehole 6. In borehole 7 a horizontal convergence of 8 mm is observed at surface level. Deeper on the same side of the tunnel the observed

converging displacements are 10 mm in borehole 6 and 5 mm in borehole 7. At the right-hand side, the horizontal displacements range from -2 mm (convergence) to +2 mm (divergence) in the sector of borehole 4 spanning from the depth of the tunnel top to the tunnel spring-point depth. In the upper sector of the borehole converging behaviour is observed up to 7 mm near surface. During the second passage, the horizontal displacements diverge at the right-hand side of the tunnel after an initial converging phase peaking when the TBM-face is after the cross section for half of its length. The maximum rightward displacement amounts to 14 mm in borehole 2 and to 12


mm in borehole 1. At the right-hand side the displacements start to diverge markedly from the passage of the shield tail on. The peak is reached when the TBM-face is 25 m after the cross section. At the left-hand side, neither a clear

convergence nor a divergence are observed at the depth of the tunnel-axis. Closer to the surface a converging displacement of 5 mm is observed.

Figure 3. Inclinometers at monitoring section 1 – first passage – 2006 (displacements in mm)

Figure 4. Inclinometers at monitoring section 1 – second passage – 2007 (displacements in mm)

3 TBM-SHIELD AND SOIL KINEMATICAL INTERACTION The interaction between a TBM-shield and the surrounding soil is quantified by accounting for the relative distance between the shield-skin and the excavated profile. The deviation of the TBM-shield from the planned tunnel alignments was investigated in a previous study by the same authors (Festa et al. 2011). The research method consisted of comparing the actual positions of the shield with the cavity excavated by the cutter head through the soil, in turn obtained as the record of the positions incrementally occupied by the cutter head as the TBM advanced. The comparison allowed to quantify the displacements induced by the advancing shield at the shield-soil interface. Given the well-known snake-like motion of the TBM, it was reasonable to expect the existence of sectors of the shield where the surrounding soil is either compressed or extended. Comparing the relative position of the shield-skin with the excavated profile proved useful in order to demonstrate this behaviour. 4 SOIL DISPLACEMENTS AND TBM’S KINEMATICS In each of the 8 graphs of Fig. 5 the shield-soil interface displacements are compared to the soil response. The horizontal displacements presented are those occurring at the depth of the tunnel axis. On the x-axis are the shieldsoil interaction and the horizontal soil displacements. On the y-axis is the distance of the shield-face from the

monitoring section. The shield-soil interaction lines (kin. displ.) represent the amount of displacement induced at the shield-soil interface by the shield tail. For instance, in the first graph, when the TBM face is at the monitoring section (0 on the y-axis), the shield tail is 10.235 m behind, and the value of interaction is represented in correspondence of 0, and not of -10.235. Horizontally, the soil responds differently between first and second passage even if the shield-soil kinematical interaction is comparable, with an average 40 mm soil extension on the left-hand side and a 20 mm compression on the opposite side. On the left-hand side during the second passage there is no sign of soil extension even in presence of a gap up to 60 mm. On the right-hand side, even if in both cases the shield-tail does not compress the soil when passing through the control section, the soil responds with no divergence during the first passage, while it responds with expansion at the second one. These excludes a deterministic relationship between the interface displacements and the soil response. Vertically, while during the first passage the settlements progress continuously downward, during the second one a remarkable heave is appreciated. As from Fig. 2, the settlements’ recovery is particularly effective close to the tunnel top. The upheaval begins when the tunnel face is between 5 and 10 m after the control section, suggesting that the effect of the tail-void grouting is anticipated compared to the passage of the shield tail right across the control section.


Figure 5. Shield-soil interaction and soil response – cross-section 1 In conclusion it seems that even if the shield-soil kinematical interaction plays a role on the induced soil displacements, an even major role is played by the grouting process. This is suggested by three observations: 1) during the second passage, at the left-hand side the ground does not converge towards the tunnel even in presence of a theoretical void gap of about 60 mm; 2) at the right-hand side, during the second passage the displacements are markedly more expansive than during the first passage, even with comparable shield-soil kinematical interaction; 3) at the top side during the second passage there is no kinematics-related reason to justify such a sharp recovery of the settlements. 5 CONCLUSIONS Tunnel construction in soft soil usually induces settlement in the surrounding ground even when tunnel boring is performed with a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). Most of the current soil-settlement predictions still disregards relevant aspects such as the TBM features and its real kinematic behaviour when driven through the soil. Based on a recent tunnelling project in The Netherlands both TBM and subsurface soil displacements monitoring data were processed in order to compare the TBM-shield kinematic behaviour with the soil response to it. The comparison highlighted the existence of a relationship between the two. However, even more importantly, it appeared that the tailvoid grouting process in certain conditions has an essential role not only in filling-in the tail void but also in compensating for the kinematical effects of shield advance. Further research

is advisable in two directions. First, the established correlation between TBM-shield kinematics and induced soil displacements has to be generalized to more cases than the single one presented here. Second, the effect of the process fluids on the induced soil displacements in general and of tailvoid grouting in particular needs to be addressed more quantitatively. REFERENCES Mair, R.J., Taylor, R.N., Burland, J.B. 1996. Prediction of ground movements and assessment of risk of building damage due to bored tunnelling, International Symposium on Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground, Balkema, Pages: 713-718 Festa, D., Broere, Van Der Woude, S., W., Bosch, J.W. 2011. Tunnel-boring process in soft soils: improved modelling for reliability enhancement. Kinematic behaviour and tail grouting monitoring, Proceedings WTC-2011 Underground spaces in the service of a sustainable society, Helsinki Festa, D., Broere, W., Bosch, J.W. 2012. An investigation into the forces acting on a TBM during driving – Mining the TBM logged data, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 32, 143-157


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