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Abstract: Large quantity of dust, commonly known as cement kiln dust (CKD), is produced during the production of Ordinary Portland Cement. In order to meet ...

Minia Journal of Engineering and Technology, (MJET)

Vol. 31, No 2, July 2012

A STUDY ON THE REUSE OF CEMENT KILN DUST IN THE PRODUCTION OF CEMENT CONCERTS Mohamed H. Ghazaly *, Mohammednoor N. Almaghrabi**, Ebrahiem E. Ebrahiem*** *

Civil Eng. Dept., College of Engineering, Jazan University, KSA. Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA. *** Chem. Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Mina University, Egypt. **

Abstract: Large quantity of dust, commonly known as cement kiln dust (CKD), is produced during the production of Ordinary Portland Cement. In order to meet environmental requirements, CKD is disposed off in landfills. Recently, there has been a trend of utilizing it for soil stabilization, treatment of sewage, etc. Also, attempts were made at using it in cement products. Reuse of waste materials in composite materials to improve its properties or to minimize product cost is nowadays of great important. One of these composite materials is a cement concerts. An investigation to produce a cement concerts produced by mixing cement kiln dust with Ordinary Portland Cement was studied. The experimental results shows that a cement brick based on standard KSA specifications can be obtained by mixing 30% of CKD with cement and for safety considerations until 20%. Keywords: Industrial waste, CKD (cement kiln dust), cement brick, KSA standard specifications, CKD- Cement ratio.

The history of technology shows that reuse and recycling of wastes have been practised for several millennia. For example, brick, mortar and tile have long been recycled as rubble fillings for solid masonry walls. However, in more recent times, as engineering has become a more exact science, the tendency to impose prescriptive specifications has discouraged reuse of waste materials. The alternative - dumping- is, however, increasingly unacceptable. With current moves towards performance-related specifications it has become practicable as well as desirable to utilize materials hitherto classified as wastes: the incorporation of coal combustion fly ash,

1. INTRODUCTION: It is well known that the disposing of industrial wastes is one of the major worldwide environmental problems. In KSA, for example, there are a limited number of dumping landfill sites and generally the disposal methods are considered to be environmentally unfriendly. Furthermore, as a consequence of environmental and financial considerations, there is a growing demand for wastes to be re-used or recycled. At present, the utilization of CKD is an urgent environmental and ecological demand, especially after the increase of the annual accumulation of this pollutant.


Minia Journal of Engineering and Technology, (MJET)

ground glassy blast furnace slag and silica fume into concretes will be examples familiar to the technologist (Mahllawy, 2008). Nevertheless, the reuse of all waste materials is not universally practicable and is not likely to become so in the foreseeable future. An important point concerning the classification scheme is that many wastes do not fit uniquely into a particular category. Performance is meant to apply to use and implies a quantification of the reactions between the waste material and added cementitious components and the consequences which may ensue in terms of mechanical and chemical behavior. Some of the features which require quantification reflect user requirements or disposal specifications and are obvious strength, volume stability, resistance to common degradative forces - while others may be less obvious: examples will be given subsequently. Therefore, in order to ensure a satisfactory outcome, a wide range of characterization measurements and test procedures, both standard and non-standard, may have to be deployed selectively and flexibly to define performance-related behavioral aspects (Glasser, 1996). The cement industry plays a vital role in the imbalances of the environment and produces air pollution hazards (Stern, 1976; Niragau and Davidson, 1986) and consequently the impact of the cement industry emissions on the vegetation in the vicinity has been widely investigated (Singh and Rao, 1980; Farmer, 1993; Iqbal and Shafig, 2001; Lepedus et al., 2003; Ade-Ademilua and Obalola, 2008). But research on the effects of dust and air pollutants on plants has never received the same level of attention as that was

Vol. 31, No 2, July 2012

given to phototoxic pollutants such as O3, SO2 and NO2. The availing from industrial is necessary in this eon. Because of high quantities production from wastes and high demand on cement today, we suggest the availing from alkali dust which is produced from Southern Province Cement plant in, Jizan. The landfill areas it’s make risk on (people, animals and plants). The advantages from idea of this research are (exploitation of industrial wastes, minimize of environmental pollution problems, minimize the consumption of raw materials, minimize the energy costs). So we try to availing from this waste in construction composites like that concrete concerts. In the present work mixing different ratios of cement kiln dust (CKD) with ordinary Portland Cement to produce a cement concerts was studied to reuse the by-pass materials of cement manufacture. Numerous amounts of tones of CKD as bypass are generated each year. Low percentages of these bypasses have desirable properties that make them suitable for variety of beneficial use applications. A significant portion continues to be landfill as solid waste. Because many of the by-products pose little threat to the environment, disposal at landfill might be viewed as the discarding of a commodity, and it forces the consumption of addition natural source. 2. EXPERIMENTAL WORK The materials used in this composite are consists of Ordinary Portland Cement, CKD, Aggregate, Water, and Sand. A typical chemical


Minia Journal of Engineering and Technology, (MJET)

composition of CKD and Portland Cement is shown in Table 1. Mixing of CKD with cement like masonry cement by replacing the CKD instead of ordinary Portland Cement with different ratios (CKD : Cement) from 0 to 50 % with Portland Cement to high extent of homogeneity. This step was carried out in all tests to insurance that the mixture is agreed with masonry cement requirements. The CKD-cement mixture is added to aggregate in a ratio of 1:3 forming a solid blend. The water/cement ratio equal 0.40, and sand/cement ratio equal 0.25. A cubic moulds of dimensions 10×10×10 cm are used in this research (Kinuthia and Nidzam, 2011).

Figure 1: SEMs of CKD sample

2.1. Density of Cement Brick: The density of the concerts has a greet roll on the total loads of building construction that must be taken in consideration. Adding CKD to cement for making bricks must affect the life load of the building. The density computes by the (weight /volume) (Paulo, 2009)

Table 1: A typical chemical composition of CKD and Ordinary Portland Cement. Constituent

SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO SO3 K2O Na2O Cl Loss on ignition Free CaO


11-16 3-6 1-4 38-50 0=2 4-18 3-13 0-2 0-5 5-25 1-10

Vol. 31, No 2, July 2012

Ordinary Portland Cement % 22 5 3 64 1 3

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