Vehicular Communications and VANETs - CCC Event Blog

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Photo © DaimlerChrysler

Vehicular Communications and VANETs Frank Kargl ([email protected]) CCC Ulm, Ulm University

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Overview ƒ Introduction ƒ Motivation and Applications ƒ Technology Overview

ƒ Communication ƒ IEEE 802.11p ƒ Position-based Routing

ƒ Security and Privacy

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Reasons for Vehicular Communications 1. Research Grants and PhD titles;-) 2. Sell more cars ;-) ƒ

80% of innovation in new cars is electronics, mostly software

3. Active Safety

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Motivation for Vehicle Comm.: Active Safety

Source: Statistisches Bundesamt, Audi AG 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Accident Phases Active Safety

Passive Safety

Serious Accident

Accident! Slight Accident Minor Impact

Minor Impact Accident Phase

Recovery Phase

Warning Phase

Phases

1-3

4-6

7 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Car to Car / Car to Infrastructure Communication

Car to Car / Car to Infrastructure Communication (C2C / C2I)

Minor Impact Accident Phase Navigation Phase

Warning Phase

Phases

1-3

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Telematics Horizon

Communication (C2C / C2I) Local Sensors (e.g. Laserrange/Radar) On Board Systems (e.g. ESP) 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Vehicle Communication (VC) ƒ VC promises safer roads, Warning: Accident at (x,y)

Warning: Accident at (x,y)

! !

ƒ … more efficient driving, Traffic Update: Congestion at (x,y)

TOC RSU

Congestion Warning: At (x,y), use alt. route

RSU

!

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Vehicle Communication (VC) ƒ … more fun, Text message: We'll stop at next roadhouse MP3-Download

RSU

ƒ … and easier maintenance. Software Update Malfunction Notification: Arriving in 10 minuten, need ignition plug

Car Manuf.

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Application Categories

Traffic Management

eSafety

Enhanced Driver Comfort Maintenance

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

eSafety Applications ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Traffic signal violation warning Stop sign violation warning General in-vehicle signage Left turn assistant Intersection collision warning Pedestrian crossing information Emergency vehicle approaching warning Emergency vehicle signal preemption Emergency vehicle at scene warning Vehicle safety inspection Electronic license plate Electronic driver's license In-vehicle Amber alert (crime haunt) Stolen vehicles tracking Post-crash/breakdown warning

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

SOS services Pre-crash sensing Event data recording Work zone warning Curve-speed warning (rollover warning) Vehicle-based road condition warning Infrastructure-based road condition warning Cooperative (forward) collision warning Emergency electronic brake lights Blind spot warning / lane change warning Wrong way driver warning Rail collision warning 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Traffic Management Applications ƒ Highway merge assistant ƒ Cooperative adaptive cruise control ƒ Cooperative platooning ƒ Adaptive drivetrain management ƒ Intelligent traffic flow control ƒ Road surface conditions to TOC ƒ Vehicle probes provide weather data to TOC

ƒ Crash data to TOC ƒ Origin and destination to TOC ƒ Fleet management ƒ Area access control ƒ Electronic toll payment ƒ Rental car processing ƒ Hazardous material cargo tracking

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Maintenance and Enhanced Driver Comfort ƒ Maintenance Applications ƒ Safety recall notice ƒ Just-in-time repair notification ƒ Wireless Diagnostics ƒ Software update/flashing

ƒ Enhanced Driver Comfort ƒ Visibility enhancer ƒ Cooperative glare reduction / headlamp aiming ƒ Parking spot locator ƒ Enhanced route guidance and navigation

ƒ Enhanced Driver Comfort (cont.) ƒ Map download/update ƒ GPS correction ƒ Cooperative positioning improvement ƒ Instant messaging (between vehicles) ƒ Point-of-interest notification ƒ Internet service provisioning / info fueling ƒ Mobile media services ƒ Mobile access to vehicle data (PDA, Handy,…) 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Scope of Vehicular Communications Research ƒ Today mostly warnings and assistance mechanisms ƒ Potential for automatic reaction and driving, but ƒ User acceptance ƒ Legal issues ƒ Insurance issues

ƒ

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Lot of Involved Parties European Projects USA

VII

COOPERS

VSC

CICAS

eSafetySupport

CarTALK2000

EASIS

GST

SEVECOM ISO IEEE

States

CVIS COMeSafety

AVS3

Member

Safespot

Prevent

AHSRA

Japan

Legislation

eSafety FORUM

C2C-CC

ETSI CEN

Road-Op. INFONEBBIA

Standardization CEPT ITU

adopted from COMeSafety

Frequency Regulation

AIDA Invent

NOW Fleetnet

National Projects

Insurance Suppl.

Telcos

Vehic.-manuf.

Stakeholders 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Overview ƒ Introduction ƒ Motivation and Applications ƒ Technology Overview

ƒ Communication ƒ IEEE 802.11p ƒ Position-based Routing

ƒ Security and Privacy

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Lot of Involved Technologies GPS, GALILEO

Terrestrial Broadcast RDS, DAB

UMTS

GSM WiMAX

Beacon •CALM-IR •CALM-M5 •DSRC

Hot-Spot (Wireless LAN, WiFi)

RSU to RSU

Variable Message Sign

50

RFID

Broadcaster

Vehicle to Vehicle

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Overview ƒ Introduction ƒ Motivation and Applications ƒ Technology Overview

ƒ Communication ƒ IEEE 802.11p ƒ Position-based Routing

ƒ Security and Privacy

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

DSRC – WAVE – IEEE 802.11p ƒ DSRC: Dedicated Short Range Communication ƒ 75 MHz spectrum set aside vor VC

ƒ WAVE: Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments ƒ Set of standards (incl. 802.11p) for VC

ƒ IEEE 802.11p: 802.11a modification for VC ƒ V2V: Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication ƒ V2I: Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communication

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

IEEE 802.11p Radio

Shared Pub.Safety/Private Medium Range Serv.

5.850

Public Safety Public Safety/ Public Safety/ V2V Private Private Ch. 172 Ch. 174 Ch. 176

Shared Pub.Safety/Private Dedicated Short Range Serv. Public Safety

Control Channel Ch. 178

Public Safety/ Public Safety/ Public Safety Private Private Intersections Ch. 180 Ch. 182 Ch. 184 5.925

Dedicated Public Safety

ƒ Based on 802.11a ƒ 7 channels á 10 MHz ƒ Can combine two channels for additional bandwidth ƒ 10MHz: 6 … 27 Mbps, 20 MHz: 6 … 54 Mbps

ƒ Maximum Range: 1000m ƒ Different transmission powers

ƒ Some details still missing, e.g. channel reservation protocol 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

DSRC Performance

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Overview ƒ Introduction ƒ Motivation and Applications ƒ Technology Overview

ƒ Technology ƒ IEEE 802.11p ƒ Position-based Routing

ƒ Security and Privacy

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Classification Ad-hoc Networks Single-Hop Bluetooth

Multi-Hop

802.11 iBSS

Mesh Netw.

WSNs

static

Others

•Military •Disaster-Rec. •Ubicomp

dynamic

VANETs

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Example scenario for position-based routing: Road-Condition Warning ƒ Vehicles sense hazardous road or weather conditions (e.g. icy roads) using their on-board sensors (e.g. ESP) ƒ Information dissemination ƒ Send weather and road conditions to all approaching vehicles in an area of interest

ƒ Special properties compared to regular MANETs

!

ƒ Highly dynamic network topology ƒ Different movement patterns (cities vs. highways) ƒ Relatively good availability of resources (esp. energy) compared to small mobile devices 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Routing in VANETs ƒ Often position based addressing ƒ GeoBroadcast: send to all nodes within a region “All cars in the area of Ulm/B10: Accident on Adenauerbridge when heading towards Neu-Ulm” ƒ GeoAnycast: send to arbitrary node within a region “How are traffic conditions three km ahead?“

ƒ Fleetnet Routing Protocol ƒ Address surrounding nodes: Æ Direct flooding of message in target region (“Area-Forwarding“) ƒ Address remote nodes: Æ First „Line-Forwarding“, then AreaForwarding ƒ Cached Greedy Geocast (CGGC)

Source: www.map24.de 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

CGGC Line Forwarding Line-Forwarding ƒ Destination: remote geographic position/region ƒ Each node announces its position periodically via broadcast to all reachable neighbors (Beaconing) Æ each node knows all other nodes and their position in its neighborhood ƒ Routing: if target region is not reached, D E nodes forward packets to neighbor which is nearest to C destination (Greedy-Forwarding)

A Path: A→C→D→E

B 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

How to select the best neighbor: Greedy Routing Strategies Greedy (W) Most Forward progress within Radius - MFR (U) Nearest with Forward Progress - NFP (X) Compass (V)

U V

S X

Random

D W

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Local Maximum ƒ What to do when there is no better neighbor? ƒ Strategies ƒ GPSR: parameter-Mode; left-hand rule to escape local maximum ƒ CGGC: cache and let mobility resolve the local maximum W U T

V

X D

S 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Position-based Routing Advantages ƒ Applications often related to position ƒ No route discovery/management

GPSR DSR

ƒ Scalability ƒ Well suited for high node mobility

Disadvantages ƒ Position needs to be known

DSR

ƒ VANETs: use GPS from navigation system

ƒ Unicast-routing needs location service

GPSR

ƒ Translate Node-ID → Location ƒ Overhead Source: Fleetnet Research Report 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

Slide 32

Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Overview ƒ Introduction ƒ Motivation and Applications ƒ Technology Overview

ƒ Technology ƒ IEEE 802.11p ƒ Position-based Routing

ƒ Security and Privacy

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Vehicle Communication (VC) ƒ VC promises safer roads, Warning: Accident at (x,y)

Warning: Accident at (x,y)

! !

ƒ … more efficient driving, Traffic Update: Congestion at (x,y)

TOC RSU

Congestion Warning: At (x,y), use alt. route

RSU

!

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Vehicle Communication (VC) ƒ … more fun, Text message: We'll stop at next roadhouse MP3-Download

RSU

ƒ … and easier maintenance. Software Update Malfunction Notification: Arriving in 10 minuten, need ignition plug

Car Manuf.

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Sounds good

BUT … 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Security and Privacy??? ƒ Safer roads? Warning: Accident at (x,y)

!

ƒ More efficient driving? Congestion Warning: At (x,y), use alt. route

! !

TOC RSU

!

Traffic Update: Congestion at (x,y)

RSU

! 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Security and Privacy??? ƒ More fun, but for whom?

Location Tracking

Text message from silver car: You're an idiot!

RSU

Position Beacon

ƒ … and a lot more … Your new ignition-control-software

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Security of Position Based Routing Attacking position based routing means to attack the beaconing mechanism Attacks ƒ Using position information ƒ Modify / falsify own position information in beacons ƒ Reroute data ƒ Intercept data

ƒ Using node identifiers ƒ Create (additional) node identifiers ƒ Sybil Attack ƒ Impersonate other nodes ƒ Discredit other nodes 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Position Faking Roadside Attacker ƒ Roadside attackers pretend to be part of the net and use properties of the comm. system to decrease net performance ƒ Example: Attacker emulates two fake nodes (F1 and F2) ƒ Correct path between vehicle A and vehicle D: AÆBÆCÆD ƒ Attacker broadcasts positions for two fake vehicles ƒ Modified paths: AÆF2ÆCÆD, DÆCÆF1ÆA ƒ Attacker is able to intercept traffic in both

D

C

B

directions in this area

F2

A

F1 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Simulation Results: Stationary Roadside Attacker

ƒ Single roadside attacker is able to intercept and drop the entire data traffic in an area 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Solutions ƒ Provable Positioning ƒ Related work on secure GPS etc. ƒ Change GPS???

ƒ Physical Measurement

ƒ TOA, TDOA, … ƒ Additional Hardware for positioning???

ƒ Heuristics

ƒ Simple, easy ƒ Sufficient effective?

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Example: Acceptance Range Threshold ƒ ƒ ƒ

ƒ ƒ

ƒ

Based on the limited radio range Maximum ART := ∆max Accept neighbors N where distance(Pos(Ni),Pos(Nj)) ≤ ∆max, otherwise ignore them The bigger the distance between Ar und Av, the more nodes will detect the falsified position Issues ƒ Fixed threshold is not flexible enough ƒ False positions within reasonable distance will not be detected by some neighbors

Example

ƒ M, K: distance([M|K],Av) > ∆max Î ignore ƒ L : distance(L,Av) ≤ ∆max Î accept ƒ Q, P: no beacon received

Real Position of Node A

Position transmitted in Beacons

M

P

Ar K

Av Q

L r

Radio Range

Radio Range (Beacon Position)

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Simulation Results: Delivery Success Ratio

ƒ Performance degradation reduces when applying the position verification system 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Other Sensors ƒ

Mobility Grade Threshold (MGT) ƒ Based on limited velocity of nodes ƒ Maximum node velocity := Vmax

ƒ

Overhearing ƒ Nodes monitor data traffic of neighboring nodes and try to identify irregularities ƒ Own packet is routed to a less suitable neighbor at the next hop ƒ Other nodes forward packets to a node that normally should not be able to receive the packet

ƒ

Maximum Density Threshold (MDT) ƒ Based on the fact that only a restricted number of physical entities can reside in a certain area ƒ Maximum node density ρmax

ƒ

Map-based Verification ƒ Based on the assumption that vehicles move mainly on roads

ƒ

… 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Privacy in VANETs

ƒ Vehicles get traceable ƒ Macroscopic tracing – e.g. over the country ƒ Coarse-grain tracing – e.g. down to certain roads ƒ Fine-grain tracing – exact positions and times Map source: www.map24.de

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Changing Pseudonyms ƒ Concept: Æ Nodes change their ID from time to time Æ Observations cannot (trivially) be linked

ƒ Drawbacks ƒ Linking pseudonyms might be possible due to ƒ Correlation of identifiers between changes ƒ Cross-layer issues, heuristics, hardware fingerprinting, … ƒ Context of the node (e.g. unique itinerary, few nodes)

ƒ Operability of system is influenced ƒ Sessions may be interrupted ƒ Communication protocols may stall

Æ What is the impact of changing pseudonyms on geographic routing? 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Changing Pseudonyms ƒ If pseudonyms change frequently, privacy profits ƒ Linking different pseudonyms together gets harder

ƒ On the other hand, geographic routing performance declines due to invalid neighbor table entries ƒ After a pseudonym change, old (ID,Position)-tupel remain in neighbor tables until expiration ƒ Routing metric only respects neighbor position Æ Probability of selecting outdated neighbors as next hop A

C'

C

D

B ƒ Selected route from A to F until beacon timeout still: A→C→D→E→F

F E

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Analytical Study of Impact ƒ Parameters ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Beacon rate – b Packet rate – p Expiration timeout – t0 Pseudonym change rate – c m

ƒ Total loss probability within one t0 interval to

Ploss =

p1

n

p2

r

2c

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

o

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Simulation results support these findings

40% absolute 65% relative

ƒ Notable decrease in delivery ratio with 5 seconds ID change interval ƒ For 2000 x 2000 m, ~ 65% less packets delivered 2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

SE-cure VE-hicle COM-munication ƒ Mission: practical solution to the problem of V2V/V2I security ƒ IST STREP Project. 1/1/2006-1/1/2009 ƒ Partners ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Trialog (Coordinator) DaimlerChrysler Centro Ricerche Fiat Philips Ecole Polytechnique Fédéral de Lausanne University of Ulm Budapest University of Technology and Economics

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Vehicular Communications and VANETs

Security Mechanisms

Identification & Authentication Concepts Identification Authentication of sender

ƒ Identified ~20 different security mechanisms needed to conquer the most attacks ƒ Examples ƒ PKI for VANET ƒ Prevent sibyl attacks ƒ Efficient revocation ƒ Cheap operation

ƒ Anonymization layer ƒ Pseudonyms with revocation

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Routing and forwarding security Consistency Checks In-Vehicle protection mechanisms …

… and sender is Authentication of receiver Property authentication Authentication of intermediate nodes Privacy Concepts Resolvable anonymity Total anonymity Location obfuscation Integrity Concepts Encryption Integrity protection Detection of protocol violation Jamming protection Tamper-resistant comm. system DRM Replay protection Consistency/context checking Attestation of sensor data Location verification Access Control/Authorization Concepts Access control Firewall/Checkpoint Closed user groups Filtering (e.g at intermediate nodes) Sandbox

2006 - Frank Kargl - CCC Ulm

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Photo © DaimlerChrysler

THE END!!!

Questions?

Frank Kargl ([email protected]) IM: [email protected] CCC Ulm, Ulm University

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