Vehicular Systems

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Dec 30, 2015 - solar power when grid is in peak demand, like in the day. ... 1. Advantage India–From Challenge to Opportunity –APJ Abdul Kalam, Srijan Pal Singh. 2. Dreaming Big – My Journey of Connecting India – Sam Pitroda. 3.
Missing:

Power Systems Evolution & Technology Trends Talk at Christ University 30 Dec 2015 Abhilash Gopalakrishnan, Principal Engineer, Power Technologies R&D ABB Global Industries & Services Private Limited.

30-31 July 2012 670 Million Indians in dark We took Electrical Power System for Granted!

The Grand Challenge • We are on a balancing Act – Universal access to electricity – Lead efforts to Limit Climate Change If we add coal based power, it leads to emissions leading to climate change!

If we reduce our dependence on coal, then we are affected by not enough supply!

Source: MIT Technology Review

Great opportunity for Innovation!

The need for speed! • Appapur, Telengana and Dharani, Bihar. • 300 million/1.25 billion in India live without electricity. 10 % 3.5% Renewables Nuclear 17% Hydro 70% - Coal Fired Plants

Lighting up Lives of Rural India!

Evolution of Indian Grid • PowerGrid Corporation of India operates 700,000 miles of lines. • Indian Grid came to existence by Dec 2013. • Regional Load Dispatch Centers and National Load Dispatch Center Challenges on the National Grid!

The Quest for Efficiency CONTROL/ DECISION MAKING

COMMUNICATION/ CONNECTED

POWER OR ENERGY

Efficient operations are achieved when all the elements operate as one entity in total conjunction • Control/Decision Making Element • Communication enabled/ Connected Element • Power or Energy Element

The Electricity Supply Chain

Conservation

Generation

Transmission

Distribution

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

Source: NERC- Control Continuum

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT

Focus of our discussion is on Secondary and Tertiary Control

RENEWABLE SOURCES

IMPROVED HIGH VOLTAGE INFRASTRUCTURE

SUPERVSION OF SUBSTATION & DISTRIBUTION

AUTOMATIC METER READING, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HOME AUTOMATION

LAN (eg. Ethernet)

WAN (eg. fiber optic, powerline)

FAN/WAN (WiFi, meshed)

HAN/WAN/AMI (eg. Zigbee)

POWER

COMMUNICATION

APPLICATION

Overview of evolution

UTILITY

INFRASTRUCTURE

RETAILER/CONSUMERS

Communication Layer OSI 7 LAYER STACK

OSI 7 LAYER STACK

MANAGED SWITCH RJ45/OPTICAL CABLE

RJ45/OPTICAL INTERFACE CARD

WIRELESS TRANSMITTERS & RECEIVERS CONTROLLER/HMI

OSI 7 LAYER STACK

GATEWAY NETWORK INFRASTRCUTURE

Power Generation Automation Objective: Maximum Energy at Reduced Cost Involves instruments which sense pressure, temperature etc. from Boiler, Turbine, Generator etc, Controllers running control functions for controlling say Boiler and Operations which provide visual insight for Operators Involves Mainly Closed Loop Control!

Example: Boiler Control Boiler Control involves control of feed water, fuel demand, air demand, firing rate demand and steam temperature control to be coordinated as a Closed Loop. Maintaining liquid level in the boiler steam drum is the highest priority. It is critical that the liquid level remain low enough to guarantee that there is adequate disengaging volume above the liquid, and high enough to assure that there is water present in every steam generating tube in the boiler. These requirements typically result in a narrow range in which the liquid level must be maintained.

Control & Management- DCS

CONTROLLERs (SPC700 & HPC800)

CURRENT & VOLTAGE SENSING – I/Os

PUMP, VALVE

DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM (DCS) –HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE – Symphony Plus DCS Architecture would include I/Os Controllers and Operator Interfaces. To talk to Remote Service as well as Remote Control gateways are used,

CIRCUIT BREAKER C:\Abhilash\

Video: Link Research\Innov\Talk\Symphony

At Transmission

C:\Abhilash\ Research\Innov\Talk\We are br

Video: Link

A Digital Substation combines Non conventional Transformers for measurements, Mainstream communication of switches and having Protection and control architectures do distributed or centralized. Source: IEC 61850 Standard

Control, Protection & Supervision SCADA

RELAY – INTELLIGENT ELECTRONIC DEVICE REC 670 CURRENT & VOLTAGE SENSING – I/Os

CIRCUIT BREAKER

SCADA SYSTEM – HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE

SCADA Architecture would include I/Os Relay/IEDs and Human Machine Interfaces. To talk to control center also network gateways.

Emerging Architectures in Microgrid GRID

CONTROLLERs – SPC700 Symphony Plus- HMI CURRENT & VOLTAGE SENSING – I/Os

PUMP, VALVE

CIRCUIT BREAKER FIELD

The Role of Energy Storage

The Hindu, Sept 9, 2015 Solar Rooftop alone might not be beneficial. If we are drawing power from solar rooftop during day time when grid is not in peak demand, then we are not helping the grid. The System benefits if we are using solar power when grid is in peak demand, like in the day. The storage plays an important part in making energy available at a later time.

Li-ion Battery System with CANBus support

Source: Electrical Energy Storage

The Role of Stabilization The renewable energy sources are intermittent. This leads to the problem that when they are integrated to the grid, a stabilization solution which can take care of periodic variations is important. Variations could include Voltage and frequency.

PCS 100 Stabilization System

At Distribution

Heatmaps indicating weak links in distribution network leads to need for strengthening these sections. Microgrid solution. CIGRÉ Definition: Microgrids are electricity distribution systems containing loads and distributed energy resources, that can be operated in a controlled, coordinated way either while connected to the main power network or while islanded.

is

the

emerging

Microgrid is not only Renewable Power Generation . Microgrid is not only Virtual Power Plant .

Fault Recording and Historical Data

IEEE COMTRADE BASED FAULT RECORDING HISTORICAL DATA/HISTORIAN

Source: Data and Fault Monitoring –IIT Mumbai

Monitoring, Recording of Data and Events are important in generation, transmission and distribution.

View – Emerging Operations

Emerging Operational View Source: FINSENY

Video: Link

C:\Abhilash\ Research\Innov\Talk\ABB micro

Technology Leadership “We have the ideas of the youth, the wisdom of the ages and the vibrancy of a democracy. We need to do original research to design, develop and manufacture in India ”

Technology Trends • Open Government Platform • Geographical Information System Information • Emergence of Better Computing Capabilities like Cloud Computing • Cyber Security • Distributed Vs Centralized • Pervasive Communication and Emergence of 4G(LTE)/5G and Narrow band networks C:\Abhilash\ Research\Innov\Talk\Solar Imp

Open Government Platform

Geo-spatical Information System

Cloud Computing Planning, Decision Support using Cloud Computing

Wireless Networks and 5G – Machine to Machine Communication

Exploring Areas CONTROL/ DECISION MAKING

1. Newer Protection and Control strategies considering autonomous and distributed. 2. New Tools for Decision Making. 3. Integration with multiple systems.

COMMUNICATION/ CONNECTED

1. What is the best options for communication at different layers? 2. How can wireless (like 4G) contribute in these areas?

POWER OR ENERGY

1. Models for Efficiency & Aging of Solar, Wind etc. 2. How storage can be improved? 3. How to make best guidance with data?

Using Matlab Simulink to :

“ And with a lot of arrogance and even more ignorance, I thought, Who better to fix it than me? This is something I need to do”

Be the change you want to see in the world!

References 1.

Advantage India–From Challenge to Opportunity –APJ Abdul Kalam, Srijan Pal Singh

2.

Dreaming Big – My Journey of Connecting India – Sam Pitroda

3.

SmartGrid Infrastructure & Networking

4.

MIT Technology Review - India’s Energy Crisis

5.

Energy Empowerment- The story of Bijli and Dharani

6.

No grid is an island - Communication technologies for smarter grids

7.

ABB Review 4/14–Energizing the Digital Grid

8.

ABB Review 2/15 –Solar Power

9.

Open Government Platform - India

10.

Ministry of Renewable Energy

11.

Central Power Research Institute (CPRI)

12.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -US.

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