Power Systems Evolution & Technology Trends Talk at Christ University 30 Dec 2015 Abhilash Gopalakrishnan, Principal Engineer, Power Technologies R&D ABB Global Industries & Services Private Limited.
30-31 July 2012 670 Million Indians in dark We took Electrical Power System for Granted!
The Grand Challenge • We are on a balancing Act – Universal access to electricity – Lead efforts to Limit Climate Change If we add coal based power, it leads to emissions leading to climate change!
If we reduce our dependence on coal, then we are affected by not enough supply!
Source: MIT Technology Review
Great opportunity for Innovation!
The need for speed! • Appapur, Telengana and Dharani, Bihar. • 300 million/1.25 billion in India live without electricity. 10 % 3.5% Renewables Nuclear 17% Hydro 70% - Coal Fired Plants
Lighting up Lives of Rural India!
Evolution of Indian Grid • PowerGrid Corporation of India operates 700,000 miles of lines. • Indian Grid came to existence by Dec 2013. • Regional Load Dispatch Centers and National Load Dispatch Center Challenges on the National Grid!
The Quest for Efficiency CONTROL/ DECISION MAKING
POWER OR ENERGY
Efficient operations are achieved when all the elements operate as one entity in total conjunction • Control/Decision Making Element • Communication enabled/ Connected Element • Power or Energy Element
The Electricity Supply Chain
Source: NERC- Control Continuum
Focus of our discussion is on Secondary and Tertiary Control
IMPROVED HIGH VOLTAGE INFRASTRUCTURE
SUPERVSION OF SUBSTATION & DISTRIBUTION
AUTOMATIC METER READING, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HOME AUTOMATION
LAN (eg. Ethernet)
WAN (eg. fiber optic, powerline)
FAN/WAN (WiFi, meshed)
HAN/WAN/AMI (eg. Zigbee)
Overview of evolution
Communication Layer OSI 7 LAYER STACK
OSI 7 LAYER STACK
MANAGED SWITCH RJ45/OPTICAL CABLE
RJ45/OPTICAL INTERFACE CARD
WIRELESS TRANSMITTERS & RECEIVERS CONTROLLER/HMI
OSI 7 LAYER STACK
GATEWAY NETWORK INFRASTRCUTURE
Power Generation Automation Objective: Maximum Energy at Reduced Cost Involves instruments which sense pressure, temperature etc. from Boiler, Turbine, Generator etc, Controllers running control functions for controlling say Boiler and Operations which provide visual insight for Operators Involves Mainly Closed Loop Control!
Example: Boiler Control Boiler Control involves control of feed water, fuel demand, air demand, firing rate demand and steam temperature control to be coordinated as a Closed Loop. Maintaining liquid level in the boiler steam drum is the highest priority. It is critical that the liquid level remain low enough to guarantee that there is adequate disengaging volume above the liquid, and high enough to assure that there is water present in every steam generating tube in the boiler. These requirements typically result in a narrow range in which the liquid level must be maintained.
Control & Management- DCS
CONTROLLERs (SPC700 & HPC800)
CURRENT & VOLTAGE SENSING – I/Os
DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM (DCS) –HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE – Symphony Plus DCS Architecture would include I/Os Controllers and Operator Interfaces. To talk to Remote Service as well as Remote Control gateways are used,
CIRCUIT BREAKER C:\Abhilash\
Video: Link Research\Innov\Talk\Symphony
C:\Abhilash\ Research\Innov\Talk\We are br
A Digital Substation combines Non conventional Transformers for measurements, Mainstream communication of switches and having Protection and control architectures do distributed or centralized. Source: IEC 61850 Standard
Control, Protection & Supervision SCADA
RELAY – INTELLIGENT ELECTRONIC DEVICE REC 670 CURRENT & VOLTAGE SENSING – I/Os
SCADA SYSTEM – HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE
SCADA Architecture would include I/Os Relay/IEDs and Human Machine Interfaces. To talk to control center also network gateways.
Emerging Architectures in Microgrid GRID
CONTROLLERs – SPC700 Symphony Plus- HMI CURRENT & VOLTAGE SENSING – I/Os
CIRCUIT BREAKER FIELD
The Role of Energy Storage
The Hindu, Sept 9, 2015 Solar Rooftop alone might not be beneficial. If we are drawing power from solar rooftop during day time when grid is not in peak demand, then we are not helping the grid. The System benefits if we are using solar power when grid is in peak demand, like in the day. The storage plays an important part in making energy available at a later time.
Li-ion Battery System with CANBus support
Source: Electrical Energy Storage
The Role of Stabilization The renewable energy sources are intermittent. This leads to the problem that when they are integrated to the grid, a stabilization solution which can take care of periodic variations is important. Variations could include Voltage and frequency.
PCS 100 Stabilization System
Heatmaps indicating weak links in distribution network leads to need for strengthening these sections. Microgrid solution. CIGRÉ Definition: Microgrids are electricity distribution systems containing loads and distributed energy resources, that can be operated in a controlled, coordinated way either while connected to the main power network or while islanded.
Microgrid is not only Renewable Power Generation . Microgrid is not only Virtual Power Plant .
Fault Recording and Historical Data
IEEE COMTRADE BASED FAULT RECORDING HISTORICAL DATA/HISTORIAN
Source: Data and Fault Monitoring –IIT Mumbai
Monitoring, Recording of Data and Events are important in generation, transmission and distribution.
View – Emerging Operations
Emerging Operational View Source: FINSENY
C:\Abhilash\ Research\Innov\Talk\ABB micro
Technology Leadership “We have the ideas of the youth, the wisdom of the ages and the vibrancy of a democracy. We need to do original research to design, develop and manufacture in India ”
Technology Trends • Open Government Platform • Geographical Information System Information • Emergence of Better Computing Capabilities like Cloud Computing • Cyber Security • Distributed Vs Centralized • Pervasive Communication and Emergence of 4G(LTE)/5G and Narrow band networks C:\Abhilash\ Research\Innov\Talk\Solar Imp
Open Government Platform
Geo-spatical Information System
Cloud Computing Planning, Decision Support using Cloud Computing
Wireless Networks and 5G – Machine to Machine Communication
Exploring Areas CONTROL/ DECISION MAKING
1. Newer Protection and Control strategies considering autonomous and distributed. 2. New Tools for Decision Making. 3. Integration with multiple systems.
1. What is the best options for communication at different layers? 2. How can wireless (like 4G) contribute in these areas?
POWER OR ENERGY
1. Models for Efficiency & Aging of Solar, Wind etc. 2. How storage can be improved? 3. How to make best guidance with data?
Using Matlab Simulink to :
“ And with a lot of arrogance and even more ignorance, I thought, Who better to fix it than me? This is something I need to do”
Be the change you want to see in the world!
Advantage India–From Challenge to Opportunity –APJ Abdul Kalam, Srijan Pal Singh
Dreaming Big – My Journey of Connecting India – Sam Pitroda
SmartGrid Infrastructure & Networking
MIT Technology Review - India’s Energy Crisis
Energy Empowerment- The story of Bijli and Dharani
No grid is an island - Communication technologies for smarter grids
ABB Review 4/14–Energizing the Digital Grid
ABB Review 2/15 –Solar Power
Open Government Platform - India
Ministry of Renewable Energy
Central Power Research Institute (CPRI)
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -US.